Explaining Attitudes As Dependent Variable Education Essay

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3.0 INTRODUCTION

There are twelve sections in this chapter. The first section is an overview of the chapter. The second section discusses related theories used in this study. Next, discusses variables and hypothesis used in this study. The forth section focusing on Research Model and follow by population and samples used in this study. Section six in this chapter explain the instrument used and section seven of this chapter explain briefly the measurement items used. Next section discuss how the data collection done and follow by pilot study and the reliability test result for the pilot study. Section eleven discuss about the data analysis and close by the summary of the chapter.

3.1 RELATED THEORIES

In explaining attitudes as dependent variable (DV), this section will discuss Diffusion of Innovation (Rogers, 1995) and Technology Acceptance Model (Davis et al, 1989). For the independent variable (IV), this section presents perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and external factors that comprise teaching styles, blog competence and teachers' demographic (i.e. gender, year of teaching experience and education level).

3.1.1 Diffusion of Innovation Model (DOI)

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According to Rogers (1995), a person attitude towards a new technology is a key element in its diffusion. Rogers Innovation Decision Process theory states that innovations diffusion is a process that occurs overtime through five stages (Figure 3.1):

Knowledge - the person becomes aware of an innovation and has some idea of how it functions.

Persuasion - the person forms a favourable or unfavourable attitude towards the innovation.

Decision - the person engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.

Implementation - the person puts an innovation into use.

Confirmation - the person evaluates the results of an innovation-decision already made. 

Diffusion_of_Innovations_Theory-1.png

Figure 3.1: Diffusion of Innovation Model (Rogers, 1995)

As Rogers (1995) had stated that teachers positive attitudes exhibit their initiation into the innovation-decision process, this theory appears relevant for use in study teachers' attitudes towards blog use in teaching. Teachers may have already gone through the Knowledge and Persuasion stages (Rogers, 1995). They probably proceed to the Decision phase with the use of blog in teaching. Theorists have indicated, attitudes can often foretell future decision-making behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Zimbardo and Leippe (1991) defined attitude as an evaluation disposition toward some object based on cognitions, affective responses, behaviours, and behavioural intentions. According to Albirini (2004) and Chao (2005), attitude is an informed predisposition to respond and comprise three construct:

Affective - The affective component of attitude is said to consist of a person's evaluation of, liking of, or emotional response to some situation, object, or person. Affective responses reflect one's attitude with sensations of pleasure, sadness, or other levels of physical arousal.

Cognitive - The cognitive component of an attitude is conceptualized as a person's factual knowledge of the situation, object, or person, including oneself. In other words, the cognitive component refers to how much a person knows about a topic, such as computers.

Behavioural - The behavioural component of an attitude involves the person's overt behaviour directed toward a situation, object, or person.

Therefore, this study considered the three constructs of attitudes. Based on past researches, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by Davis et al. (1989) has widely used to investigate users attitudes towards new technology. Davis et al. (1989) stressed that attitude of a user towards a system was a major determinant of whether the user will actually use or reject the system. The next section discusses the Technology Acceptance Model.

3.1.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

According to Davis et al. (1989), user attitude is influenced by two major beliefs: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, with perceived ease of use having a direct influence on perceived usefulness. Finally, both these beliefs were suggested were directly influence by the system design characteristics represented by external variables (Figure 3.2).

External Variables

Perceived Usefulness

Perceived Ease of Use

Attitude towards Behaviour

Behavioural Intention to Use

Actual System Use

Figure 3.2: Technology Acceptance Model (Davis et al., 1989)

External variables typically include system characteristics, user training, user participation in design, and the nature of the implementation process (Venkatesh & Davis, 1996). As this research focuses on teachers and teaching, the external variables refer to teaching styles, blog competence, and teachers' characteristic which comprise gender, years of teaching experience and level of education.

3.1.3 External Factors

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3.1.3.1 Teaching Styles

As cited by Salem (2001), teaching styles refer to the procedures or processes adopted and employed by the teacher in order to achieve the day-to-day objectives of the lesson. They are also the conglomerations of one's views, convictions, and approaches on the attainment of maximum results in the teaching-learning process. Teaching styles are personal attributes of a teacher and vary from one teacher to another. According to Kaplan and Kies (1995), teaching styles refers to "a teacher's personal behaviours and media used to transmit data to or receive it from the learner" and involves the implementation of the teacher's philosophy about teaching (Conti, 2004).

Teaching styles were classified in different ways. Salem (2001) classified teaching styles as visual, auditory, group, kinaesthetic, individual and tactile.

Visual teaching style - The teacher presents the lesson through pictures, sketches, diagrams, graphs, or other related illustrations.

Auditory teaching style - The teacher lectures or gives oral explanations most of the time.

Group teaching style - The teacher adopts group interaction and group discussion techniques in the teaching the lessons.

