Enterprise Networking Assignment

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We have to take six subjects and one practical project. The subjects include two parts Core Modules and Elective Modules. For core modules, we have to study System Analysis and Design and Enterprise Networking for first semester, and Database Design and Development for second semester. For elective modules, we have to study Advanced Java for first semester, and Managing Business Projects and Advanced VB.net for second semester.

Among these subjects, this Enterprise Networking Assignment is to implement a New Taxi Company - A2B Cars.

We have to demonstrate the network requirements for the vehicle tracking and radio communication for a new taxi company. It includes examining the methods available for tracking the company's vehicles (taxis) and comparing them with customer location including the extra services that the system could provide. Besides, we have to examine the voice communication systems suitable for such a company.

Investigated vehicle tracking systems

iTRAK GPS Vehicle Tracking System

  • Masternaut Three X Vehicle and Asset Tracking System
  • Skygistics Asset Management System
  • HawkEye Vehicle Tracking System

Information about the vehicle tracking systems investigated

iTRAK GPS Vehicle Tracking System

This company designs, develops, implements, and supports GPS tracking systems for commercial fleet management in a wide range of industries.

Generalization of the System

  • Event-based reporting: more accurate location data without wasting air time.
  • Redundant server configuration with 24x7 monitoring.
  • Java-based application.
  • Data delivery confirmation by server ensures no lost data.
  • Real-time Status Alerts

Tracking method

using the strength of combining five different technologies:

  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • iTRAK mobile device
  • Cellular network
  • The Internet
  • iTRAK Fleet Managerâ„¢ mapping & reporting application

Accuracy of Method

It provides real-time data:

  • International maps from Microsoft MapPoint.NET, updated quarterly
  • Real-time "fleet status" summary table
  • Geo-fencing feature sends alert when vehicle enters/leaves predefined locations
  • Vehicle information displayed/recorded:
  • Vehicle name (and alias)
  • Time/Date of last position
  • Speed/Direction
  • Number of GPS satellites in view

Transmission of Data using iTRAK Mobile Device

  1. Transmission of location data is determined by events, not just by time.
  2. Transmission of position data set off by:
    • Distance traveled (default=1 mile)
    • Vehicle stopped (default=2 minutes)
    • Vehicle starts moving (default=5 MPH)
    • Status of optional sensors (ignition on/off, doors open, etc.)
  3. Data sent regularly when vehicle is in motion (e.g., 1, 2, 4, or 10 times per mile).
  4. No unnecessary transmission of data when vehicle is stopped.

Cost of using the system

  • All features are included in base price. Recurring cost of less than $1/day per vehicle.

Additional services of the system

  • For larger enterprise customers, iTRAK Fleet Manager can be delivered as an in-house "enterprise" system, with no monthly tracking fees.
  • Application Programming Interface will be provided

    to customers or their software vendors at no charge (under a Non-disclosure Agreement), allowing full integration with market leading software packages.
  • iTRAK Report Managerâ„¢

    simplifies fleet operations by generating after-hours, automated fleet reports.

Limitations of the system

  • No traffic reports.
  • No navigation instruction is provided.
  • No two-way communication, only server could see the vehicle status.
  • No emergency alerts on safety issues.

Masternaut Three X Vehicle and Asset Tracking System

With Masternaut Three X's vehicle and asset tracking your mobile workforce needn't be out of sight or out of mind. Reduced costs, improved efficiency and increased customer satisfaction all result from the 'total visibility' that their web-based tracking solutions offer.

Generalization of the system

    Masternaut Three X's driver ID solution:

    double the insight with individual driver and vehicle tracking
  • Masternaut Three X's mobile access solution:

    to monitor individual vehicles and to view the correct movement of your entire mobile workforce
  • Masternaut Three X satellite navigation solution:

    provides accurate, step-by-step instructions as well as up to the minute traffic reports, road closures and blocking information to help avoid delays.
  • Masternaut Three X's stolen vehicle recovery solution:

    track a full range of vehicles in real-time to the correct street and provides a process that can even immobilize it for faster recovery.
  • Mastercold:

    to ensure that once your vehicles have left the depot they maintain the required temperature for the duration of the trip.
  • Vehicle Data Terminal (VDT):

    dashboard mounted communications device that is connected directly to your tracking hardware. With two-way communication it helps improve workflow.>
  • Masternaut Three X's working time directive solution:

    logs the hours worked by each individual driver.
  • 24/7 installationwith

    expertise guaranteed
  • Synchronised web activation

This system uses the followings to track a vehicle (tracking method):

