Essential Learning Physical Activity Education Essay

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This unit focuses on childrens health and physical education. It is important for children to have a balance of both. Through this unit, children will realise the importance of healthy eating and being active.

Physical activity produces overall physical, psychological and social benefits. Inactive children are likely to become inactive adults. Physical activity helps children with controlling weight, reducing blood pressure, raising HDL ("good") cholesterol, reducing the risk of diabetes, and improved psychological well-being.

A healthy lifestyle begins with a proper diet. Healthy eating is important for the proper formation of bones, teeth, muscle and a healthy heart. Diet can affect growth and development in small children as well as teens.

HPE is a good curriculum to be designed in schools within each classroom to encourage student to become and remain healthy literacies as well as physically fit. Physical activity produces overall physical, psychological and social benefits. Therefore, if we make sure all children are able to be active in physical activities, especially children with cerebral palsy, they will gain more self-confidence and higher self-esteem. Besides, childhood obesity is on the rise, and by promoting a healthy diet, children can maintain a healthy weight and stay healthy as they grow into young adults.

Embraces the importance of health and physical education

Encouraged to act, individually or collectively, in culturally appropriate ways

Promote structures in society which support their own and others' health and wellbeing.

Teacher's role in schools to impart the knowledge of being healthy.

Encouraged to eat well and exercise regularly in leading a healthy lifestyle.

Embedding of health facts through KLA's of: English, Maths, Science, ICT, and Arts.

Provide a supportive environment for inclusive learning

An investigation into healthy living.

Develop assessment

Make judgments

Type of assessment

What will be assessed

When it will be assessed

Purpose of assessment

Assessable elements

Summative Assessment:

Students will create a weekly timetable in planning out their food menu for themselves which shows how much serving per day that they have to take in maintaining a balanced diet. At the end of each week children will review back their timetable to do a comparison on it.

Formative Assessment:

Observation will be done by monitoring the level of students' understanding in this activity.

Summative Assessment:

The students should understand how they can be healthy with good nutrition on a daily basis.

Formative Assessment:

Students' ability to reflect on their learning and understanding of being healthy and eating the right amount of servings each meal and their energy balance can be achieved by selecting a range of foods from the five food groups, in amounts that reflect personal factors, age and activity levels.

Summative Assessment:

End of week 1:

Students will hand in their work sheets.

Week 5:

Students will create a poster based on their understandings of balanced diet.

Formative Assessment:

This will be done over the 5 weeks of this unit.

Collect evidence of student learning:

•Knowledge and understanding on health - Energy balance can be achieved by selecting a range of foods from the five food groups, in amounts that reflect personal factors, age and activity levels.

•Apply knowledge learnt to create a group infomercial portraying the benefits that being active has on your health and wellbeing.

• Knowledge and understanding

• Investigating

• Implementing and applying

• Reflecting

Planned adjustments for diverse needs of learners including one student with Cerebral Palsy

For the disabilities students, the adjustments will be that the plates, food pictures and the menus are all colour coordinated.

Make a general statement about how you will cater for children with different learning needs and the different paces at which students work. Make specific statements about the inclusion of appropriate activities for the students with CP and/or the adjustments to activities to facilitate inclusion of the student with CP into learning activities

To ensure that all students can be successful in achieving the intended learning outcomes in health and physical education, tasks need to be selected or adapted/modified in a meaningful way.

The demands on a learner (and their consequent level of success) can be increased or decreased by manipulating one or more of the aspects of a task. Students can be involved in this modification process.

The acronym TREE is a useful reminder

T is the teaching strategies

R is the rules of the game or the way the activity is structured

E is the environment such as the surface or whether the game is played indoors or outdoors

E is the equipment used (Garrett & Wrench 2006).

Another strategy is promoted through the acronym CHANGE IT (Australian Sports Commission 2012).