Kinesthetic teaching style - The teacher engages the students in physical movements as they learn the subject.

Individual teaching style - The teacher requires individual recitations, individual projects, assignments, etc.

Tactile teaching style - The teacher adopts "hands-on" activities.

While Salem (2001) offered six teaching styles, Heimlich (1990) suggested teaching styles into four domains; Expert, Provider, Facilitator and Enabler. Teacher with an "expert" preferred style are subject oriented and seek efficiency in information sharing mainly through lecture. The "provider" teachers are learner-cantered and desire effectiveness in teaching. Methods inherent to their style of teaching include group discussion, demonstration and guided activities. The "facilitator" teachers are teacher-cantered and the methods of instruction depend on subject content; more than on the learners. The "enabler" style of teaching is very learner-cantered in that the learners define both the activity and the process in the learning environment.

Cano et al. (1992), Raven et al. (1993) and Whittington and Raven (1995) used Heimlich (1990) definition and item used to ascertain the subjects' preferred teaching style. This instrument defines two domains, sensitivity (ability of the teacher to 'sense' the shared characteristics of the group of learners) and inclusion (teacher's willingness and ability to utilize techniques to enhance the learning experience based on the groups' characteristics). The low inclusion and low sensitivity quadrant is labelled "expert." A teacher who scores in the low inclusion and high sensitivity quadrant is labelled the "provider." The high inclusions and low sensitivity quadrant is labelled "facilitator." The final dimension is the high inclusion and high sensitivity quadrant and teachers with this style are labelled "enabler."

Compared to others definition, Grasha (1996) is the one that popular among recent researchers (Dugas, 2005; Kiong, 2006; Norzila et al., 2007; Vaughn and Baker, 2008; Zamri et al., 2009; Ahmad and Panai, 2010; and Kassaian and Ayatollahi, 2010). Grasha (1994) identify five teaching styles; Expert, Formal Authority, Personal Model, Facilitator and Delegator.

Expert - Possess knowledge and expertise that student need. Strive to maintain status as an expert among students by displaying detailed knowledge and by challenging students to enhance their competence. Concerned with transmitting information and insuring that students are well prepared.

Formal Authority - Possesses status among students because of knowledge and role as a faculty member. Concerned with providing positive and negative feedback, establishing learning goals, expectations, and rules of conduct for students. Concerned with the correct, acceptable and standard ways to do things and with providing students with the structure they need to learn.

Personal Model - Believes in "teaching by personal example" and established a prototype for how to think and behave. Oversees, guides, and directs by showing how to do things, and encouraging students to observe and then to emulate the instructor's approach.

Facilitator - Emphasized the personal nature of teacher-student interactions. Guides and directs students by asking questions, exploring options, suggesting alternatives and encouraging them to develop criteria to make informed choices. Overall goal is to develop in students the capacity for the independent action, initiative, and responsibility. Work with students on projects in a consultative fashion and tries to provide as much as support and encouragement as possible.

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Delegator - Concerned with developing students capacity of function in a autonomous fashion. Students work independently on projects or as part of autonomous teams. The teacher is available at the request of students as a resource person.

Table 3.1

Summary of Teaching Style Model

Model

Categorized of Teaching Styles

Author

Heimlich (1990)

Expert

Provider

Facilitator

Enabler

Cano et al., 1992; Raven et al., 1993; Whittington and Raven, 1995

Grasha (1996)

Expert

Formal Authority

Personal Model

Facilitator

Delegator

Dugas, 2005; Kiong, 2006; Norzila et al., 2007; Vaughn and Baker, 2008; Zamri et al., 2009; Ahmad and Panai, 2010; and Kassaian and Ayatollahi, 2010)

Salem (2001)

Visual

Auditory

Group

Kinaesthetic

Individual

Tactile

Salem (2001), Soliven (2003)

3.1.3.2 Blog Competence

Previous research suggests that teachers' attitudes towards technologies are also related to teachers' technology competence. In their study of the correlation between teachers' attitude and acceptance of technology, Francis-Pelton and Pelton (1996) found that although many teachers believe computers are an important component of a student's education, their lack of knowledge and experience lead to a lack of confidence to attempt to introduce them into their instruction.

Previous research has pointed to teachers lack of computer competence as a main barrier to their acceptance and adoption of ICT in developing countries (Al-Oteawi, 2002; Na, 1993; Pelgrum, 2001). Albirini (2004) supported and extend the findings from previous research. The majority of respondents reported having little or no competence in handling most of the computer functions needed by educators. This finding did not supported the assumption that teachers with low level of computer competence usually have negative attitudes toward computers (Summers, 1990).

