Environmental Non Governmental Organizations Education Essay

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Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) are becoming one of the noticeable actors today in biological conservation. A survey was conducted on the university students of Central Mindanao University (CMU), Philippines and National Chung Hsing University (NCHU), Taiwan to assess their perception towards ENGOs and if their opinions are influenced by demographic variables. The study also explores the students' interest and regard about biological conservation as a major issue locally or globally. A total of 273 university students were surveyed from different courses in both countries.

The results showed that most students from both countries were not familiar with ENGOs and indicated a neutral outlook towards their trust to these organizations. CMU and NCHU students signified their respective governments as the most responsible in biological conservation. Academic major and the nationality of the students were found to have a strong association in the students' ranking of the different conservation stakeholders. The students from both countries also believed that the environmental issues are the most serious problems in the world, followed by social and conservation issues. Moreover, CMU and NCHU students were more concerned about social problems than conservation issues in their respective hometowns, although they have contrasting views about the major social problems they are facing. NCHU students, however, expressed more interest in environmental issues than CMU students, both in local and global scale. The nationality of the students showed a positive relationship with their perception towards the major important issues in the world and in their communities.

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ENGOS should exert more efforts in involving the college students of Taiwan and Philippines in their campaign programs to improve the students' participation and perception towards these organizations.

KEYWORDS: environmental nongovernmental organizations, students' perception, Philippines, Taiwan, biological conservation

INTRODUCTION

With all the services and opportunities that biodiversity provide the human populace, it is important to maintain and conserve the earth's biological resources. Biological conservation must be reinforced to sustain the richness and variability of different life-forms and their habitats (Spellerberg and Hardes, 1992). One of the stakeholders involved in this endeavor are the Environmental Non-governmental Organizations (ENGOs), which are largely concerned in rescuing biological resources from fast extinctions and degradations (Gunter, 2004). These organizations employ different strategies in their undertakings. They act the role of experts (Charnovitz, 1996; Esty, 1998), raise awareness campaigns (Bauer, 2006), lobby policymakers (Binder and Neumayer, 2005) and empower local communities (Raustiala, 1997; Themudo, 2000).

ENGOs in the Philippines proliferated during the Martial Law Period of President Marcos in the 1970s until the early 1980s (Teehankee, 1993). Serious environmental degradations during and after the dictatorship have prompted the Philippine government to pass a number of environmental laws and policies (Magallona and Malayang, 2000). The democratization of the country formally recognized the roles of NGOs in the Filipino society (Soledad, 2006). The activities of Filipino ENGOs are engaged mainly in natural resource management, community organizing, pollution control, biodiversity development, land degradation and soil conservation (Magallona and Malayang, 2000). They also build partnerships with other NGOs, academe, media, grassroots organizations, lobby politicians, empower indigenous people and conduct scientific research and disseminate reports to the public (Lucas, n.d.; Magno, 1993; Bryant, 2001).

It is estimated that there are about 3,000 NGOs that focus on the environment and membership to these groups mostly come from the youth, scientists, professionals, retirees, philanthropists, politicians and businessmen (Lucas, n.d). They obtain funding from multilateral donors, government agencies, membership fees, local and foreign donations, income-generating activities, local and multinational companies, local and international NGOs (Moshman, n.d.; ADB, 2007). The issue on NGOs' lack of resources and managerial capabilities often limit their influence on the Filipino society in relation with their goals and interests (Teehankee, 1993; ADB, 2007).

Like the Philippines, Taiwanese ENGOs came to grow after the Kuomintang (KMT) Martial Law era ended in the late 1980s (Hsiao, 1999). The rapid industrialization of Taiwan and the government's drive for economic growth has been pointed out to cause major environmental crisis in Taiwan (Edmonds, 1996; Tong, 2005; Yang, 2008). In response to the alarming environmental crisis, the Taiwanese government has passed several laws, policies and regulations (Edmonds, 1996; Lin, 2001, Yang, 2008). ENGOs in Taiwan generally drew membership from scholars and professionals (Tong, 2005) and addressed issues mainly on pollution control, opposition to nuclear power plants, and biological conservation (Hsiao, 1999). Furthermore, they are also active in organizing grassroots demonstrations and public hearings, educating the public on environmental issues, supervising government policies, publicizing environmental issues, and releasing press reports (Tong, 2005; McBeath and Leng, 2006). There are only about 300 ENGOs that operate in Taiwan and some of which operate as government-organized NGOs (McBeath and Leng, 2006).

