Evaluation of Teaching styles in the UCP

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The word Servqual is used as a framework of service quality. Servqual can be attributed towards Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Berry in mid eighties. Initially it included 10 dimensions of quality relevant to service: reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding or knowing the customer and tangibles. The main purpose of this service quality tool is to measure gap between expectation and actual by customer. As many dimensions were repetitive author trimmed the model into 5 dimensions: Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness.

By some servqual is considered to be very complex, subjective and statistically unreliable. The simplified RATER model however is a simple and useful model for qualitatively exploring and assessing customers' service experiences and has been used widely by service delivery organizations. It is an efficient model in helping an organization shape up their efforts in bridging the gap between perceived and expected service.

Nyeck, Morales, Ladhari, and Pons (2002) stated the SERVQUAL measuring tool "remains the most complete attempt to conceptualize and measure service quality" (p. 101). The main benefit to the SERVQUAL measuring tool is the ability of researchers to examine numerous service industries such as healthcare, banking, financial services, and education (Nyeck, Morales, Ladhari, & Pons, 2002). The fact that SERVQUAL has critics does not render the measuring tool moot. Rather, the criticism received concerning SERVQUAL measuring tool may have more to do with how researchers use the tool. Nyeck, Morales, Ladhari, and Pons (2002) reviewed 40 articles that made use of the SERVQUAL measuring tool and discovered "that few researchers concern themselves with the validation of the measuring tool" (p. 106).

Literature Review

As the service sector of the global economy grows, the study of services and innovation are becoming increasingly important. Service products distributed regionally, nationally, and globally have become larger portions of company revenue streams; knowledge-intensive business services aimed at enhancing performance require reliable methods of measurement, assessment, and improvement (Spohrer & Maglio, 2008).

Service Quality

In 1988 Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry developed a generic instrument called SERVQUAL to measure service quality based on input from focus groups. Although SERVQUAL was developed within the marketing sector, it is also used in a variety of organizational settings, including Landrum, Prybutok, Zhang, & Peak libraries and information centers (Kettinger & Lee, 1994; Nitecki, 1996). In 1994 they reported on three different SERVQUAL formats; they recommended that researchers use a format that separated customer expectation scores into tolerance zones.

In 1997, Van Dyke, Kappelman, and Prybutok employed SERVQUAL in an IS context, while in 2002 Banwet and Datta measured IT service quality in a library service, as did Landrum and Prybutok in 2004. Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1988) stated that since service quality depends on the relationship of customer expectations with customer perceptions, it is appropriate to calculate service quality by subtracting expected from perceived service. One then achieves an overall measure of service quality by averaging the scores of all items (Brown, Churchill, & Peter, 1992). However, this procedure also gives rise to two issues: the first is disagreement over what really is being measured in SERVQUAL with expectations and the second is the problematic nature of the resulting difference scores.

These two issues are resolved if one follows Cronin and Taylor (1992), and Teas (1993), who recommended that expectation ratings be eliminated altogether. In addition, Liljander (1994) states that there is more support for performance only models than for the disconfirmation model of service quality. As we have noted, these issues are all resolved if customer expectations are eliminated from the model.

The performance only approach to service quality utilizes the five of the seven SERVQUAL dimensions-the five performance dimensions. Cronin and Taylor (1992), called this performance only subset instrument SERVPERF. When Cronin and Taylor (1992) compared SERVPERF to SERVQUAL, their results supported the dissenters: performance scores alone account for more variation in service quality than performance minus expectations. Performance alone provides better predictive validity than SERVQUAL which is gap-based (Brady, Cronin, & Brand, 2002; Cronin & Taylor 1992) and other studies show that performance scores alone exhibit better reliability and validity than difference scores (Babakus & Boller 1992; Brady et al., 2002; Landrum & Prybutok 2004; Landrum, Prybutok, Strutton, & Zhang, 2008). Based upon these findings, we used only performance scores to perform analysis on the five SERVQUAL service quality dimensions.

Since Our survey is not based on GAPS it only measures Customer's Experience

Chosen Organization

University of Central Punjab

University of central Punjab started its operations in August, 1996 after obtaining no objection certificate thus becoming the first private sector degree-awarding institute in Punjab. UCP was awarded charter in 2002.

Mission Statement

"To provide quality education to the youth of our nation in a stimulating and conducive learning atmosphere by providing them with the intellectual and technological tools necessary to meet the challenges of the future."