On the other hand, Albirini (2004) found that computer competence was significantly related to teachers attitudes supports the theoretical and empirical arguments made for the importance of computer competence in determining teachers attitudes toward ICT (Al-Oteawi, 2002; Berner, 2003; Bulkeley, 1993; Na, 1993). In addition, the relationship between computer attitudes and competence suggests that higher computer competence may foster the already positive attitudes of teachers and eventually result in their use of computers within the classroom. In this study, blog competence mean by blog knowledge and blogging skills.

3.1.3.3 Teacher's Demographics

Besides Teaching Styles and Blog Competence as the external factors in this research, teachers' demographics also interested to explore. Teachers' demographics comprise gender, teachers' teaching experiences and education level.

Gender: There are growing concerns about the low participation of women in information technology related careers (Green, 1996; Idowu, Adagunodo & Popoola, 2003). Studies have repeatedly found gender differences in attitudes towards IT. For instance, Venkatesh and Morris (2000) and Drup (2004) found that males had more positive attitudes towards the use of computers than females. Others such as Ray, Sormunen and Harris (1999) found the reverse to be the case. However, in contrast to both sides, researchers such as Busch (1995), Idowu (1997), Asan (2000), and Tiamiyu, Ajayi and Olatokun (2002) found no significant relationship between gender and attitudes towards IT.

Teaching Experiences: Studies have shown that people who have used IT for some time exhibit more positive attitudes towards IT (Christensen, 1997; Gilmore, 1998). Igbaria and Chakrabarti (1990) also found that computer experience significantly affected attitudes toward computers. Christensen (1997) observed that with familiarity, anxieties and fears tend to decrease and confidence increases, and that people with prior positive experience tend to be more willing to adopt a technology than those who have had either a prior negative experience or no experience at all. In this study, the researchers focus on teaching experiences.

Education Level: Most of the teachers in Secondary Schools in Malaysia are in degree level. Only a few of them only hold Diploma and Masters even Doctorate. Hamdan (2007) investigated the attitudes towards e-learning found that there are significant difference in educational level towards e-learning.

3.2 VARIABLES AND HYPOTHESIS

3.2.1 Attitude

Concerning the meaning of attitudes, different researchers gave different but someway related definitions of the word. Aiken (1980) described attitudes as "learned predispositions to respond positively or negatively to certain objects, situations, concepts, or persons". Besides that, other researchers used psychological constructs to explain attitudes. Loyd and Gressard (1984), for example, divided the construct 'attitudes' into four different variables, which are: (i) computer liking; (ii) computer anxiety; (iii) computer confidence, and: (iv) perceived usefulness of the computer. There are researchers who seemed to be satisfied with Loyd and Gressard's definition, like Koohang (1989) and Necessary and Parish (1996).

Furthermore, Zimbardo and Leippe (1991) defined attitude as an evaluation disposition toward some object based on cognitions, affective responses, behaviours, and behavioural intentions. Likewise, Chao (2005) and Albirini (2006) defines attitude as an informed predisposition to respond and comprise three construct, affective, cognition and behavioural. Besides that, Agbonlahor (2008) defined that attitude towards using computers in education is a perception of the value of the use of computers for his/her own productivity, as well as for the benefit of his/her students.

Therefore, in this particular study, attitude towards blog use in teaching is a perception of the value of the use of blog for his/her own productivity, as well as for the benefit of his/her students. Attitudes in this study also construct with affective, cognitive and behavioural (Zimbardo and Leippe, 1991; Chao, 2005; and Albirini, 2006; Agbonlahor, 2008.

Several information systems studies have identified attitude as one of the strongest factors influencing successful IT use in any organisation (Christensen, 1997; Agarwal & Prasad, 1998; Gilmore, 1998). Furthermore, researchers have found that although technological and financial barriers are quite significant in the processes of integrating IT into education, educators' attitudes is even more so (Gilmore, 1998). Attitudes have been found to affect perceptions, and hence, rates of adoption and extent of utilisation of IT (Agarwal & Prasad, 1998; Pajo, 2000).

Albirini (2006) investigated the attitudes of high school teachers in Syrian toward ICT and found that participants had positive attitudes toward ICT in education. The respondents' positive attitudes were evident within the affective, cognitive and behavioural domains. The finding of research was similar with those of Hong and Koh (2002), Psillosb et al. (2003), Shapka and Ferrari (2003), Teo et al. (2008), Agbonlahor (2008), Chen (2008) and Tezci (2009).

3.2.2 Perceived Usefulness

Davis (1985) defined perceived usefulness as the degree to which an individual believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance. Perceived Usefulness is proposed to have a direct impact on teachers' attitude towards using blog in teaching because teachers will be more positive to use system if it can give benefits to them.

The perceived usefulness of computers can influence attitudes toward computers, and the amount of confidence a teacher possesses in using computers may influence his or her implementation in the classroom (Gressard & Loyd, 1985). Teo et al. (2007) found that pre-service teachers' Perceived Usefulness was significant in determining computer attitudes. This finding contributes to previous research (Legris et al. 2003; Huang & Liaw 2005; Pituch & Lee 2006) that found Perceived Usefulness to be a key determinant on computer attitudes.

