Events In Education History Education Essay

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This report put emphasis in terms of details about the education sector in Pakistan and highlighted the major events in education history of the world and then we discuss education policies and plans. The Pakistan education is generally have multiple board system and mostly divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSSC); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees.

Education sector includes analyses of number of institutions, teachers, enrollments and comparison of provision/ regional wise. The main indicators of education are GDP, GNP and budget. The current issue in education sector is devolution of HEC. Government believes in devolution HEC on provisional level by amending the act of constitution. The members of HEC, faculties of institutions, foreign affiliated institutes, all students of the country believe the devolution of HEC will be great disaster for education sector of Pakistan.

List Of Tables

Table Of Figures

CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION

The delivering or receiving of knowledge, skill, and information is called an education. It is the gradual process of acquiring knowledge and education is a preparation for life. [1] 

We need it for bringing up the society that can be called philosophically, psychologically, and religiously a Civilization1

The educated differ from the uneducated, as the living from the dead.(Aristotle) [2] 

There are many kinds of teachers in our lives, some teaches us informally and from some we get formal education. The education in our daily social life is also necessary. Every day we learn something from someone, teach something to someone. But we don't call it an education. This kind of education is called informal education. The self-taught education is the most powerful education medium in the informal education. In this medium we are taught ourselves by hearing, seeing and experiencing different things.

The result of good upbringing especially knowledge of correct social behavior, possessing positive traits of personality and moral values of a society is called social education. [3] 

The object of education is to teach us love of beauty.(Plato)2

The act or process of education is to acquired knowledge, skill or discipline of character by learning, instruction and training under any trained person/instructor. [4] 

You can discover more about a person in an hour of play than in a year of conversation. (Plato)2

According to our religion Islam, the education is a discipline of body, mind and spirit. [5] There are many kinds of education in different educational philosophies. But we divided them into three kinds, these are;

Informal education

Formal education

Special education

1.1 Background:

Education starts with the beginning of human life on the earth. It is a process consists of two elements that are, "teaching" and "necessary". Although, teachers are necessary for educating the students(learners) but in the beginning, we do not have the idea of proper education al institutional institutes. There are several ways of learning. Such as, people do experiments, tell others, younger learn from elders and travelers surrounds the information and stories of different places etc. With the increase in population, we need trading, travelling and communication for living. As time passes by, the educational process became more civilized in the form of educational institutes.

Table .1 Time Line

Egypt

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

3000 B.C

"Temple schools". Priests teach religion, Pictographic language and sciences. [6] 

Cong-Fu of the Toa-Tse, book written about massage. [7] 

Mesopotamia (Cuneiform text in mathematic). [8] 

Time of apprenticeships. [9] 

2,000 B.C

First solar-lunar calendar. [10] 

First formal school.6

1500 B.C

Priests teach religion, writing, values, sciences.6

850 B.C

Greek alphabets use in Egyptian language. [11] 

Common people have access to teachers.9

Homer's Iliad & Odyssey: educating Greek history & mythological gods.6

530 BC

Pythagoras establishes ethical and political academy at Croton (now Crotone, Italy). [12] 

Socrates teaches in public squares.6

Plato Developed Platonism and set up the Academy.6

Aristotle set up school in Athens recognized as the Lyceum.6

Egypt

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

240 B.C

Eratosthenes measures perimeter of the earth with accuracy.8

130 B.C

Hipparchus build up the first perfect star map and star catalogue with more than 850 of the brightest [13] 

214-212 B.C

Archimedes build ancient super

weapon's such as the "Archimedes' Death Ray," "The Archimedes' Claw" [14] .

90 B.C

Rome-Cicero introduces Greek philosophical values to Rome and created a vocabulary in Latin. [15] 

45 B.C

Rome Introduces Julian calendar, an entirely solar calendar.8

95 A.D

Invent first compass. [16] 

Ptolemy invents no. of projections that represents earth as the centre of the universe on flat surface with celestial bodies circling around8

Rome-he only extant work of Quintilian is a twelve-volume textbook on rhetoric entitled Institutio Oratoria, published.6

140 A.D

Ptolemy suggests geocentric theory of the universe in famous work Mathematike Syntaxis.8

105 A.D

Invented paper and difficult mathematical problems were resolve. [17] 

400-500 A.D

Nalanda, great Buddhist University6

Greeks include England and India to their maps.