It has the following disciplines;

1. Faculty of Management Studies

2. Faculty of Information Technology

3. Faculty of Commerce

5. Faculty of Engineering

6. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences

For the purpose to attain generalizability a sample from each department was taken. As clear in the demographic characteristics

Cross Tabulation (Gender * Department)

Department

Total

FOC

FOE

FMS

FIT

FASS

Gender

Male

9

14

2

8

1

34

Female

3

3

8

4

4

22

Total

12

17

10

12

5

56

Context of Study

Evaluation of Teaching style in UCP

Descriptive stats of the Questionnaire

Q.1 Course outline is followed during the course

Analysis

The frequency Distribution suggests that the majority of concentration of the sample seem to be neutral or they are reluctant to quote that about the following of course outline. The rest however seem to agree with the statement

Approximately 29% of the sample is neutral in the fact, 42% support that Course outline is followed during the Classes and 29% Say no to the answer.

Q.2 Teacher teaches mainly up to date topics

Analysis

Here the frequency distribution is rather favorable but the concentration is again neutral or is reluctant to quote. The rest however has a strong supporting element meaning that it is agreed that up to date topics are taught

Here approx. 37% are neutral. 48% agree that up-to-date topics are taught and 15% said no. So this is the strong point of the Sample

Q. 3 Teacher observes punctuality

Analysis

Punctuality looks like the strong point of the University and hence the population is concentrated on the Support of it. However there is again reluctance in answering. There is a very strong support for punctuality.

Approx. 56% of the sample supports Punctuality. 29% seem neutral and 15% tend to go against it.

Q.4 Teacher's promises to students are met up-to-mark

Analysis

The concentration of students neither agree nor disagree with the statement however there is again a positive trend in the sample and more students support the question then the negations.

Approx. 34% of the sample is neutrals. 50% Support the honoring of teachers promises and 16% say no to the statement

Q.5 Teachers in UCP are always willing to help students

Analysis

The concentration of students has dispersed with the statement motive however there is a positive trend in the sample and more students support the question then the negations..

Approx. 29% of the sample is neutrals. 43% Support the helping teachers and 28% negate the statement

Q. 6 When students require further assistance other than class they are given so

Analysis

The concentration of students is neutral with statement however there is again a positive trend in the sample and more students support the question then deniers. But again there is a much more negative impact of acquiring further assistance besides class. It means that teachers are not always giving further assistance to students.

Approx. 27% of the sample is neutrals. 39% Support the Teachers assistance promises and 34% say no to the statement

Q.7 If students have a problem their teacher solves it immediately

Analysis

This is the only question so far that doesn't concentrate as neutrals. There is less concentration of neutrals with positives. So there is again a positive trend in the sample and more students support the question then do negate it.

Approx. 29% of the sample is neutrals. 46% Support teachers as problem solvers and 25% say no to the statement.

Q.8 Teachers have the appropriate knowledge to answer students' question

Analysis

As it is a very sensitive question so no one strongly disagrees and the concentration agree when it comes to teacher's knowledge. And the disagreement rate has also fallen.

Approx. 32% of the sample is neutrals. 54% Support the knowledge criteria of the knowledge of the teachers promises and 14% say no to the statement

Q. 9 The teaching style is satisfactory

Analysis

The concentration of students support with the statement so it means that teaching style is satisfactory however there is again a positive trend in the sample and much more students support the question then the negations.

Approx. 25% of the sample is neutrals. 59% Support teaching style and 16% say no to the statement. This is the greatest support of the whole academic program

Q.10 Teacher always promote confidence in students

Analysis

The concentration of students neither agree nor disagree with the statement however there is again a positive trend in the sample and more students support the question then the negations.

Approx. 34% of the sample is neutrals. 41% Support the Confidence promotion by the teachers and 25% say no to the statement

Q. 11 Students feel that they have learned something after attending the lecture

Analysis

Almost Everyone is satisfied that he learns something from the class and little percentage disagrees even the neutral effect is less as compared to supporters.

Approx. 25% of the sample is neutrals. 66% Support the Learning after the lecture and 8% say no to the statement

Q. 12 Teachers give students updates about the corporate world

Analysis

The concentration of is at agreement with the statement little are those who think that updates about corporate world are not received.

Approx. 23% of the sample is neutrals. 56% Support the updating of the students by teachers and 21% say no to the statement

Q.13 Students feel that they are studying latest practices going on in the corporate world

Analysis

The disagreement rate arises here but is lesser than the agreement rate and concentration of neutrals is very few. So overall all not everyone thinks that best corporate practices are taught as a course framework

Approx. 25% of the sample is neutrals. 44% Support the being taught latest practices in corporate world and 31% say no to the statement

Q.14 Teachers are always willing to give students individual attention

Analysis

The sample is scattered here and more are with the support with the agreement less neutrals and there stands negates with a considerable number.

Approx. 18% of the sample is neutrals. 48% Support the teachers individual attention and 34% say no to the statement

Q.15 Teacher is always available during the hours available to all their students

Analysis

The highest concentration in this question is of neutralists in this statement and it is also said that here more students from the sample tend to disagree rather than the agreeing lot

Approx. 26% of the sample is neutrals. 48% Support Availability of teacher and 32% say no to the statement

Q. 16 The teacher always has the students' best interests at heart

Analysis

The sample is not sure whether to support or deny the statement with the agreement agreements and disagreements tend to be almost equal.