If students perceived the usefulness of computer and feel confident in using it, this will lead to more positive attitudes (Noiwan, Piyawat, & Norcio, 2005). Tg. Faekah et al. (2008) found that perceived usefulness also showed strong correlations with attitude, parallel to previous studies by Garland and Noyes (2004), Gao (2005), Havelka (2004), Hunt and Bohlin (1993), McGrath and Thurston (1992), McInerney, McInerney and Sinclair (1990), Mitra and Steffensmeier (2000), Teo (2006) and Yaghi (1997). Student attitude toward computers is also linked with how useful they think the computer is and the amount of experience they have in using computers. Therefore, it is hypothesized:

H1: A teachers' Perceived Usefulness of blog in teaching affects his/her

attitude towards using blog in teaching.

3.2.3 Perceived Ease of Use

Davis (1985) defined perceived ease of use as the degree to which an individual believes that using a particular system would be free of physical and mental effort. Teo et al. (2007) also found that pre-service teachers' Perceived Ease of Use had significant effects on computer attitudes. The significant relationship between Perceived Ease of Use and computer attitudes is a logical one and supports current research that positive computer attitude are associated with Perceived Ease of Use. Sime and Priestley (2005) found that pre-service teachers' attitudes towards the use of an ICT tool were influenced by how easy it was to use the tool and that they were reluctant to use a tool that seemed difficult to use. Therefore, it is hypothesized:

H2: A teachers' Perceived Ease of Use of blog in teaching affects his/her

attitude towards using blog in teaching.

3.2.4 Blog Competence

A large number of studies showed that teachers' computer competence is a significant predictor of their attitudes toward computers (Berner, 2003; Na, 1993; Summers, 1990; Albirini, 2006). Summers (1990) found that teachers with low level of computer competence usually have negative attitudes toward computers. On the other hand, the fact that computer competence was significantly related to teachers' attitudes supports the theoretical and empirical arguments made for the importance of computer competence in determining teachers' attitudes toward ICT (Al-Oteawi, 2002; Berner, 2003; Na, 1993; Albirini, 2006, Zhou et al., 2010).

In addition, the relationship between computer attitudes and competence suggests that higher computer competence may foster the already positive attitudes of teachers and eventually result in their use of computers within the classroom. Therefore, it is hypothesized:

H3: There is a significant and positively relationship between teachers'

blog competence and their attitudes towards blog use in teaching

3.2.5 Teaching Style

This study adopt definition by Salem (2001) that refer teaching styles to the procedures or processes adopted and employed by the teacher in order to achieve the day-to-day objectives of the lesson. Grasha's Model (1994) was used in this study.

Kiong (2006) found that the teaching styles of the lecturers who teach part time education programme are more on facilitator, expert and delegator style. Norliza et al. (2007) showed that the three most dominant teaching styles of the lecturers perceived by the students were Expert, Personal Model and Delegator. It was also found that the students' most preferred teaching style was Facilitator. Zamri et al. (2009) showed that the three teaching styles frequently used by lecturer were the personal model, facilitator and the delegator style. Kassaian and Ayatollahi (2010) found that Formal Authority, Expert and Delegator were the most dominant teaching styles.

A significant difference exists in formal authority and personal model among the lecturers who teach theories based on teaching experience and academic discipline. However, the differences of teaching styles only occurred among the lecturers who teach practical subject in delegator style based on teaching experience. (Kiong, 2006). However, Zamri et al. (2009) found that there were significant differences of the teaching styles based on the subjects taught for the expert, formal authority and the personal model. The study also showed that there was a significant mean difference for teaching styles based on teachers experience for the facilitator style.

On the other hand, found that there were no significant differences among the lecturers who teach practical subject based on academic discipline in their teaching style (Kiong, 2006) and school session and option (Zamri et al., 2009). From the previous research, it is hypothesized that:

H4a: There is significant and positively relationship between teachers with

expert style and their attitudes toward blog use in teaching.

H4b: There is significant and positively relationship between teachers with

formal authority style and their attitudes toward blog use in teaching.

H4c: There is significant and positively relationship between teachers with

personal model style and their attitudes toward blog use in teaching.

H4d: There is significant and positively relationship between teachers with

facilitator style and their attitudes toward blog use in teaching.

H4e: There is significant and positively relationship between teachers with

delegator style and their attitudes toward blog use in teaching.

3.2.6 Teachers' Demographics

Several researchers have found that females have more negative attitudes towards computer and ICT (Akkoyunlu & Orhan, 2003; Miura, 1987; Murpy, Coover & Owen, 1989; Uzunboylu, 2004; Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). Kubiatko & Halakova (2009) found that males have more positive attitudes toward ICT than females. Then, Kubiatko et al. (2010) revealed the same result that males have more positive attitudes towards ICT as compared to females. On the other hands, Teo (2008) found that no significant differences were found in the study, both male and females pre-service teachers at all ages were similar in their attitudes towards the computer and Cavas et al. (2009) on their study on sciences teachers in Turkish primary schools also found that no significant different between male and female teachers on attitude towards technology.