  • Microsoft Virtual EarthTM
  • Simple and secure web-portal
  • Combination of Masternaut Three X' solutions

Accuracy of Method

  • Real-time data keeps decision making in-time
  • The tacho interface produces highly detailed data on the accurate movements of any vehicle and driver. This powerful tool is joined directly to a vehicle's tachograph and gives key information in real-time, such as working time, driving time, waiting time and rest times as well as periods of availability.
  • This data can be combined directly into the Masternaut Three X tracking solution and controlled through your secure, central web-portal. Data captured by the tacho interface can be integrated with other vehicle information, like location and speed, which means you can adhere to driving time limitations, identify high risk areas and handle resources more effectively. The result is an in-depth 360 degree view of your workforce 24 hours a day.

Transmission of information

Using mobile devices

Rapide

  • to monitor individual vehicles, or access a 7 day history
  • view the exact movement of your entire mobile workforce with minute-by-minute update

Using Vehicle Data Terminal (VDT)

  • Two-way communication is provided.

Method of data transmission from vehicle to center

  • Location updates are recorded and transmitted back to our servers to be viewed on the Masternaut system
  • or via a web enabled mobile device using Masternaut RapideTM...
  • The information is easily accessed online and by email.

Cost of using the system

  • Save in the area of £80,000 per year for each vehicle.

Additional Services

  • Equipment and plant hire.
  • Electricity, Gas, Plumbing and Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning service fleets.
  • Facilities management.
  • Roadside assistance.
  • Insurance and inspection.
  • Telecoms and data services.
  • A complete safety and communication solution for lone workers using Lokate personal device
  • Hosting and managed services

Limitations of the system

  • Need to buy many devices to have a complete vehicle tracking system. No one central device is provided.

Skygistics Asset Management System

Skygistics is a company registered and incorporated in the Republic of South Africa, which makes focus on the condition of advanced communication systems that facilitate businesses to position, monitor, track, control and recover both fixed and mobile assets and enable the monitoring of situations in remote areas.

Generalization of the system

  • Fleet Track- Both inside and outside South Africa borders.
  • Asset Track- Managing corporate assets.
  • Agriculture Track- From harvest to controlled temperature transport and export.
  • Container Track- Both inside and outside South Africa borders.
  • People Track- Monitoring personnel and equipment.
  • Vessel Track- Monitoring shipping and cargo vessels
  • Elephant Track- Monitoring wild life movements
  • Rail Track- Monitoring locos, wagons and container movements

Tracking methods

  • Combines Geo Satellite Communication, GPRS and GSM wireless technology
  • Provides a wide range of modern and technologically superior asset management products which combine state of the art Internet, Satellite, and GSM communications systems.
  • One of the devices which is on the market today is "Slap 'n Track' Locator"

Accuracy of the method

  • Near real time
  • Global Asset monitoring - transforming remote data into strategic business information.
  • Detailed mapping and positional information as well as historical route review.
  • Sharing of the information via the web by global multiple work stations.
  • True global tracking locate critical equipment quickly.
  • Red flag reports on temperature deviations.

How often the information is transmitted from vehicle to central control system

The information is transmitted over the following events:

  • The exact speed driven
  • Harsh breaking being taken place, if the vehicle is driven in a high risk area
  • Deviation from the planned route
  • Dyre pressure changes
  • Temperature changes in pipelines and, indeed, in vulnerable cargoes.