Egypt

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

699 -855A.D

Four Imams, [18] Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered Sindh & Punjab. [19] 

Olympics started

959-1000A.D

Al-Azhar University was established and became the chief center of Arabic literature and Sunni Islamic learning in the world, second oldest surviving degree granting university. [20] 

Iranian Avicenna "The Canon of Medicine".6

1100-1200A.D

Omar Khayyam (Jalali Calendar, Algebra, Astronomical Tables &Rubaiyyats). Madrassa al Mustansirija in Baghdad medical sciences and other subjects. [21] 

1300-1400A.D

Ulugh Beg observatory astronomical tables catalogue over 1000 stars13

Invention of the printing press spurs wide distribution of navigation tables and ship plans. Ptolemy's geography is published and widely accepted8

Printing press invented. Ptolemy's geography is introduced in Europe Prince Henry the Navigator founded a naval observatory for the teaching of navigation, astronomy, and cartography.6

Egypt

China

Asia

Greece

Europe/America

1500-1600A.D

In Mughal Era free of cost education in Maktabs and scholars receives salaries from royal treasury.

Leonardo Da Vinci, Women Education, Bible translated and printed. Shakespeare plays in Theater.6 John Bayer designation of stars. Galileo's Telescope. Comenius writes first picture book for children [22] .

1700-1800A.D

Sent young students to America to gain leadership skills in military and industrial expertise. Emperor Meiji issued the Imperial Rescript on moral principles [23] .

English education era. Sir Syed started formal education, MAO College & Aligarh University. [24] 

Slide Rule. Importance of education for all. 1st Kindergarten. Free education in U.S.A. Western governments set up formal education policies/plans.8

1900

Computers in Universities. . Emphasis on early childhood learning.8

Students protest for democracy. Computers in schools. Foundation of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Emphasis on early childhood learning.8

Computers in Universities. Emphasis on early childhood learning.8

Computers in institutes. Emphasis on early childhood learning8

Electronic math calculators. Standard Intelligence Test by Alfred Binet. Televisions & Computers in Schools. Emphasis on early childhood learning. Study abroad program of America send students to France.8

2000

E-learning Courses, Curriculum Changes. Internet Globalization8

E-learning Courses, Internet globalization8

E-learning Courses, New curriculum introduces. Internet globalization8

E-learning Courses. Internet globalization8

E-learning Courses, Stop following standard curriculum. Internet globalization.8

1.2 Pakistan:

At the time of independence Pakistan had 33million population with the literacy 13.2% along with female literacy rate being only 8.6% and there were only 8,413 primary schools, 2190 middle schools and 408 high schools, only three universities, no professional college, 137 seminaries (madrassas) and Libraries but the collection and building of these libraries were in very poor condition. [25] 

Some well-known schools established before the time of independence were Karachi Grammar School is the oldest school, established in 1847 and had educated many businessmen and politicians and some famous names are Atta urRahman, Benazir Bhutto, Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi, HameedHaroon and etc [26] . The Narayan Jagannath High School 1855 in Karachi was the first government school established in Sindh [27] , B. V. S. Parsi High School in 1859 [28] , St Patrick's High School in 1861 [29] , St Joseph's Convent School in 1870 [30] , Aitchison College, Lahore in 1886 [31] and Burn Hall School in Abbottabad was established in1943 later on taken over by the Pakistan Army in 1980s and now known as the Army Burn Hall College. [32] 

Pakistan had three universities at the time of independence were University of the Punjab established in 1882 in Lahore [33] , University of Agriculture, Faisalabad in 1909 [34] , and University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore in 1921 [35] . The University of Karachi is Pakistan's largest university and NED University of Engineering and Technology, is the oldest engineering institute. Pakistan now has more than 132 universities of which 73 are public universities and 59 are private universities

In 1947, after the independence of Pakistan, Non-Government Organization (NGOs) and social welfare organization started working. In 1950s, the NGOs worked for population welfare prorammes. In 1980s, the NGOs started working in organized manner. The government and local donors helped them out in their causes and programmes. [36] 

First education conference held in 1947, no educational system or policies were introduced. Later, Urdu was made official language and emphasis was laid on compulsory Islamic education, technical education and advanced education. According to National education policy of 1979, Arabic was made compulsory subject in schools. The definition of literacy was first time defined in the first census 1951 and continually changes till 1998. [37] 

Currently,education in Pakistan has multiple board system and divided into five categories. These are:37

Primary (Grade One to Five)

Middle (Grade Six to Eight)

Secondary School Certificate (SSC) / High (Grade Ninth and Tenth)

Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) / Intermediate (Grades Eleven and Twelve)

University (It includes the graduation and advanced degrees programs.)