Experience were another factor that always selected by researcher to study. Computer experience has been the most commonly cited variable correlated to positive attitudes (Dupagne & Krendel, 1992; Woodrow, 1992; Chou 1997; Levine & Donitsa-Schmidt 1998; Ropp 1999; Yang, Mohamed, & Beyerbach, 1999; Winter, Chudoba & Gutek, 1998; Smith, Caputi & Rawstorne, 2000; Yıldırım, 2000; Gaudron & Vignoli 2002). For example, Woodrow (1992) reported correlations between computer experience and attitudes toward technology. Chou (1997) also highlighted that computer experience influenced teacher attitudes toward computers. Ropp (1999) found that there is significant relationship between computer access & hours of computer use per week and computer attitudes. Igbaria and Chakrabarti (1990) found that computer experience significantly affected attitudes toward computers. Christensen (1997) observed that people with prior positive experience tend to be more willing to adopt a technology than those who have had either a prior negative experience or no experience at all. Cavas et al. (2009) found that Turkish science teachers have positive attitudes toward ICT and it differs regarding computer experience. In this study, the researcher focuses on teaching experiences. Therefore, it is hypothesized:

H5: There is significant relationship between the male and female

teachers and their attitudes towards blog use in teaching.

H6: There is significant relationship between teachers' teaching

experiences and their attitudes towards blog use in teaching.

H7: There is no significant relationship between teachers' educational level

and their attitude towards blog use in teaching.

3.3 RESEARCH MODEL

Based on theories adopted from Davis et al (1989), Roger (1995), Grasha (1994), Chao (2-5), figure 3.3 illustrates the research model of this study.

EXTERNAL FACTOR

TEACHING STYLE

Expert

Formal Authority

Personal Model

Facilitator

Delegator

BLOG COMPETENCE

TEACHERS DEMOGRAPHICS

GENDER

YEARS OF TEACHING

EDUCATION LEVEL

PERCEIVED USEFULNESS

PERCEIVED EASE OF USE

ATTITUDE TOWARDS BLOG USE

Cognitive

Affective

Behavioral

H4a, H4b, H4c, H4d, H4e

H1

H3, H5, H6, H7

H2

Figure 3.3: Research Model

3.4 POPULATION AND SAMPLE

The study adopted systematic stratified sampling. In Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, there are 87 government secondary schools. The schools are divided into four zones Keramat, Sentul, Pudu and Bangsar). In this study, the Keramat Zone was chosen. In Keramat Zone, there are 20 secondary schools and selected as the population for this study. Out of 20 schools, 10 schools were selected as samples with 700 respondents. Table 3.2 shows schools involved in this study and the number of respondents involved.

Table 3.2

Sample

Name of Schools

Estimated Number of Teachers

%

Distributed

%

SMK (P) Air Panas

80

8.95

62

8.85

SMK Danau Kota

124

13.87

97

13.86

SMK Padang Tembak

110

12.30

86

12.29

SMK Puteri Titiwangsa

90

10.07

70

10.00

SMK Seksyen 5 Wangsa Maju

130

14.54

101

14.43

SMK Seri Titiwangsa

61

6.82

48

6.86

SMK Setapak Indah

76

8.50

60

8.57

SMK Wangsa Maju Seksyen 2

68

7.61

54

7.71

SMK Wangsa Melawati

80

8.95

63

9.00

SMK Zon R1 Wangsa Maju

75

8.39

59

8.43

Total

894

100

700

100

3.5 INSTRUMENT

The primary instrument used in this study is survey questionnaire. In this research, close-ended questions were more preferable than open-ended questions. All the close-ended questions were designed and developed based on previous researchers.

3.6 MEASUREMENT

There are 72 item in the questionnaire. The questionnaire divided into five main sections. Section one consist of teachers' demographic, followed by section two with attitudes item that contains affective, cognitive and behavioural attributes. Section three about teachers' blog competence and section four items related to perceived usefulness and ease of use and the last sections produce teaching styles items. All items in this questionnaire were derived and adopted from prior researchers to assert the reliability and validity of the data.

A five-likert scale was applied in each item of the questionnaire except items in teacher's demographic section. Scale ranging from 1 - Strongly Not Agree, 2 - Not Agree, 3 - Natural, 4 - Agree and 5 - Strongly Agree. The questionnaire prepared in multiple language, English and Bahasa Melayu.

3.6.1 Teacher's Demographic

Teacher's demographics are related to respondent's general characteristics. Age and gender are essential when dealing with the nature of the population being studied. In this research, item such as "name of school", "subjects teach", "teaching experiences", "teaching period/week", "highest education level" and "teaching level" we also employed in the questionnaire.