The method of data transmission

  • Event-driven
  • 24 hour, seven day a week internet access to information;
  • Two-way text communication with the vehicle;
  • Auto alarms to key staff either by phone or cellphone;
  • No specialised IT equipment or licensed software applications

Cost using the system for end-users

  • 100% Tax deductible
  • Operating expense
  • No capital budget required
  • Off balance sheet finance
  • VAT paid monthly

Additional services

  • 24/7 Bureau Service consisting of the following package:
  • Ignition On or Off
  • Vehicle position
  • Vehicle poll, possible unit fault report
  • Alarm received escalation
  • Alarm received report

Limitations of the system

  • Events on report are limited, vehicle status such as on moving or stop status are not included. It emphasizes on safety rather than on tracking the vehicle.

HawkEye Vehicle Tracking System

The Hawkeye is an Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) System, which uses the GPS, GSM and SMS technologies to allow businesses to keep track of their fleets of vehicles. The system provides management with accurate information through MIS reports and can be interfaced with ERP and JIT systems to enhance and monitor employee productivity and efficiency.

Generalization of the system

The Hawkeye AVLS (Automatic Vehicle Locator System) comprises of:

  • A Hardware unit which is mounted in the vehicle,
  • A Control Station run by the service provider
  • A Server on the Internet which displays the position of the vehicle

Tracking Methods

  • Combines (GPS) Global positioning system, GSM, SMS and Internet Technologies.
  • A ready product, comprising fully debugged HawkEye hardware and software.

Accuracy of the method

  • The time interval between SMS messages can be set or changed from the Control Station or the end user's screen.
  • It is likely to have SMS set to an 'On Demand' mode. This is useful in situations where continuous monitoring is not required. Whenever it is necessary to track the vehicle, a command is sent out from the Control station / end user and the current location of the vehicle is plotted on the screen. This reduces the cost of SMS significantly.
  • Data is sent in an encrypted format, so it cannot be decoded by anybody except the intended receiver.
  • Data is sent in a compressed form. This lets us to send data for at least 20 positions in one SMS. Hence, if the frequency of SMS messages is set at 1 hour, when one SMS message is received by the Control Station, it updates the last 20 positions the vehicle has traveled, on the map (one position every 3 minutes).
  • In addition, time, speed, position and heading, other parameters can also be monitored and the data sent in the SMS e.g. temperature in Reefer vans etc.

How often the information is transmitted

  • It updates one position every 3 minutes.
  • The method of data transmission from vehicle to the central control system

    • The Hawkeye hardware unit in the Vehicle computes an exact latitude and longitude position when it receives data from at least 3 GPS satellites.
    • This position and certain other data such as heading (direction), speed and time are encoded, compressed and sent by SMS to the Control station.
    • The Control station sends the decoded data from the Vehicle to the Web server.
    • The Web server displays the position of the vehicle together with any other data specified, on the map.

    Cost of using the system

    • The software can be modified to track the number of SMS messages sent by each user and bill each customer accordingly.
    • Alternately, Clients can subscribe to their own SMS service and pay the SMS provider directly. In this case, the client is billed for SMS only when the system is used in the 'ON Demand' SMS mode and the vehicle is polled by the Control Station. In this case, the number of SMS's used are recorded and the client can be billed accordingly.

    Additional services

    The Hawkeye AVLS is for applications which require continuous monitoring.

    • Trucking
    • Vehicles in Game Reserves and other desolate locations
    • Security vehicles
    • Courier services
    • High value cars
    • BEST & ST buses
    • Farming
    • Tourist busses
    • Refrigerated Vans used for food, vaccines etc.
    • The Hawkeye Datalogger which is an 0ff-line system which tracks and keeps a record of the route a vehicle has taken. This application is very helpful in various situations:

    • Garbage disposal trucks.
    • Newspaper Delivery vans.

    Recommendation for which system to purchase

    • I recommend that it is the best for our 'A2B Cars' taxi company to purchase vehicle tracking system from the HawkEye vehicle tracking company where all of the benefits of above systems combine in one location.
    • The reasons for my recommendation:

    • First, the method it uses is more accurate for tracking and managing a vehicle than that of other systems.
    • Second, the security issue is more reliable because of the encrypted data from vehicle to the control system.
    • Third, all of HawkEye software is developed on the Open Source Platform. Hence there are no royalties payable to anybody else and modifications can be made quite easily.
    • Fourth, safety issues such as alerts for route deviation, unscheduled stops, long breaks en route, over-speed, signaling when under attack, when wires to the power supply are cut, etc. are supported.
    • Fifth, two-way communication between vehicle and the control centre is provided.
    • Finally, reduce unnecessary cost: Cost of using the system is based on SMS numbers used.