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Taiwan ENGOs get funding support mostly from membership fees, donations, and government grants (Edmonds, 1996; Lin, 2001). Due to its political status, international lending institutions like Asian Development Bank and the World Bank are not aggressive contributors in the local environmental protection campaigns, which make foreign fund supports hard to obtain (McBeath and Leng, 2006). The common encountered constraints by Taiwanese ENGOs are the difficulties in recruiting members, getting financial support, lack of information channels from international ENGOS and lack of adequate managerial capacity (Hsiao, 1999; Yang, 2008).

In spite of the support to Filipino and Taiwanese ENGOs, there are still limiting factors that affect their scope in achieving the groups' goals and interests. The controversies that involved ENGOs and the NGO sector in general (Gibelman and Gelman, 2004; Jepson, 2005) have a serious impact on their image to the public and as well as affecting their legitimacy, credibility and ability in getting financial support.

The present study selected the college students as respondents because they are assumed to be the future stewards and leaders of the society (Sia Su, 2007). Although there is very limited information available that explores the perception of people towards NGOs (Vasquez, 2010), previous studies have assessed the perception of local people and students towards these organizations (Ivy et al., 1998; Wong, 2003; Hyseni, 2008).

The objective of this study is to illustrate the perception of the college students towards the roles of ENGOs in biological conservation, using two representative universities, Central Mindanao University (CMU) and National Chung Hsing University (NCHU) of the Philippines and Taiwan, and to evaluate if their viewpoints are influenced by demographic factors such as nationality, gender, academic major, and age. This research also intends to address a number of questions: (a) How do college students of CMU and NCHU regard biological conservation as an issue, in their own home country or worldwide?; (b) How do these college students rank ENGOs compared to other stakeholders involved in biological conservation?; (c) How much do these college students trust ENGOs?; and (d) How willing are these college students to participate in biological conservation efforts by ENGOs?

METHODS

The research study involved 137 and 136 college students of Central Mindanao University (CMU), Philippines and National Chung Hsing University (NCHU), Taiwan respectively. This was conducted last February to March 2010. In both countries, only two universities were approached due to time constraints and to be able to facilitate a manageable study.

The survey involved students from different courses in CMU and NCHU. CMU respondents were students taking Agriculture, Biology, Engineering and Nursing courses. Respondents from NCHU were students taking Forestry, Commerce, Engineering, Political Science, Foreign Language and Mathematics. The questionnaire was pre-tested with a few students in NCHU, and modifications were made accordingly to improve the clarity of the questions. The questionnaires given to CMU respondents were in English while the Mandarin version was given to the NCHU respondents.

The different socio-demographic information of the respondents such as age, gender, academic major, level of study, and nationality were initially asked. The succeeding questions were posed to obtain the respondents' (1) general perception and awareness towards biological conservation, (2) perception and awareness towards ENGOS and (3) willingness to participate in biological conservation efforts of NGOS. The survey was carried out both inside and outside the classroom, and approximately, it took 10 minutes per respondent to fill out the questionnaire.

Data analysis was performed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Chi-square tests were used to determine whether socio-demographic variables influenced the students' opinions about the ENGOs. The age groups and academic majors were divided into two categories. Respondents below 18 were added to the 18-20 age category and those above 25 were included in the 21-25 age groups. The academic majors were further categorized into biology-related and non-biology-related. Biology-related courses in this regard pertains to disciplines such as agriculture, forestry and biology while non-biology related courses includes engineering, nursing, commerce, foreign language, political science and mathematics.

RESULTS

Demographic characteristics of respondents

As shown in Table 1, the respondents in CMU were mostly females (67.88%), belonging to the 18-20 age groups (85.4%) and studying non-biology related courses (52.56%). While in NCHU, most of the respondents were generally males (55.15 %) ranging from ages 18-20 (69.85%) and from biology-related courses (62.5 %).