3.6.2 Attitudes

In this study, item modified from Albarini (2006). Three items developed from affective domain (item 9 - 11), five items from cognitive domain (item 12 - 16) and three items from behavioural domain (item 17 - 19). Table 3.3 show the measurement item in detail. A five point Likert scale was used to measure the responses raging from 1=srongly disagree to 5=strongly agree.

Table 3.3

Measurement of Teachers' Attitude towards Blog Use in Teaching

SD

D

N

A

SA

9.

Using blogs for teaching does not scare me at all.

1

2

3

4

5

10.

I am glad there are more blogs these days used for teaching.

1

2

3

4

5

11.

Using blogs for teaching is enjoyable.

1

2

3

4

5

12.

Using blogs for teaching saves time and effort.

1

2

3

4

5

13.

Students must use blogs in all subject matters.

1

2

3

4

5

14.

Blogs would motivate students to do more study.

1

2

3

4

5

15.

Blogs are a fast and efficient means of getting information.

1

2

3

4

5

16.

Blogs can enhance students' learning.

1

2

3

4

5

17.

I would rather teach without blogs than using blogs.

1

2

3

4

5

18.

If I had the time, I would learn to create blogs for teaching purposes.

1

2

3

4

5

19.

I would like to learn more about blogs for use in teaching.

1

2

3

4

5

3.6.2 Perceived Usefulness

Perceived usefulness is defined as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance" by Davis (1989). Perceives usefulness is one of two dominant construct of TAM to evaluate user's acceptance. Item from Davis (1989) were adapted using five-point Likert scale ranging from 1=srongly disagree to 5=strongly agree.

Table 3.4

Measurement of Perceived Usefulness towards Blog Use in Teaching

SD

D

N

A

SA

24.

Using blogs for teaching will improve my teaching performance.

1

2

3

4

5

25.

Using blogs for teaching enhances my effectiveness on teaching.

1

2

3

4

5

26.

Using blogs for teaching improves the quality of teaching.

1

2

3

4

5

27.

Overall, I find using blogs useful in my teaching.

1

2

3

4

5

3.6.3 Perceived Ease of Use

Davis (1989) defined perceived ease of use as "the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free of effort". The measures of perceived ease of use were comprehensively used by many prior studies, for examples, Lederer et al (1989) modified the measures of perceived ease of use that fit with the World Wide Web (WWW) usage. In this study, the items for perceived ease of use were adapted from Davis (1989) to fit within teacher's attitude toward blog use in teaching. The six items used a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree.

Table 3.5

Measurement of Perceived Ease of Use towards Blog Use in Teaching

SD

D

N

A

SA

28.

Using blogs is easy for me.

1

2

3

4

5

29.

I find it easy to get blogs to do what I want to do.

1

2

3

4

5

30.

Getting information from blogs is easy.

1

2

3

4

5

31.

My interaction with blogs is clear and understandable.

1

2

3

4

5

32.

It would be easy for me to become skillful at using blogs.

1

2

3

4

5

33.

Overall, I find blogs easy to use.

1

2

3

4

5

3.6.4 Teaching Style

The Grasha-Riechman Teaching Styles Inventory (GRTSI) ia a survey instrument used to determine teaching style. The GRTSI uses a survey instrument with 40 items, and uses a five-point Likert scale for each. Each type of teaching style contributes eight items each. All items were mixed up to avoid bias.

Table 3.6

Item Distribution of Teaching Style towards Blog Use in Teaching

Teaching Style

No. of Items

Expert

34, 39, 44, 49, 54, 59, 64, 69

Formal Authority

35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70

Personal Model

36, 41, 46, 51, 56, 61, 66, 71

Facilitator

37, 42, 47, 52, 57, 62, 67, 72

Delegator

38, 43, 48, 53, 58, 63, 68, 73

Table 3.7

Measurement of Teaching Style towards Blog Use in Teaching

Expert

SD

D

N

A

SA

34.

Facts, concepts, and principles are the most important things that students should acquire.

1

2

3

4

5

39.

Sharing my knowledge and expertise with students is very important to me.

1

2

3

4

5

44.

What I have to say about a topic is important for students to acquire a broader perspective on the issues in that area.

1

2

3

4

5

49.

I want students to leave my class well prepared for further work in this area.

1

2

3

4

5

54.

Lecturing is a significant part of how I teach each of the class sessions.

1

2

3

4

5

59.

My expertise is typically used to resolve disagreements about content issues.

1

2

3

4

5

64.

Students might describe me as a "storehouse of knowledge" who dispenses the fact, principles, and concepts they need.

1

2

3

4

5

69.

There is more material in my subject than I have time available to cover it.

1

2

3

4

5

Formal Authority

35.