There are alternate education system are;

General Certificate of Education (GCE)

International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE)

Ordinary Level (O-Level)

Advanced Level (A-Level)

International Baccalaureate (IB) World School

CHAPTER: 2 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 EDUCATION POLICIES

2.1.1 Pakistan Education Conference, 1947:

The first education policy was held in 1947, the objective of this policy was establish education policy according the message of Quaid-e-Azam's and the committee agreed on free and compulsory primary education, opening of pre-primary schools and provision of proper training of teachers. [38] 

2.1.2 Commission on National Education 1959:

The commission was appointed by the Government in order to improve education system and the commission presented the report which was known as "Shareef Report". The recommendations of this report were separation of intermediate classes from the universities to the Boards of Secondary Education, recognition of Higher Education, and increase in the duration of the course of study for Bachelor's Degree in Arts and Science from the prevailing two to three years and establishment of complete agriculture university in the country.38

The recommendations of that report which were implemented are Islamic studies were made compulsory for class 1 to 8 and optional in 9 and 10, short term evening classes were started, Board of Intermediate and Secondary education were established intermediate education and number of engineering colleges were established in the country.38

2.1.3 The New Education Policy 1970:

The New Education Policy was announced in 1969 and the recommendations of policy were decentralization of educational institution, national research fellowship and national professorship to be financed by the central government and higher pay scales for faculty members according to their qualifications and research output.38

2.1.4 Education Policy 1972:

The recommendations of Education Policy 1972 were similar to the New Education Policy 1970. Its recommendations were specifically to the higher education which includes the establishment of new universities at Multan and Sukkur, convert JamiaIslamia Bahawalpur into complete university, raise agriculture colleges, add under-graduate faculties, establish the university grants commission and establish area study centres for research in general universities.

The recommendation of that policy which were implemented are the expenditure on education were raised, nationalization of privately managed institutions, six new universities were established and enrolment in universities increased by 56%.38

2.1.5National Education Policy, 1979:

The objectives of National Education Policy 1979 were to improve the quality of teacher education; train educational administrators and supervisors; and improve the examination system and on-the-job training would be necessary for engineering and agriculture graduates.38

2.1.6 National Education Policy 1992:

The objectives of National Education Policy 1992 were that reformation of the existing education system according to new methods and bring changes through the teachings of Islam. This policy was prepared for the ten year period but this policy was failed due to political instability.38

2.1.7 National Education Policy 1998-2010:

The objectives of National Education Policy 1998 were that to achieve universal primary education, achieve education standards according to international standards through advancement in teaching, learning and research processes.

The recommendations of this policy were funding on education should be raised, access to higher education should be expand, introduce 3 years bachelor (honors) degree, establish foreign linkages, universities to generate their own funds, special funds for research and scholarships to be increased.38

2.1.8 New Education Policy 2009:

The objective of New Education Policy were that the literacy target should be 86% by 2015, GDP on education raised to 7% by 2015, raised enrollments in higher education, reduce dropout rates and teachers minimum qualification should be graduation. [39] 

2.2 FIVE YEAR PLANS

2.2.1 First Five Year Plan (1955 - 60):

Government of Pakistan introduces the First Five Year Plan in 1956. The objectives of this plan were that the universal free primary education, increase enrolment, improvement in the quality of education, training of teachers and establish 4000 schools. [40] 

The developmental outlay was Rs. 9.3052 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 6.2% and percentage of higher education total development outlay was 1.88%. 38

2.2.2 Second Five Year Plan (1960 - 65):

The Second Five Year Plans' objectives were to increase the enrollments, revise curricula and on-job teacher training and imagine establishing 15,200 new primary schools.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 19.0 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 7.5% and percentage of higher education total development outlay was 1.0%. 38

2.2.3 Third Five Year Plan (1965 - 70):

The Third Five Year Plans' objectives were to establish 42,500 schools in West Pakistan and increase enrollment in primary schools.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 52.0 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 5.14% and percentage of higher education total development outlay was 0.76%. 38

2.2.4 Fourth Five Year Plan (1970 - 75):

The Fourth Five Year Plan was well-innovative plan which remains unimplemented due to war with India.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 75.0 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 4.9% and percentage of higher education total development outlay was 0.94%. 38

2.2.5 Fifth Five Year Plan (1978 - 83):

The Fifth Five Year Plan's objectives were to improve the quality of curricula, free text books, extension of on job training facilities and improved education system.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 215.0 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 4.8% percentage of higher education total development outlay was 0.68%. 38

2.2.6 Sixth Five Year Plan (1983 - 88):

The Sixth Five Year Plan was mainly focus on the universal primary education, increase enrollments, launch mass literacy program and separate girl's schools.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 490.0 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 4.0% percentage of higher education total development outlay was 0.70%. 38