    Two-way voice communication methods investigated

    • GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)
    • GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)
    • CDMA2000 (Code Division Multiple Access 2000)
    • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service)

    GSM Technology

    How the method works

    • GSM provides the integrated high-speed data, fax, voice mail, paging and short messages services features.
    • GSM operates on the different frequency levels like 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz or 1900 MHz.
    • High speed data communication channel like 9.6kbps.
    • Full-duplex communication.

    Limitation of the method

    • Different mobile phone networks around the world operate at different frequencies. If we want to use our mobile communication devices outside of our GSM frequency range then we should use a communication device such as mobile/handset that supports multiple frequencies.
    • Before purchasing a mobile phone, we should ensure that it is well-matched with the different bands of the GSM.

    GPRS Technology

    How the method works

    • It is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps.
    • Different frequencies (850/ 900/ 1800/ 1900 MHz).
    • The GPRS is running at 800 MHz in Europe while In US, it is running at 1900 MHz.
    • Full-duplex communication

    Limitation of the method

    • Limitation in speed of circuit switched data (9.6 kbps) and the data length when using SMS (Short Message Services).
    • The extent of the impact of cell capacity depends on the number of timeslots, if there are any they are reserved for extensive use of the GPRS service.
    • The max GPRS speeds will be significantly less than GPRS maximum.

    CDMA2000 Technology

    How the method works

    • CDMA2000is a hybrid2.5G/3Gtechnology of mobiletelecommunications standardsthat useCDMA, a multiple access scheme fordigital radio, to send voice, data, andsignalingdata (such as a dialed telephone number) betweenmobile phonesandcell sites.
    • It is defined to operate at 450MHz, 700MHz, 800MHz, 900MHz, 1700MHz, 1800MHz, 1900MHz, and 2100MHz.
    • Full-duplex Communication

    Limitation of the method

    • Forward / reverse link imbalance

      RF coverage on the forward link is much larger than that on reverse link; excessive BTS Tx power is allocated for the remote user.
    • Excessive soft handoff area

      Caused by improper cell site layout, misuse of base station antennas.
    • Improper RF parameter settings

      RF parameter settings should be fine-tuned according to the traffic loading distribution to improve the overall network performance.
    • The uplink of WCDMA system is interfered by the downlink of CDMA 2000 system and will impact to degradation of capacity- while the impact to CDMA 2000 is negligible.
    • The different carrier spacing (guard band) and the geographical distance between CDMA 2000 and WCDMA in 1900 MHz band will make capacity loss due to interference.

    UMTS Technology

    How the method works

    • UMTS is a third-generation (3G) broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps).
    • Frequency bands 1885-2025 MHz for future IMT-2000 systems, and 1980-2010 MHz and 2170-2200 MHz for the satellite portion of UMTS systems.
    • Full-duplex communication.

    Cost of using the method

    • Users can choose to pay-per-bit, pay-per-session, flat rate, or asymmetric bandwidth options.
    • Limitation of the method

    • UMTS requires new cell towers and new frequency allocations.
    • Compared to GSM, UMTS networks initially required a higher base station density.

    Legal requirements

    Policies that can be followed by government agencies:

    • Tax exemption:

      In this case, the existing operators obtain some form of tax exemption or rebate which is made proportional to the terms of service at acceptable levels in chosen country areas.
    • License refund:

      In this case, the existing operators obtain a refund of a percentage of the license fee which is also made proportional to the condition of service at acceptable levels in some chosen rural areas.
    • License-fee free licenses:

      This is for operators committed to rolling out service in designated areas. This will make investors paying attention in roll out services and also support financial institutions to fund such investors as the capital expenses will be significantly reduced due to the removal of the license fees.
    • Provision of a telecom fund for the funding of rural telephony:

      In this case, a percentage of the license fee paid by the major operators can be set aside and used to give a funding support for operators dedicated only for rural telephony.
    • Provision of broad band infrastructure to rural areas:

      This will support investors since they will not have to include the cost of a network back bone to the capital expenses required.