I set high standards for students in my class.

1

2

3

4

5

40.

I give students negative feedback when their performance is unsatisfactory.

1

2

3

4

5

45.

Students would describe my standards and expectations as somewhat strict and rigid.

1

2

3

4

5

50.

It is my responsibility to define what students must learn and how they should learn it.

1

2

3

4

5

55.

I provide very clear guidelines for how I want tasks completed in my class.

1

2

3

4

5

60.

My class has very specific goals and objectives that I want to accomplish.

1

2

3

4

5

65.

My expectations for what I want students to do in this class are clearly defined in the syllabus.

1

2

3

4

5

70.

My standards and expectations help students develop the discipline the need to learn.

1

2

3

4

5

Table 3.7 (Continued)

Measurement of Teaching Style towards Blog Use in Teaching

Personal Model

SD

D

N

A

SA

36.

What I say and do models appropriate ways for students to think about issues in the content.

1

2

3

4

5

41.

Students are encouraged to emulate the example I provided.

1

2

3

4

5

46.

I typically show students how and what to do in order to master subject content.

1

2

3

4

5

51.

Examples from my personal experiences often are used to illustrate points about the material.

1

2

3

4

5

56.

I often show students how they can use various principles and concepts.

1

2

3

4

5

61.

Students receive frequent verbal and/or written comments on their performance.

1

2

3

4

5

66.

Eventually, many students begin to think like me about subject content.

1

2

3

4

5

71.

Students might describe me as a "coach" who works closely with someone to correct problems in how they think and behave.

1

2

3

4

5

Facilitator

37.

My teaching goals and methods address a variety of student learning styles.

1

2

3

4

5

42.

I spend time consulting with students on how to improve their work on individual and/or group projects.

1

2

3

4

5

47.

Small group discussions are employed to help students develop their ability to think critically.

1

2

3

4

5

52.

I guide students' work on class projects by asking questions, exploring options, and suggesting alternative ways to do things.

1

2

3

4

5

57.

Class activities encourage students to take initiative and responsibility for their learning.

1

2

3

4

5

62.

I solicit student advice about how and what to teach in my class.

1

2

3

4

5

67.

Students can make choices among activities in order to complete subject requirements.

1

2

3

4

5

72.

I give students a lot of personal support and encouragement to do well in my subject.

1

2

3

4

5

Delegator

38.

Students typically work on class projects alone with little supervision from me.

1

2

3

4

5

43.

Activities in my class encourage students to develop their own ideas about content issues.

1

2

3

4

5

48.

Students design one or more self-directed learning experiences.

1

2

3

4

5

53.

Developing the ability of students to think and work independently is an important goal.

1

2

3

4

5

58.

Students take responsibility for teaching part of the class sessions.

1

2

3

4

5

63.

Students set their own pace for completing independent and/or group projects.

1

2

3

4

5

68.

My approach to teaching is similar to a manager of a work group who delegates tasks and responsibilities to subordinates.

1

2

3

4

5

Table 3.7 (Continued)

Measurement of Teaching Style towards Blog Use in Teaching

Delegator

SD

D

N

A

SA

73.

I assume the role of a resource person who is available to students whenever they need help.

1

2

3

4

5

3.6.5 Blog Competence

Blog Competence is to measure blog competence among teachers. This items was created by the researcher purposely for this study. Five Likert Scale also applied. 1 - Not Competence, 2 - Less Competence, 3 - Moderate Competence, 4 - Competence and 5 - Very Competence.

Table 3.8

Measurement of Blog Competence towards Blog Use in Teaching

NC

LC

MC

C

VC

20.

Create a blog to share my experiences and knowledge.

1

2

3

4

5

21.

Use a blog to find information for teaching purposes.

1

2

3

4

5

22.

Post and reply to comments in blogs for teaching purposes.

1

2

3

4

5

23.

Update a blog with new information about teaching.

1

2

3

4

5

3.7 DATA COLLECTION

A letter of permission submitted to Jabatan Pelajaran Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur (JPWPKL) to seek a approval to conducting a research at selected schools as listed before. After receiving an approval letter, researcher bring it when meet the principal for each schools. Researcher gives brief explanation about the research. Then, researcher seeks the cooperation of the principals to get a list of teachers to ensure the number of teachers.

Each questionnaire labelled with a serial number. Every teacher who took the questionnaire will be recorded their serial numbers. This is intended to facilitate the school to retrieve all the questionnaires for collection. Besides, it also makes it easier for researcher to retrace the teacher if there is an incomplete questionnaire. Principal appoint a representative from the teachers to manage the distribution and collection of surveys and to mediate between teachers and researchers. Within one week, researcher will come back to school to collect the questionnaires.

3.8 PILOT STUDY

Pilot study refers to testings of the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents to identify and eliminate potential problems (Hunt et al., 1982; Parasuram, 1987; Malhorta, 2004). 80 participants from SMK Wangsa Melawati participated in the pilot study.