Table 1. Demographic profile of the respondents in CMU, Philippines and NCHU, Taiwan

 

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University

CMU (n = 137)

NCHU (n = 136)

 

%

%

Age

18-20

85.4

69.85

21-25

14.6

30.15

Gender

F

67.88

44.85

M

32.12

55.15

Academic Major

Biology-related

47.45

62.5

Non-biology

52.56

37.5

Year level

Freshman

3.65

20.59

Sophomore

8.76

40.44

Junior

35.04

32.35

Senior

52.55

6.62

Perception of the Most Important Global and Local Issues

The students were asked to indicate the problem they think was the most serious in the world and in their locality. There were ten different problems listed for the students to select from. The responses were grouped into three broad categories (environmental, social and conservation). The results are shown in Tables 2 and 3.

A. Students' perception of the most serious problem in the world

Table 2 shows the proportion of responses to the most serious problems in the world as perceived by the college students of CMU and NCHU. The most serious issues in the world as perceived by both CMU and NCHU students were environmental issues (55.22% and 67.67%, respectively). The students from two countries were concerned about climate change and pollution. There were a large proportion of NCHU students, however, who expressed concern in environmental and conservation issues than the CMU students. On the other hand, CMU students (38.81%) seemed to worry about social issues more than the NCHU students (17.29%). Data analysis showed that the nationality of the students was strongly associated with their perception of the most serious issue globally (χ2 = 17.9137, p = 0.0001). Academic major, gender, and age seemed not to influence the students' perception of the most serious problem in the world for the two universities (data not shown).

Table 2. Responses to the most serious problem in the world as perceived by CMU and NCHU students

Category

Subcategory

Percentage of Responses (%)

 

 

CMU (PH)

NCHU (TW)

1.Environmental

Pollution in general

17.16

19.55

Climate Change

36.57

37.59

Resource Depletion

1.49

10.53

 

Subtotal

55.22

67.67

2. Social

Corruption

10.45

0.75

Poverty

17.16

6.01

Unemployment

6.72

3.76

Terrorism

0.75

2.26

Hunger

3.73

4.51

 

Subtotal

38.81

17.29

3. Conservation

Habitat loss

1.49

9.77

Biodiversity loss

4.48

5.27

 

Subtotal

5.97

15.04

Note: χ2 = 17.9137, p = 0.0001

B. Students' perception of the most serious problem in their locality

Table 3 reflects the students' responses of a single most issue they were personally concerned with in their respective hometowns. Both college students from CMU and NCHU expressed social issues as the problems that bothered them. A good number of CMU students (77.61%) often declared social issues than NCHU students (50.75%). CMU students were mainly concerned about poverty (32.09%), unemployment (20.9%) and corruption (19.4%). On the other hand, most of the NCHU students were particular about the issue of unemployment (34.33%), and only a few of them considered poverty and corruption as serious problems in Taiwan. Chi-square test revealed that the nationality of the students was positively associated with their perception of the most concerned issue in their communities (χ2 = 21.1964, p < 0.0001). Academic major, gender, and age did not significantly influence the students' perception of the most serious problem in their locality for the two universities (data not shown).

Table 3. Responses to the most serious problem in their locality as perceived by CMU and NCHU students

Category

Subcategory

Percentage of Responses (%)

 

 

CMU (PH)

NCHU (TW)

1. Social

Corruption

19.4

5.22

Poverty

32.09

5.97

Unemployment

20.9

34.33

Terrorism

1.49

1.5

Hunger

3.73

3.73

 

Subtotal

77.61

50.75

2.Environmental

Pollution in general

7.46

22.39

Climate Change

5.22

10.45

Resource Depletion

2.99

3.73

 

Subtotal

15.67

36.57

3. Conservation

Habitat loss

3.73

6.72

Biodiversity loss

2.99

5.97

 

Subtotal

6.72

12.69

Note: χ2 = 21.1964, p < 0.0001

Students' awareness to international environmental conference

A test question concerning the respondents' knowledge about international environmental summit was posed to confirm their understanding about biological conservation. The results showed a high proportion of CMU students (81.82 %) who got the correct answers compared to NCHU students (58.02 %) when asked about their knowledge towards these environmental summits (Figure 1).

Most of the CMU and NCHU students answered "very important" when asked about how important biological conservation is (72.79% and 45.93%, respectively). Both CMU and NCHU students indicated "Most of it I understand" when they rated their understanding about biological conservation (52.27% and 51.16%, respectively).

Chi-square test showed that the students' awareness to international environmental conference is significantly associated by the student's nationality (χ2 = 17.73; p<0.0001).