2.2.7 Seventh Five Year Plan (1988 - 93):

The Seventh Five Year Plan recommendations were to provide access to school with in the radius 1.5 km and compulsory primary education.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 642.4 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 3.5% percentage of higher education total development outlay was 0.37%. . 38

2.2.8 Eighth Five Year Plan (1993 - 98):

The Eighth Five Year Plan recommended a primary and mosque schools for smaller settlements and raised primary participation.40

The developmental outlay was Rs. 1700.5 billion out of which percentage of education total developmental outlay was 4.0% percentage of higher education total development outlay was 0.39%. 38

Fig2.2.1 Five Years Plans Developmental Outlay

CHAPTER: 3 ANALYSIS

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

3.1.1 Primary Schools:

In 1947 Pakistan had 8,413 primary schools which rose to 9,411 with the growth rate of 11.86% in 1949-50 after that number of primary schools rapidly increased till1999-00 but growth rate slightly declined only in 1969-70 and 1999-00later onnumber of schools declined to 156,400 from 162,521 in 2009-10 andthe average growth rate of primary schools is 59%.

Fig: 3.1.1.1 No. of Primary Schools

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.1.1.2 Growth Rate of Primary Schools

3.1.2 Middle Schools:

In 1947 Pakistan had 2,190 middle schools which reduced to 2,134 with the negative growth rate of 2.56% in 1949-50and continued reducing till 1959-60after that it start increasing constantlyand continued increasing till now but there was a hugh increase from 1999-00 to 2009-10 with the growth rate of 121.9% and the average growth rate of middle schools is 62%.

Fig: 3.1.2.1 No. of Middle Schools

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.1.2.2 Growth rate of Middle Schools

High Schools:

In 1947 Pakistan had 454 high schools which increased to 528 with the growth rate of 16.30% in 1949-50 and continued increasing till now with the average growth rate of 80%.

Fig: 3.1.3.1 No. of High Schools

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.1.3.2 Growth rate of High Schools

Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges (XI-XII):

In 1947 Pakistan had 40 higher secondary/ Inter colleges which increased to 46 with the growth rate of 16.30% in 1949-50 and constantly increasing till 1999-00 after that it started increasing rapidly till now and total higher secondary/ Inter colleges were 3,399 in 2009-10 with the growth rate of 282.34%. The average growth rate of higher secondary/ Inter colleges is 105%.

Fig: 3.1.4.1 No. of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.1.4.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

Degree Colleges (XI-XIV):

In 1949-50 Pakistan had 19 degree colleges which increased to 40 with the growth rate of 110.53% in 1959-60 and constantly increased till 1999-00 after that it start increasing rapidly till now and total degree colleges in 2009-10 were 1,275 with the growth rate of 293.52%. The average growth rate of degree colleges is 125%.

Fig: 3.1.5.1 No. of Degree Colleges

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.1.5.2. Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

Universities:

In 1947 Pakistan had 3 universities which increased to 4 in 1959-60 and started increasing gradually till 1999-00 after that universities also started increasing rapidly and total numbers of universities in 2009-10 were 132 with growth rate of 407.69%. The average growth rate of universities is 99%.

Fig: 3.1.6.1 No. of Universities

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.1.6.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter Colleges

TEACHERS:

3.2.1 Primary School Teachers:

In 1947 Pakistan had 17,800 teachers which increased to 19,900 with the growth rate of 11.80% in 1949-50 and constantly increasing till now and total number of primary teachers in 2009-10 were 469,200 with the growth rate of 28.06%. The average growth rate of primary teachers is 65%

Fig: 3.2.1.1 No. of Primary School Teachers

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.2.1.2 Growth Rate of Primary School Teachers

Middle School Teachers:

In 1947 Pakistan had 12,000 middle schools teachers which increased 12,100 with the growth rate of 0.83% in 1949-50 and gradually increasing till 1999-00 than there was a drastic increase in 2009-19 from 91,500 to 323,800 with the growth rate of 253.88%. The average growth rate of middle school teachers is 76.62%.

Fig: 3.2.2.1 No. of Middle School Teachers

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.2.2.2 Growth Rate of Middle School Teachers

3.2.3 High School Teachers:

In 1947 Pakistan had 6,800 high school teachers which increased to 8,000 with the growth rate of 17.65% in 1949-50 and gradually increasing till 1979-80 after that it start increasing rapidly till now and total numbers of teachers in 2009-10 were 447,100 with the growth rate of 142.59%. The average growth rate of high school teachers is 88.4%.