C = teaching style (coaching style)

H = How you score/win

A = Area

N = Numbers

G = Game rules

E = Equipment

I = Intensity

T = Time

tell them to correct themselves (you can adjust the difficulty of the game by either telling them which particular students are incorrect, the number of students that are incorrect, or by giving them no information at all.)

Adjustments for diverse needs of learners

For the disabilities students, the adjustments will be that the plates, food pictures and the menus are all colour coordinated.

-Teacher asks questions to guide and ensure everyone is in the correct posture to avoid hurting themselves.

-Stretching and bending will enable the students to practise and prepare their bodies to balance and move through easy stretching exercises to loosen up their muscles. It is especially important to Chris who has stiff or slack muscle tones to relax his muscle before doing the harder positions.

-Students will help their peers to do the poses correctly.

Make Yoga Easy For Chris who has cerebral palsy:

Explain to students that Yoga is not a competition. Stretch and bend to where it is most comfortable for them.

Use explanation cards.

Large pictures on overhead projector or interactive whiteboard will help mild visually impaired.

Have photos of real animals or stuffed toy animals to show the postures if necessary.

Ask the teacher at any time for help and reassurance.

Make Yoga Challenging For All:

If students are not feeling the stretch, suggest they stretch or bend that little bit further until they feel it; but NOT too far.

Challenge students to move from 1 pose to the next with flow and ease.

Ask those who are finding Yoga easy to help their peers by demonstrating and explaining the poses to them.

Challenge students to try harder poses using explanation cards from the pile and teach their yogi partner.

Chris is ambulant and can join in this whole activity because we are using Light Bumpie Gertie Ball which is easy for him to grab, throw and sensation.

Chris has very mild visual impairment, so we use the balls with light in colours like yellow, red and orange which are easier for him to notice.

The games help students develop muscle, balance, coordination and range of motion. It also helps Chris to improve muscle function to reduce his anxiety.

Teacher will join Chris's group and scaffold him. It will be more effective to engage Chris.

Teachers explain that the game is not a competition but cooperative games. Fun and collaborative can increase students recreational capabilities especially Chris.

To ensure everyone involve in the game and develop motor skills, student cannot continuously hit twice.

Teacher gives suggestions like shorten the distance if the groups have difficulties to maintain hitting the ball without dropping.

Provide a positive environment with a variety of opportunities. The lesson is fun and meet students' interest without beyond their capabilities.

The cues like "My ball" and "Keep your eyes on the ball" is to avoid students bumping into each other, fall and other accident. Chris might feel pain when touched lightly. We play in the playground is because the grass is soft and no harm to students, it can minimize pain even they fall down accidentally.

One assistant teacher in the physical activity to monitor Chris's space discreetly.

Resources

Health and safety

General Capabilities

Books, Equipment etc. required

Risk assessment considerations

Take these from the Australian Curriculum http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/

Pencils

Marker Pen

Menu worksheet

Cones

Food group picture cards

Food group Styrofoam or paper plates

My pyramid poster

Scissors

Glue

Poster board

Pictures on the different colours of food

Construction paper

Pictures on vegetables and fruits

Food Magazines

Masking tape

Stop watch or timer

Index cards

String

Single hole punch

Felt markers

Supervision Requirement

http://www.sports.det.nsw.edu.au/spguide/activities/general/superwelfare/supervision.php

Sport and Physical Activity in Schools Safe Conduct Guidelines, 2012a)

Skipping

http://www.sports.det.nsw.edu.au/spguide/activities/touch/touch.php

Sport and Physical Activity in Schools Safe Conduct Guidelines, 2012b)

Art- Painting and drawing

http://education.qld.gov.au/schools/healthy/

(State of Queensland [Department of Education and Training] 2012).

Numeracy icon

ICT capabilityICT capability icon

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Information-and-Communication-Technology-capability/Introduction/Introduction

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2012a)

Personal and social capability Personal and social capability icon

The learning continuum- Social Management

Working collaboratively- By the end of Year 6 students:

work in teams, encouraging others and recognising their contributions, negotiating roles and managing time and tasks (for example working collaboratively to suggest improvements in methods used for group investigations and projects)

http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/GeneralCapabilities/Personal-and-social-capability/Continuum

(Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, 2012b)

Intercultural understanding icon

Sequence of learning

Week

Inquiry questions and curriculum focus for each week

Overview of learning focus for each week including higher order cognitive processes.