Figure 1. Percentage of responses to the student's awareness of international environmental conference

Students' Perception of the Most Responsible Stakeholder

The ranking of the most responsible stakeholder in biological conservation by CMU and NCHU students was demonstrated in Table 4. Both CMU and NCHU students believed that their respective governments (3.9 mean and 3.7 mean, respectively) should be the most responsible in the conservation of biological resources. CMU students ranked ENGOs third while NCHU students ranked ENGOs as the least responsible among other stakeholders.

Table 4. Students' ranking of different stakeholders in biological conservation

Stakeholders

CMU

NCHU

Mean

SD

Rank

Mean

SD

Rank

Government

3.9

1.19

1st

3.7

1.43

1st

ENGOs

3

1.06

3rd

2.1

1.15

5th

Business Orgs.

1.8

1.13

5th

3.1

1.26

3rd

Professionals/Scholars

2.6

1.09

4th

2.7

1.33

4th

Local people

3.6

1.5

2nd

3.3

1.36

2nd

Students' Trust in ENGOs

The level of trust held by CMU and NCHU students with respect to the different statements concerning ENGOs were highlighted in Table 5. Most of the respondents from the two universities rated "neutral" (indicating neither agreed nor disagreed to the statement) when surveyed about their confidence on ENGOs' "knowledge and competence" and "accountability in the efficient use of money" in solving environmental problems. Furthermore, when asked if ENGOs are influenced by political parties in their respective local areas, most students from CMU and NCHU said "Yes" (49.26 % and 53.38%, respectively).

Table 5. Responses to the statements concerning students' trust in ENGOs (shown as percentage)

 

 

Frequency of Responses (%)

 

 

No trust

A little bit of trust

Neutral

Much trust

Full trust

Trust in ENGOs' knowledge and competence in solving environmental problems

CMU

0.00

3.68

48.53

36.76

11.03

NCHU

2.24

17.16

55.97

20.90

3.73

Trust in ENGOs' accountability in the efficient use of money in solving environmental problems

CMU

2.19

13.87

48.91

30.66

4.38

NCHU

5.22

28.36

54.48

11.19

0.75

 

 

 

Yes

No

Not Sure

Do you think that ENGOs are influenced by some political parties and make use of them as channels for their political agenda?

CMU

49.26

11.03

39.71

NCHU

53.38

7.52

39.10

 

 

 

 

 

 

As shown in Table 6, the nationality and academic major appeared to have a positive association with regard to the students' ranking of different stakeholders. In the analysis of variance (GLM), gender and year were found not to influence the ranking of different stakeholders by both CMU and NCHU students (data not shown).

Table 6. Chi-square tests between demographic variables and the ranking of different stakeholders

Demographic Variables

Ranking of different stakeholders

 

(p value)

Nationality

0.0008

Academic major

0.0437

Gender

0.7212

Age

0.3104

Students' Sources of Information about Biological Conservation

The responses to the sources of information about biological conservation were shown in Table 7. The top five answer combinations were only shown. The students were allowed to have multiple answers. CMU students gave 36 answer combinations and out of which, selecting "all choices" was the top answer (16.3%). While in NCHU, out of 35 answer combinations, "TV and radio programs/Taught in school/Books, newspapers and magazines" accounted for the highest answer. Only a small percentage of NCHU students indicated ENGOS as one of their sources in biological conservation information (6.62%).

A high proportion of CMU and NCHU respondents answered "No" (58.02% and 57.25%, respectively) when asked if they have heard about ENGOs before. CMU and NCHU respondents (48.89% and 70.08 %, respectively) answered "Yes" when asked about their awareness on conservation-themed student clubs in their respective universities. Inspite of their awareness, only 17.78 % and 6.30% of the respondents from CMU and NCHU, respectively, were members of this club.