Fig: 3.2.3.1 No. of High School Teachers

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.2.3.2 Growth Rate of High School Teachers

Higher Secondary/ Inter College Teachers:

In 1969-70 Pakistan had 7,950 higher secondary/ Inter college teachers which increased to 12,077 with the growth rate of 51.91%later it gradually increases till 1999-00after that there was a hugh increase from 27,662 to 78,685 with the growth rate of 184.35% in 2009-10. The average growth rate of higher secondary/ Inter college teachers is 88.84%.

Fig: 3.2.4.1 No. of Higher Secondary/ Inter College Teachers

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.2.4.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter College Teachers

Degree Colleges Teachers:

In 1969-70 Pakistan had 1,737 degree college teachers which increased to 3,563 with the growth rate of 105.12% in 1979-80 after that it increased gradually till 1999-00 and later on there was a drastic increase in 2009-10 and total number of degree college teachers in 2009-10 were 21,385 with the growth rate of 136.48%.

Fig: 3.2.5.1 No. of Degree College Teachers

Source:http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.2.5.2 Growth Rate of Degree Colleges Teachers

University Teachers:

In 1959-60 Pakistan had 382 teachers in universities which increased to 1373 with the growth rate of 105.12% after that it gradually increased till 1999-00 but there was rapid increase in 2009-10 from 5914 to 56,839 with the growth rate of 861.09%.

Fig: 3.2.6.1 No. of University Teachers

Source: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/Education.htm#tab5.3fig5.2

Fig: 3.2.6.2 Growth Rate of University Teachers

3.3 ENROLLMENTS

3.3.1 Enrollments at Schools and Colleges Level:

3.3.1.1 Primary School Enrollments:

Figure shows that enrollment increased constantly from 2000-01 to 2004-05 and reduced in 2005-06 after that enrollments again started increasing but with the slow growth rate.

Fig: 3.3.1.1.1 No. of Primary School Enrollments

Source: Economic Survey 2009-10

Fig: 3.3.1.1.2 Growth Rate of Primary School Enrollments

3.3.1.2 Middle School Enrollments:

Figure shows that number of middle school enrollments constantly from 2000-01 to 2006-07 after that enrollment started reducing.

Fig: 3.3.1.2.1 No. of Middle School Enrollments

Source: Economic Survey 2009-10

Fig: 3.3.1.2.2 Growth Rate of Middle School Enrollments

3.3.1.3 High School Enrollments:

Figure shows that high school enrollments were increasing constantly from 2000-01 and continued till now.

Fig: 3.3.1.3.1 No. of High School Enrollments

Source: Economic Survey 2009-10

Fig: 3.3.1.3.2 Growth Rate of High School Enrollments

3.3.1.4 Higher Secondary/ Inter College Enrollments:

Figure shows that numbers of enrollments were equal in 2000-01 and 2001-02 later enrollments started increasing and declined in 2004-05 after that enrollments increased rapidly in the next yearand continued increasing with gradual growth rate.

Fig: 3.3.1.4.1 No. of Higher Secondary/ Inter CollegeEnrollments

Source: Economic Survey 2009-10

Fig: 3.3.1.4.2 Growth Rate of Higher Secondary/ Inter CollegeEnrollments

3.3.1.5 Degree College Enrollments:

Figure shows that number of degree college enrollments reduced in 2001-02 later on enrollments started increasing and again declined in 2005-06 with the negative growth rate 21.5%after that enrollments started increasing again.

Fig: 3.3.1.5.1 No. of Degree CollegeEnrollments

Source: Economic Survey 2009-10

Fig: 3.3.1.5.2 Growth Rate of Degree CollegeEnrollments

3.3.2 Enrollments at Degree Level:

3.3.2.1 Bachelors Enrollments:

Figure shows that thenumber of enrollments constantly increased from the year 2001-02 to 2008-09.

Fig: 3.3.2.1.1 No. of Bachelors Enrollments

Source: HEC

Fig: 3.3.2.1.2 Growth Rate of Bachelors Enrollments

3.3.2.2 Masters Enrollments

Figure shows that the number of masters enrollments also constantly increased from 2001-02 to 2008-09.if we compare the enrollment of masters to bachelors it shows that number of masters enrollments were fewer than bachelors enrollments.