List teaching styles and instructional strategies next to each learning focus - check that you have a variety and that most are learner centred

1

Lesson 1: My Pyramid Food Relay

Inquiry question

•What is the relationship between the division (food groups and food pyramid)?

•Why the particular food group such as grain is largest in food group?

WoW

•Propose, justify and implement simple plans or actions to promote health & wellbeing, movement capacities, and personal development.

•Apply personal development skills and strategies in team and group situations.

K&U

Health

•Energy balance can be achieved by selecting a range of foods from the five food groups, in amounts that reflect personal factors, age and activity levels.

Physical Activity

•Working cooperatively, and being aware of others and fair play, can enhance the experience of physical activities for individuals and groups.

Personal and social capability

• work in teams, encouraging others and recognising their contributions, negotiating roles and managing time and tasks

Overview of learning:

Introduction

Teacher attaches food pyramid poster on the board and explain to the students on the different types of food groups and the servings.

E.g. Grain is largest because you need more grains than the other food groups whereas oil is the smallest you need the least from the food pyramid.

Grains: 6-11 servings - whole grain bread, cereal, pasta.

Vegetables: 3-5 servings - green beans, carrots

Fruits: 2-4 servings - apple, orange, juice

Milk: 2-3 servings - milk, ice cream, cheese

Meat/beans: 2-3 servings - meat, chicken, fish, nuts

Fats: Use sparingly- oils and sweets

(United States Department of Agriculture, 1992).

Body of Lesson

Divide groups with 4 to 5 students in relay structure. Each group has 5 plates marked with a food group and the number of servings to put the food group picture cards.

Each group have a menu worksheet to be filled out with the food group picture cards they have gathered.

The plates, food group pictures and the menus coloured in harmony. E.g. If the dairy plate would have green writing, the dairy pictures all have green dots on them too.

Students discuss about the sequences that who will goes first in a group.

Student in each relay skips to the centre and picks up 1 food group picture card

Then, skips back to the line and tags the cone with the foot.

Students take turns to run and pick up a food group picture.

Meanwhile, students put the food group picture cards in the correct food group plate while waiting.

Individual work- students create a menu for 3 daily meals with the food group picture cards they have gathered for their group.

Let the students finish their food group servings and a menu for the day.

Students assist their teammates once they done their own.

Conclusion

Teacher will ask the students to gather in the circle. Teacher will have a discussion with the children on the topic of this lesson. We should always eat the healthy food and the sufficient amount of servings. Living a healthy lifestyle is important.

Assessment:

Assessment will mainly be observing the students and watching out on their safety.

Assessment will mainly be engaging with the students by discussing with them.

Higher order cognitive (See Appendix 1):

Description: Description: mi_body-kinesthetic copy Description: Description: mi_verbal-linguistic copy Description: Description: mi_interpersonal copy Gardner's 'Multiple Intelligences

Description: bloom_knowledge copy Description: bloom_application copy Description: bloom_analysis copy Description: bloom_evaluation copy Description: bloom_synthesis copy Bloom's Taxonomy is incorporated into this unit plan by encouraging students to gain higher order thinking skills through my pyramid food relay activity, theory and assessments. The 5 levels of thinking and health connections are briefly outlined below:

Remebering: The five food groups.

Applying: The correct amount of servings in eating.

Analysing: The different amount of servings for each group.

Evaluating: The food pyramid.

Creating: Sharing their food menu with other students.