Table 7. Responses to the students' sources of biological conservation information (shown as percentage)

Sources of Information

CMU

Percentage

All choices

16.3

Seminars and trainings/taught in school/TV and radio programs/Books, newspapers and magazines

11.85

Taught in school/TV and radio programs/Books, newspapers and magazines

8.89

Seminars and trainings/family members and friends/taught in school/TV and radio programs/Books, newspapers and magazines

8.15

Seminars and trainings/TV and radio programs/Books, newspapers and magazines

 

5.19

NCHU

TV and radio programs/Taught in school/Books, newspapers and magazines

22.79

Taught in school

10.29

ENGOs/Taught in school/TV and radio programs/Books, newspaper and magazines

6.62

Taught in school/Books, newspaper and magazines

6.62

TV and radio programs

 

5.88

Students' Conservation Behavior

Table 8 shows the responses of the students that best describe their ways in protecting the environment. Although it was stated that only one answer should be provided, some students still gave multiple answers. Only the top five answers were shown in the table. "Personal initiatives (to be more mindful/concern)" accounted for the highest response for both CMU and NCHU students (39.71% and 15.15%, respectively). On the other hand, only a small proportion of CMU and NCHU students (7.35% and 6.82%, respectively) indicated

"Support activities of ENGOs".

Table 8. Responses to the students' conservation behavior

 

CMU

Percentage

Personal initiatives (to be more mindful/concern)

39.71

All choices

10.29

Use eco-friendly products

11.03

Support laws and regulations by the government

7.35

Support activities of ENGOs

 

7.35

NCHU

Personal initiatives (to be more mindful/concern)

15.15

Use eco-friendly products

13.64

All choices

9.85

Use eco-friendly products/Personal initiatives

9.09

Support activities of ENGOs

 

6.82

When surveyed about the means they would like to participate in a presupposed ENGOs' conservation efforts in their locality, a large number of respondents from CMU (52.21%) answered "Devote time in active participation". On the other hand, the biggest proportion of the NCHU students (35.82%) answered "Could not offer both money but willing to support".

DISCUSSION

Students' Regard of Conservation as a Major Issue

In the present study, both CMU and NCHU college students perceived environmental issues as the most serious problems in the world over social and conservation concerns. This could be attributed to the uncommon changes in the environmental conditions that are experienced by the students today (Ivy et al., 1998). Remarkably, conservation issues were not strongly acknowledged by CMU and NCHU students as urgent issues globally.

Both CMU and NCHU expressed high concern over social issues in their respective hometowns, while environmental and conservation issues were less recognized. The two groups of respondents had different perceptions on the local social problems. Most of the CMU respondents were particularly concerned about poverty, corruption and unemployment. The prevalence of poverty in the Philippines (CIA World Factbook, 2010) could be a contributing factor to the CMU students' concern for poverty. The issue on political corruption has also been a struggle in the Philippines (Thompson, 2001). Moreover, the country's unemployment rate is high. Its population, estimated at 92.23 million, is projected to reach 111 million by 2015 (National Statistics Office, 2009).

NCHU students were mostly concerned about unemployment, and seemed to be less troubled by the issues of corruption and poverty. Their concern for unemployment is attributed to the recent economic recession wherein numerous jobs were lost in Taiwan (Chan, 2009). Taiwan's economic status is almost comparable to a developed country (Lin, 2009) which could help explain why only a very small proportion of NCHU students considered poverty as a problem. Whereas the lack of concern over corruption may indicate that the problem is not serious in Taiwan but it does not necessarily mean that the problem does not entirely exist (Transparency International, 2009). NCHU respondents also expressed more concern in both environmental and conservation issues than CMU respondents. This could be attributed to the environmental degradation accompanying Taiwan's rapid industrialization in the past years (Agoramoorthy, 2009). The Philippines has also faced ecological crisis (Posa et al., 2008) but the CMU students may care less about environmental issues because of other societal-generated problems. The difference in CMU and NCHU perceptions towards environmental issues could also be attributed to the school's geographical location. CMU is located in a rural setting while NCHU belong in an urban setting. As Hsiao (2002) contends, the rural people have a different relationship to nature than the city people.

Although NCHU students seemed to be relatively concerned about biological conservation, most of them were not aware to international environmental agreement compared to CMU students. This could be attributed to Taiwan's international political status, not being recognized as a "country" by UN standards (MacBeath and Leng 2006; Lin, 2009) and thus Taiwan was isolated from participating in international environmental negotiations. On the other hand, the Philippines have signed to some international environmental treaties (Magallona and Malayang, 2000) which could explain why CMU students were mostly aware about international environmental summit.