Table 3.9

Pilot Study Distribution

Total Distributed

Total Returned

Useable

Not Useable

80

74

74

0

3.9 RELIABILITY PILOT STUDY INSTRUMENT

3.9.1 Dependent Variable - Attitude

The reliability test was performed using SPSS (release 18) for Windows to evaluate the instruments. Table 3.11 shows the result of reliability test for dependent variables. Overall reliability test shows that all item involved in this study were reliable. On the other hands, the test shows that one of the behavioural items shows the score only 0.544. Researcher decides to remove the item and the new score is 0.855.

Table 3.10

Reliability Test for Attitudes Instruments

Instrument

Before

After

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

Attitude

Affect

3

.728

3

.728

Behavioural

3

.544

2

.855

Cognitive

5

.707

5

.707

Overall Attitude

11

.717

10

.717

3.9.1 Independent Variable - Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Teaching Style and Blog Competence

Table 3.8 shows the result of reliability test for independent variables. Blog Competence, Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use show high reliability for all items. There is a problem with one of the item in Formal Authority that makes the score very low (0.200). Researcher decided to cease item no. 4 in Formal Authority and it make the score change to 0.603. Overall score is 0.903. Table 3.8 summarize the reliability test for all independent variables. Table 3.12 make a comparison teaching styles item from the previous researchers.

Table 3.11

Reliability Test for Blog Competence, Perceived Usefulness,

Perceived Ease of Use and Teaching Style Instruments

Instrument

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

Blog Competence

4

.916

Perceived Usefulness

4

.918

Perceived Ease of Use

6

.816

Instrument

Before

After

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

Teaching Style

Expert

8

.645

8

.645

Formal Authority

8

.200

7

.603

Personal Model

8

.713

8

.713

Facilitator

8

.617

8

.617

Delegator

8

.670

8

.670

Table 3.12

Comparison of Reliability Test for Teaching Style Instruments

Teaching Style

Dugas (2005)

Zamri et al. (2009)

Pilot Study

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

No. of item

Cronbach's Alpha

Expert

8

0.40

8

0.62

8

.645

Formal Authority

8

0.49

8

0.81

7

.603

Personal Model

8

0.58

8

0.80

8

.713

Facilitator

8

0.76

8

0.82

8

.617

Delegator

8

0.48

8

0.59

8

.670

Overall

40

0.71

40

Not Reported

39

.903

3.10 DATA ANALYSIS

Once data were collected, it must be translated into an appropriate form for data analysis. According to De Vaus (2002), there are four factors affecting how the data are going to be analysed. They are the number of variables being examined, the level of measurement of the variables, descriptive or inferential purposes and ethical responsibility.

This study used SPSS (release 18) for Windows to analyse the data. A step by step data analysis was conducted to meet the research question and objective of the study. The procedure of testing the hypotheses of the study has also been taken in the data analysis section. In this study, there are dour steps in conducting the data analysis; this includes descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis.

Descriptive analysis was used to portray the data accurately from the variables. It also provides more information about the distribution of the variables. The frequencies, percentage, mean and standard deviation were performed to interpret the data. The descriptive analysis includes 'age', 'gender', 'years of teaching', 'highest qualification', 'level of teaching', 'number of teaching period/week' and 'subject though'.

According to Hair et al (1998), factor analysis is aimed at analysing the structure of the correlations among a large number of variables by defining a set of common underlying dimensions (factors). Furthermore, factor analysis is conducted to determine whether the responses to a set of items used to measure a particular concept can be grouped together to form an overall index of that concept (Cramer, 2003). In this study, there are two set of variables for which factors are analysed. They are a set of independent variables and a set of dependent variables. After performing the factor analyses, the next step would lead to the reliability analysis of the measurements. The Cronbach's alpha is the most widely used measure of reliability of the variables (Hair et al., 1998; Morgan et al., 2004).

Correlation analysis was performed to indicate both the strength and the direction of the relationship between a pair of variables (Bryman and Cramer, 1994). The variables are considered to be correlated if changes in the one variable are associated with the changes in the other variables (Hair et al., 1998). The Pearson correlation procedure is used to find the relationship between independent variables; gender, years of teaching, level of education, blog competence, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and teaching style and dependent variables; attitudes toward blog uses.

Finally, regression analysis is conducted in this study to summarize the nature of the relationship between variables and for making predictions of likely values of dependent variables (Bryman and Cramer, 1994). Multiple regressions were used to predict a scale of dependent variable from two or more independent variables.

3.11 SUMMARY

The focus of this chapter is on the development of research framework. The study will use a survey research method design. The target respondents for the survey research participants would be secondary school teacher in Keramat Zone, Kuala Lumpur. Te extimated number of sampling units is 700. The next chapter presents the finding of the study.