Description: Description: debono_green2 Description: Description: debono_blue2 De Bono's 'Thinking Hats'

Green hat - Creative alternatives

Blue hat - Management

Description: Description: hom_persisting copy Description: Description: hom_thinking & communicating with clarity & precision copy Description: Description: hom_listening with empathy and understanding copy Costa's 'Habits of Mind'

Teaching style and strategies used:

In this activity the teaching style used is inclusion whereby the teacher plans out the activity for students and the students monitor their own work (Mosston & Ashworth's Spectrum of Teaching, 2002).

2

Lesson 2: Food Necklace Game

Inquiry question

What is the food that put in particular section? (E.g. dairy section)

'Ways of Working'

•Propose, justify and implement simple plans or actions to promote health & wellbeing, movement capacities, and personal development.

' Knowledge and Understanding'

Health

•Energy balance can be achieved by selecting a range of foods from the five food groups, in amounts that reflect personal factors, age and activity levels.

Physical Activity

•Working cooperatively, and being aware of others and fair play, can enhance the experience of physical activities for individuals and groups.

Overview of learning:

Introduction

Teacher prepares the index cards by using the felt markers to write different foods on it. (E.g. cereal, rice, apple, chicken, etc.).

Then, make it like a necklace- punch a hole in the top of each card and threads strings through.

Make sure the materials were enough for the class.

Teacher chooses a large place on the floor which able to fit on the entire class on the floor and mark out a food plate.

Body of Lesson

Give each student the food necklaces randomly.

Students wear their necklace and know their food.

Teacher then explain that they must put themselves in the correct place on the food plate (E.g. the student wearing "cheese" would need to stand in the dairy section.)

Teacher starts the timer. "Ready, GO!"

Then, students start going to the right plate.

Once all the students are done, teacher stops the timer and check.

Restart the timer if there are students in the wrong plate.

Teacher can give hints to students to make all correct. (E.g. the number of students that are incorrect)

Tell students the time once all are in the right order. That's the time record to beat in next round. 

Students try to get faster each time to beat their record!

Conclusion

Teacher will ask the students to gather in the circle. Teacher will have a discussion with the children on the topic of this lesson.

Assessment:

Assessment will mainly be observing the students and watching out on their safety.

Higher order cognitive:

Description: Description: mi_body-kinesthetic copy Description: Description: mi_verbal-linguistic copy Description: Description: mi_picture-spatial copy Gardner's 'Multiple Intelligences

Description: Description: bloom_comprehension copy Description: bloom_application copy Description: bloom_analysis copy Bloom's Taxonomy

Teaching style and strategies used:

In this activity the teaching style used is inclusion whereby the teacher plans out the activity for students and the students monitor their own work (Mosston & Ashworth's Spectrum of Teaching, 2002).

3

Lesson 3: My Favourite Healthy Food

WoW

•Propose, justify and implement simple plans or actions to promote health & wellbeing, movement capacities, and personal development.

•Reflect on and identify how their own and others' behaviours, skills and actions influence health and wellbeing, movement capacities and personal development.

K&U

•Personal, social, cultural and environmental factors influence behaviours and choices including eating and physical activity.

Overview of learning:

Introduction

Teacher introduces on the topic and talk with the children about healthy foods.

The objective of the lesson is to be able to name and recognize the healthy food.

Teacher prepares many food magazines, some glue, scissors, and a piece of construction paper for students to cut out pictures.

Body of Lesson

Students look through the magazines pictures for healthy foods they like to eat.

Next, students cut out the pictures and glue them onto their piece of construction paper.

After done, students stand up one at a time in front of the class and pointing the picture of that food item. They will tell the other students what they picked out and explain.

Conclusion

Teacher will conclude the lesson by saying on the types of healthy food from the student's presentation.

Assessment:

Assessment will mainly be observing the students and giving them verbal feedback on their presentation work.