Fig: 3.3.2.2.1 No. of Masters Enrollments

Source: HEC

Fig: 3.3.2.2.2 Growth Rate of Masters Enrollments

3.3.2.3 M.Phil. Enrollments:

Figure shoes that the number of enrollments increased gradually and M.Phil enrollments were a lot fewer than masters and bachelors enrollments

Fig: 3.3.2.3.1 No. of M.Phill. Enrollments

Source: HEC

Fig: 3.3.2.3.2 Growth Rate of M.Phill. Enrollments

3.3.2.4 Ph.D. Enrollments:

Figure shows that the PhD enrollments also increased gradually from year 2001-02 to 2008-09 and also number of enrollments reduced in PhD as compare to M.Phil. If we compare the enrollments in all four degree level the numbers of enrollments were reduced as they preceded the next level of degree.

Fig: 3.3.2.4.1 No. PhD. of Enrollments

Source: HEC

Fig: 3.3.2.4.2 Growth Rate of PhD Enrollments

the number of PhD produced also increased in year from 2000 to 2009.

Fig: 3.3.2.4.3 No. of PhD Produced

Source: HEC

3.3.3 Enrollments at Universities / DAI + Constituent Colleges by Sector:

There was gradual increase in enrollments at universities/ DAI +constituent colleges by sector of distance learning, public and private from 2001-02 to 2008-09 and there was only decrease in public enrollments in 2005-06. The average of distance learning is 21.7%, public is 144.8% and private is 15.0%.

Fig: 3.4.1 Enrollments at Universities / DAI + Constituent Colleges by Sector

Source: HEC

3.4 Comparison Provisional/Region Wise 2006-07 to 2008-09:

3.4.1 Schools:

Comparison of school provisional/region wise Punjab has most schools than any other province which slightly decrease in 2008-09 and Sindh is on second number. The number of schools in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Balochistan AJK, Gilgit-Baltistan and FATA are at steady level and ICT has the lowest number of schools which slightly decrease in 2007-08 and 2008-09.

Fig: 3.4.1 Schools Comparison Provisional/Region Wise

Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2008 - 09

3.4.2 Teachers:

Comparison of teachers' provisional/region wise as the Punjab has the most schools, it also has most number of teachers than any other province and Sindh is on second number. Number of teacher slightly increases in 2008-09 in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Balochistan AJK, Gilgit-Baltistan and FATA and Gilgit-Baltistan has the lowest number of teachers.

Fig: 3.4.2 Teachers Comparison Provisional/Region Wise

Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2008 - 09

Enrollments:

Comparison of enrollments provisional/region wise as the Punjab has the most schools; it also has most number of enrollments than any other province which decreases in 2008-09. The enrollments in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa, Balochistan AJK, Gilgit-Baltistan, FATA is at steady level.

Fig: 3.4.3 Enrollments Comparison Provisional/Region Wise

Source: Pakistan Education Statistics 2008 - 09

INDICATORS

3.5.1 GDP:

The expenditure on education as percentage of GDP trend from 2000-01 to 2008-09 shows that the GDP on education slightly increase and decrease year by year till 2004-05 and start increasing from 2005-06 to 2.21% till 2007-08 to 2.5% but then again decrease to 2.10% in 2008-09.

Fig: 3.5.1.1Expenditure on education & GDP

Source: Ministry of Education &Handbook of Statistics on Pakistan Economy

But the trend of public spending on education as the percentage of total GDP shows that the public spending on education gradually increasing from 1971 to 1995 than decrease to 1.82% in 2000 and continue increase and decrease after that.

Fig: 3.5.1.2Expenditure on education 1971 - 2008

Source: Handbook of Statistics on Pakistan Economy&www.tradingeconomics.com

Comparison with Neighboring Countries:

Pakistan comparison with neighboring countries in percentage of GDP and literacy rate, according to UNESCO's Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009 Malaysia has the highest literacy rate with 91.90% and Bangladesh has the lowest literacy rate with 53.50%. And Iran has the highest percentage of GDP on education with 5.20% while Pakistan has the lowest percentage of GDP on education with 2.10%. According to this Pakistan has the lowest GDP on education with an average literacy rate.

Fig: 3.5.1.3Comparison with neighboring countries

Source: Economic Survey 2009-10 & UNESCO

GNP:

The percentage of GNP, total expenditure on education sector was 1.5% in 1981-82 and increased to 2.2% in 1991-92, which remains same for the next two years and start increasing slightly by 2.7% in 1996-97. In 1999 - 2000 GNP on education was 2.1% which was a huge decrease and in 2008 according to World Bank Pakistan spends less than 2% of its GNP on education.

Budget:

The expenditure on education as percentage total Government budget shows that the Government were spending more on education in 2006-07 with 1.53% and after that it start decreasing and again it raise to 1.25% in 2009-10 but then again there is a huge decrease in education budget in 2010-11 with 0.64%. Show that the Government is spending less on education.