Perceptions and Awareness of Students towards ENGOs

Most CMU and NCHU respondents were not particularly aware of ENGOs in their respective hometowns. Although there are a number of national ENGOs operating in the Philippines, particularly in the Metropolitan Manila and the main island Luzon (Magallona and Malayang, 2000), CMU students might not still be aware of them considering the archipelagic nature of the country. Unlike in Luzon, there are only a few established ENGOs that operate in Mindanao (PSDN, 2010), the island where CMU is situated. The less number of ENGOs which are actively working in Taiwan (MacBeath and Leng 2006) could be the reason for less recognition by NCHU students.

The students from both countries believed more in the efforts of their respective governments than ENGOs in biological conservation. This could be largely attributed to the launching of immense educational campaigns by both the Philippine and Taiwan governments in promoting public conservation awareness (Calderon and Dizon, n.d.; Wong, 2001). The government institutions in both countries have the financial and human resources also to carry out massive conservation programs. The financial constraints by both Taiwan and Philippine ENGOs could be a significant factor with respect to the extent of their conservation actions. In Taiwan, most donations usually go to local religious organizations (Lin et al., 2005). On the other hand, the poverty situation in the Philippines is a major constraint in donating to these organizations (Jiao, 2008).

The less recognition by CMU and NCHU students of ENGOs as a stakeholder in biological conservation further implies that ENGOs should show more effectiveness and value in their efforts, especially in involving college students. Nationality and academic major were found to be significant variables in influencing students' ranking of the different stakeholders in biological conservation. Students with courses related to biology are more exposed to conservation issues and thus, more likely knowledgeable about ENGOs and others. This is also in accordance with the results of Tikka et al. (2000).

Most students from both universities could not particularly agree nor disagree to the knowledge, competence and accountability of ENGOs in addressing conservation issues. But the two groups of respondents agreed that these organizations are subject by political manipulation. CMU students' perception might be influenced by the reported scandals on some development and environmental NGOs before (Bryant, 2002; Songco, 2007). On the other hand, NCHU students' views towards ENGOs might be influenced by some pro-development public that they think these organizations aggressive forms of actions might disrupt the country's foreign investors (MacBeath and Leng, 2006).

Although ENGOs are one of the visible and active contributors to nature conservation, their representation should also demonstrate integrity, sincerity and trust, not only to the college students but to the whole public, with respect to its nature as a fund-dependent organization.

Students' Conservation Behavior

Both CMU and NCHU respondents did not regard supporting ENGOs as a worthwhile personal activity in protecting the environment. Most of the students expressed private conservation behaviours (e.g. personal initiatives and use eco-friendly products) rather than public environmental behaviours (e.g. supporting activities of NGOs). This also suggests that ENGOs need to improve on how to deliver their intentions on conservation efforts involving the students. ENGOs should develop ways on how students could easily gain access of information on their environmental campaigns and programs and possibly, the level of participation would increase. The unwillingness of the CMU and NCHU students in joining conservation-themed student clubs may be relative also to their participation in ENGO's conservation efforts.

CONCLUSION

The present study demonstrates that CMU and NCHU college students were not remarkably concerned about biological conservation issues, globally or locally. Most students from both universities considered social issues as more important than other problems but differ much in their opinions about what major social issues their respective communities are facing. Societal priorities in the students' respective and immediate surroundings generally affect their willingness to be involved in ENGOS' environmental efforts. CMU and NCHU students' lack of interest in conservation issues further implies that any biological preservation drives and campaigns, whether initiated by ENGOs or any other stakeholder, would not be as effective and greatly participated, considering that they have other urgent concerns in mind.

The lack of outreach programs and poor marketing drive of ENGOs in the academe sector could be a significant factor in the waning interest and weak recognition in the hearts of the young populace. College students, on the other hand, should be aware of their social and environmental responsibilities since they will the stewards of biological resources in the future. They must realize that ENGOs are their partners in this endeavor and that they also play a major role in its sustainability and success in perpetuating its goals towards environmental protection. It would also be interesting for universities to improve their environmental education programs by introducing a more specific subject solely addressing world environmental and conservation issues. This could stimulate and possibly change the students' concern and outlook towards the environment.

Research involving several private and public universities which are situated in different geographical locations in both countries would be interesting in order to provide a more extensive sampling and consequently generate a broader spectrum of comparison towards the perception on ENGOs. Stratified selection of respondents from different strata is also recommended in future studies to ensure a representative section of the different demographic variables.