Higher order cognitive:

Description: Description: mi_verbal-linguistic copy Description: Description: mi_picture-spatial copy Description: Description: mi_body-kinesthetic copy Gardner's 'Multiple Intelligences

Description: bloom_evaluation copy Description: Description: bloom_comprehension copy Bloom's Taxonomy

Description: debono_white2 Description: Description: debono_green2 De Bono's 'Thinking Hats'

Description: hom_creating, imagining and innovating copy Costa's 'Habits of Mind'

4

Lesson 4: Bingo Game (Fruits and vegetables)

'Ways of Working'

•Propose, justify and implement simple plans or actions to promote health & wellbeing, movement capacities, and personal development.

•Apply personal development skills and strategies in team and group situations.

' Knowledge and Understanding'

Health

•Energy balance can be achieved by selecting a range of foods from the five food groups, in amounts that reflect personal factors, age and activity levels.

Overview of learning:

Introduction

Teacher introduces different kinds of fruits and vegetables.

Make Bingo card game (See Appendix 2) - Cut out many fruits and vegetables from magazines and paste onto a piece of construction paper.

Body of Lesson

This game is played by making up cards with names of all the fruits and vegetables in each box.

Students use on their Bingo cards. Students to be a caller to call out the name. Each student has the opportunity to call. When a student gets 3 or four in a row, they have to call "Bingo" and win the game!

Teacher will give reward to students get BINGO.

Conclusion

From this activity, the children will be learning the names of different types of fruits and vegetables.

Assessment:

Assessment will mainly be observing the students and providing them with assistance. Students name some fruits and vegetables without seeing the pictures.

Higher order cognitive:

Description: bloom_knowledge copy Description: Description: bloom_comprehension copy Description: bloom_application copy Description: bloom_evaluation copy Bloom's Taxonomy

Teaching style and strategies used:

In this activity the teaching style used is inclusion whereby the teacher plans out the activity for students and the students monitor their own work (Mosston & Ashworth's Spectrum of Teaching, 2002).

5

Lesson 5: Colours Of Food

'Ways of Working'

•Propose, justify and implement simple plans or actions to promote health & wellbeing, movement capacities, and personal development.

•Collect, organise and evaluate information and evidence.

' Knowledge and Understanding'

Health

•Individual and group action can promote health and wellbeing, including safety.

Overview of learning:

Introduction

Teacher introduces on the topic of the lesson which is the different colours of food.

Students cooperate to create a poster of the various colours to hang on the class wall.

Body of Lesson

Teacher prepares several pictures of different colours of food from food magazines.

Ready five pieces of large poster board to stick the pictures.

Teacher labels the colours of food on the poster boards. (E.g. Red Foods, Green Foods and etc.)

Then, the students cut out the pictures and tag the name of each item under the picture. (E.g. Apple, eggplant and etc.)

After students finish pasting the pictures with label and making the posters, teacher call a student point to an item and the rest of the class tells the name of the item and what colour it is.

Conclusion

Teacher hangs children's work up around the room for parents and other teachers to see.

Higher order cognitive:

Description: Description: mi_verbal-linguistic copy Description: Description: mi_picture-spatial copy Description: Description: mi_body-kinesthetic copy Gardner's 'Multiple Intelligences

Description: bloom_evaluation copy Description: Description: bloom_comprehension copy Bloom's Taxonomy

Description: debono_white2 Description: Description: debono_green2 De Bono's 'Thinking Hats'

Description: hom_creating, imagining and innovating copy Costa's 'Habits of Mind'

Teaching style and strategies used:

In this activity the teaching style used is inclusion whereby the teacher plans out the activity for students and the students monitor their own work (Mosston & Ashworth's Spectrum of Teaching, 2002).

Use feedback

Ways to monitor learning and provide feedback on assessment

Reflection of the unit will be continuously be carried out by students in their reflective learning journals

Formative assessment

Peer group check list of dance elements

Group evaluation of dance performance after video review

Teacher verbal feedback on draft dance plan

Teacher written feedback on draft reflection

Summative

Peer Group evaluation of choreography during performance using checklist of elements, performance features and technical points

Teacher written feedback and grade of performance using checklist of elements, performance features and technical points and video replay

Teacher written feedback and grade of reflection task

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