Fig: 3.5.3Government spending on education

Source: http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/ma-economics-notes-assinments/58209.html

http://www.pakistantimes.net/pt/detail.php?newsid=1520

http://www.geo.tv/important.events/2010/budet2010/paes/points_eng.asp

INFERENCES:

3.6.1 During 50's:

In 1951 Ghulam Mohammad was the third Governor General of Pakistan and then IskandarMirza was the fourth Governor General and then became the first President of Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan was assassinated and Sir KhawajaNazimuddin became the second Prime Minister of Pakistan and six Prime Ministers were changed with the tenure of two years from 1951 to1958. [41] 

The first census was held in 1951 and the total population was 34 million. The definition of literacy was "One who can read a clear print in any language" and for All Age Groups. The literacy rate was 16.4% which increases from 13.2% in 1947.

The impact on education during this time was that primary education becomes compulsory and secondary schools were increased and there was also a rapid increase in number of colleges and universities like Peshawar University was established in North West Frontier Province and Karachi University started functioning in Federal Capital. The existing universities expand by adding new departments. Teaching methods were also modified by the use of audio/visual aid as the teaching methodology. At that time science and technology advancement and establishment of youth hostels was started.

The problem in this era is that while with the expansion, the demand is not met accordingly. It means that Teaching Personnel should be train in order to meet the teaching requirement. Lack of technological equipment was present in this particular era.

During 60's:

In 1958 Ayub Khan imposed first Matrial Law in the country and became the president. It was the military rule so there was no Prime Minister of Pakistan.41

The second census was held in 1961 and the total population was 43 million. The definition of literacy was "One who is able to read with understanding a simple letter in any language" and for Age 5 and above. The literacy rate was 16.3% which decrease from 16.4% in 1951. It's because of the change of definition and the age group.

The impact on education during this time that intermediate education was separated from universities, the promotion of research practices in agriculture sector and short term evening classes were started. [42] 

During 70's:

In 1971, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes the President of Pakistan then Prime Minister in 1973 and FazalIlahiChaudhry becomes the President.41

The third census was held in 1972 and the total population was over63 million. The definition of literacy was "One who is able to read and write in some language with understanding" and for Age 10 and above. The literacy rate was 21.7% which increase due to change in the definition of literacy and age group because the percentage of literacy was applied on the population of age 10 and above.

The impact on education during this time was that the universalization of primary education for boys and girls. Six new universities were established, total government expenditure on education was raised to 4.93% and the fourth five year plan remain unimplemented due to war with India. [43] 

During 80's:

In 1978, General Zia ulHaq declared Martial Law in the country and becomes the sixth President of Pakistan. It was the military rule therefore was no Prime Minister present.41

The third census was held in 1981 and the total population was over 84 million. The definition of literacy was "One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter" and for Age 10 and above. The literacy rate was 26.2% which shows the gradual increase in the literacy rate.

The impact on education during this time was that primary school dropout rates remained consistent, middle school dropout rates were raised, increase in number of technical institutes in the country and expenditure on education was raised to 7.4% in 1985. [44] 

During 90's:

In 1990, GhulamIshaq Khan was the president and Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto was replaced by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi and Nawaz Shairf becomes the Prime Minister. But Prime Minister continues changed with the period of two years and was managed by the caretaker.41

In 1998, the total population was over132 million. The definition of literacy was "One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter, in any language" and for Age 10 and above. The literacy rate was 43.9% which shows that the literacy rate was gradually increases from 1972.

The impact on education during this time was that primary participation was raised, education policy were failed to implement and there was no increase in Government expenditure on education. [45] 

During 2000's:

In 1998 Nawaz Sharif Government was replaced by Chief of Army Staff Pervez Musharraf and then becomes President and Zafarullah Khan Jamali was the Prime Minister. In 2009, Asif Ali Zardari becomes the President of Pakistan and Mr. Syed YousufRazaGillani becomes the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Both of them belong to Pakistan People's Party.41

The total population in 2009 was 175 million. The definition of literacy was "One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter, in any language"and for Age 10 and above remains same from 1998 till now. The literacy rate was increased by 57%.