Approx. 38% of the sample is neutrals. 30% Support the statement and 32% say no to the statement

Q. 17 Teachers understand Students specific needs

Analysis

The sample concentrated here but also has negativity more than the support. It means that the needs of the students are not always met.

Approx. 38% of the sample is neutrals. 26% Support that teachers do fulfill their needs and 36% say no to the statement

Q.18 Teachers communicate at student's level

Analysis

The sample is scattered here and more are with the support with the agreement less neutrals and there stands negates with a considerable number.

Approx. 18% of the sample is neutrals. 48% Support that the communication is at students level and 34% say no to the statement.

Q. 19 The Classroom is equipped with latest technology (multimedia etc)

Analysis

The sample is scattered here and more are supporting as compared to denying but the neutral sample is the least.

Approx. 11% of the sample is neutrals. 57% Support the presence of latest technologies and 32% say no to the statement

Q. 20 The Atmosphere of Classroom is comfortable

Analysis

The sample is well scattered here and support is much more than rejection and the fellows who are neutral are also considerable in number.

Approx. 23% of the sample is neutrals. 50% Support that classroom is indeed comfortable and 27% say no to the statement

Q. 21 Teachers outlook is professionals

Analysis

Here the sample thinks highly of the professional outlook of teachers. And grade that variable very high as compared to both negations and neutrals

Approx. 14% of the sample is neutrals. 66% Support the honoring of teachers promises and 20% say no to the statement

Box and whisker plot (All Questions)

Strengths

Teachers promises met up-to-mark

Teachers in UCP are always willing to help students

Students feel that they have learned something after attending the lecture

Students feel that they are studying latest practices going on in the corporate world

Teachers communicate at student's level

The Classroom is equipped with latest technology (multimedia etc)

The Atmosphere of Classroom is comfortable

Teachers outlook is professionals

Weaknesses

Course outline is not always followed in the class

Teachers in UCP are not always willing to help students

When students require further assistance other than class they are not always given so

Teachers are not always willing to give students individual attention

Teachers are not always available during the hours available to all their students

The Teacher at UCP does not always have the students' best interests at heart or its not calculated so

Box and whisker plot (All Dimensions)

Interpretation

Reliability

Reliability is dispersed

It is positive to a specific extent

The median lies beside first quartile meaning and on neutral meaning it has positive 3 quartiles majority is positive

Responsiveness

Responsiveness is less dispersed

It is positive to a specific extent more positive than reliability

The median lies beside first quartile meaning and on neutral meaning it has positive 3 quartiles majority is positive

Assurance

Assurance is less dispersed especially its first quartile

It is positive to a specific extent

The median lies between the box denoting that the central tendency is more positive

Tangible

tangibility is dispersed

Second and third quartile are Positive and the last quartile is concentrated on 5 meaning it is preferred most

The median lies on 4 meaning that the population is centralized on favorable condition

Empathy

Empathy is most dispersed

Middle quartiles are more dispersed and the 1st and 4th are relatively concentrated with the first more concentrated meaning it is the weakness of academic level of University

The median lies on 3 meaning its neither supportive nor unsupportive

Customer Satisfaction Index

The overall customer satisfaction index shows respondents neither positively nor negatively rating the teaching style which can be interpreted as the respondents do not have the appropriate skills, but in order to ensure that the questionnaire has been filled reliably cronbach's alpha which is 0.866 showing respondents highly reliable. As mean has not shown an appropriate measure we can see standard deviation which is 0.85, response of respondents are reliable.

References

Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Berry, "Delivering Quality Service; Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations," Free Press, 1990.

Francis Buttle, 1996, "SERVQUAL: review, critique, research agenda," European Journal of Marketing, Vol.30, Issue 1, pp.8-31

Luis Filipe Lages & Joana Cosme Fernandes, 2005, "The SERPVAL scale: A multi-item instrument for measuring service personal values", Journal of Business Research, Vol.58, Issue 11, pp. 1562-1572.

Deborah McCabe, Mark S. Rosenbaum, and Jennifer Yurchisin (2007), "Perceived Service Quality and Shopping Motivations: A Dynamic Relationship," Services Marketing Quarterly, 29 (1), 1-21.

Nyeck, S., Morales, M., Ladhari, R., & Pons, F. (2002). "10 years of service quality measurement: reviewing the use of the SERVQUAL instrument." Cuadernos de Diffusion, 7(13), 101-107. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.

Hollis Landrum, Victor Prybutok, Xiaoni Zhang, Daniel Peak (2009)" Informing Science: the International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline" Volume 12.

Dr.Arash Shahin Department of Management, University of Isfahan, Iran.

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