The impact on education during this time was that seminaries systems were changed and syllabus and curriculum approved by the federal board of education and the topic of Jihad has been eliminated. Pakistan becomes the 9th Largest English Speaking Nation in the world and the 3rd largest in Asia. [46] 

Year 2009 becomes difficult year for the education sector in Pakistan. There become difficult for the citizens to survive in the country due to law and order situation. There was twin suicide attack in International Islamic University Islamabad. A number of schools in the country were made to close specially girls' schools. And also other schools were closed due to suicide bombings. [47] 

There is major development in relation to professional qualifications like MBA, ACCA or similar in this year of time. People become more and more aware of these degrees and also become accepted its importance in the corporate world.47

Table 3.6.1 Definitions of "LITERATE"

Year of Census

Literacy Rate

Definition of being "literate"

Age Group

1951

16.40%

One who can read a clear print in any language

All Ages

1961

16.30%

One who is able to read with understanding a simple letter in any language

Age 5 and above

1972

21.70%

One who is able to read and write in some language with understanding

Age 10 and Above

1981

26.20%

One who can read newspaper and write a simple letter

1998

43.9%

One who can read a newspaper and write a simple letter, in any language

2004

54%

2009

57%

Source: http://www.notesmela.com/pakistan-education/

Table 3.6.2 Population from 1947-2009

Year

Population

1947

33,000,000

1951

33,740,167

1961

42,880,378

1972

65,309,340

1981

84,253,644

1998

132,352,279

2009

174,579,000

Source: http://www.census.gov.pk/ProvinceRegion.htm

Fig: 3.6.1 Population Growth Rate

Fig: 3.6.2 Literacy Growth Rate

CHAPTER: 4CURRENT EDUCATION ISSUE

4.1 Devolution of Higher Education Commission (HEC)

The Higher Education Commission (HEC) was created in 2002 during President Pervez Musharraf's administration under the Higher Education Commission Ordinance 2002 and its first and former chairperson was Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman and now Dr. JavaidLeghari. [48] The Higher Education Commission (HEC) is widely recognized internationally as highly successful institution that has able to bring revolutionary changes to higher education of Pakistan. The institution reforms the educational standards at public and private universities throughout all over the country with better strategies. The institute provides additional funds for universities and scholarships for students, both to local and foreign universities. Approximately, 5,000 Pakistani students are studying abroad on HEC or HEC affiliated scholarships. HEC also finances research programs in universities. The acknowledgment of HEC by the 133 universities can be seen in this resolution: "Our universities are the premier research institutions in Pakistan, and with the support of the HEC through various programs such as the research grant program, conference support, digital library program, indigenous PhD scholarships, travel grants etc., have been able to place Pakistan firmly on the research and innovation map of the world." [49] 

The HEC's role, as defined by the ordinance mandating its creation, is the "evaluation, improvement and promotion of higher education, research and development."

On March' 2011 the federal government announced the devolution of HEC to provincial level, and ceased as federal institution according to the 18thamendment to constitution. It has been considered present government as remarkable addition of education institution in provincial governments. More than 30 universities (Public) formed an action committee, to stop the devolution, as it will be disasteras for the HEC to work on provincial level. This committee is in Islamabad and headed by ImtiazGillani. Head of University of Engineering and Technology (UET)

The universities, all student and overseas affiliated institutes of Pakistan are not agree on the devolution of HEC as it will be a great mistake in the education history of the country. Students and institutes are protesting against the matter regarding the HEC devolution. The case of devolution has been challenged in the Islamabad High Court (IHC) under 18th amendment of Constitution. No strong points represented during the hearing on which the step of devolution has been taken. Furthermore, if the government resists its decision of devolution then the HEC will challenge this in Supreme Court. Dr. Atta-ur-Rehman the former chairperson of HEC quoted; "The devolution of HEC is a Monumental Disaster". [50] 

Implementation Commission's Chairman, MianRazaRabbani, could not convince the media, students and other parties on the issue of devolution of HEC on provincial level. He could not give the strong arguments against the reporters' questions. Mixed arguments have been recorded of different position parties on the issue of devolution until now, no changes has been made in HEC powers. Everything remains same as before in HEC functions [51] 

CHAPTER: 5CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion:

From the time of independence quality of education, literacy rate, merit level has been improved now but still it needs improvements as compare developed countries. As we are developing country we are improving through bringing changes in education sector by equipment, workshops, seminars, internship. Environment of the country should be secured terrorism and electricity power failure activities.

Although we are facing many hurdles in education sector but we are still trying our best to achieve the targets.

5.2 Recommendations:

Literacy rate target in education policy should be considered 90% to 100%. So we can achieve highest percentage of the literacy rate.

Education policies should be emphasized on the general population of the country to the literacy rate.

There should be one educational system in the country.

Education institution should also increase as population increases.

Expense for new institutions and new advanced equipment for experimentation and studies should be considered compulsory by the government in every year's budget

Number of seats in institutions should also be increased.

Bribery, cheating, fake degrees should be stopped.

Primary education should be free of cost.

Higher Education should be available in every part of the country.

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