    Costs of setting up and operating the system

    • Infrastructure Costs: Including costs for site acquisition and fencing, power supply system costs and equipment installation costs, tower construction, antenna system and installation costs, step-down transformers, air conditioners, etc.
    • Operating Costs: Including costs for maintenance, training and salaries, and advertisements and promotion, etc.
    • License Costs: Including costs for licenses, taxes and levies, etc.

    Recommendation for how voice communication should be set up and run for "A2B Cars" taxi firm

    • In Myanmar, our country, there is only one advanced technology, GSM 900, to provide two-way voice communication.
    • So I recommend that it is the best to use the communication system that uses combination of GSM/GPRS technologies for this communication although each with particular limitations.
    • Also, other investigated systems, CDMA2000 and UMTS, are still difficult to be available (almost unavailable) in our country.
    • To reduce cost expensiveness, we should use license-fee free licenses for this communication system.
    • Special financing arrangements can be made with banks, financial organizations and equipment manufacturers to facilitate fast network roll out.

    Possible network topologies and media for in-house network (LAN) for use by A2B Cars Taxi Company's Controllers

    • Bus Topology ( with RG-58 thin net cabling)
    • Star Topology( with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper cabling)
    • Ring Topology( with shielded twisted pair (STP) cabling, IBM Type 1 Shielded cable)

    How each topology operates

    • Bus Topology
    • It operates on a single cable, usually called backbone or segment or trunk, which connects to all devices in the network. The cable runs from device to device by using T-connectors that plug into the network adapter cards. A packet sent by a computer travels in both directions on the cable, until the destination PC accepts the packet. At this time, the network is occupied and no other computer can send. The packet is detected by all the computers but is received only by the computer to which it is addressed. Broadcast Packets, however, are accepted by all computers on the central cable. This topology needs to place terminators at both ends of the cable. Terminators will prevent network signals from reflecting back into the cable and colliding with other transmissions. Otherwise the whole network could break down.

    • Star Topology
    • This is the most widely used topology for LANs. In this topology, each computer has a dedicated point-to-point link only to the central controller called "the hub" which provides services and communication to all connected computers. If a computer wants to send a message to the other computer, the message has to travel through the central hub.

    • Ring Topology
    • The topology contains the ring-structure network in which each computer has a dedicated point-to-point connection with the ones on either side of it. The network has no beginning or no end. When a computer wants to sends a message, a token or a small data-packet is passed from this computer along the network in one direction until it reaches to the one with the destination address. Then the receiving computer accepts the data packet and resends it with the acknowledgement of the receipt onto the network. Each device in this network contains a repeater for regenerating the network signal.

    Advantages and disadvantages of each topology

    • Bus Topology
    • Advantages

    • Less expensive than star topology.
    • Less needs of cabling.
    • No need of central hub.
    • Suitable for small networks needing no high speeds.
    • One computer's failure does not affect the entire network.
    • Disadvantages

    • Limited in speed and size.
    • Troubleshooting is difficult.
    • The heavier the traffic on the bus, the slower the network.
    • Star Topology

    Advantages.

    • More suitable for larger networks.
    • Easy to understand and implement.
    • Easy to enlarge network.
    • Easy to troubleshoot because problem usually isolates itself.
    • Easy to connect and disconnect devices/computers from the network.
    • Cabling types can be mixed.
    • If a computer fails, the whole network can still work since it does not depend on the cable.

    Disadvantages

    • If the central switch or hub fails, the whole network leads to stop working.
    • Cabling is more expensive than bus topology.
    • Ring Topology
    • Advantages

    • Each computer has equal communication access on a ring-network, providing good performance for each computer.
    • Can expand network using Token Ring.
    • Disadvantages

    • Failure in one workstation or bad port in the (Multi-Access Unit) MAU can create problems for the entire network.
    • Removes, adds and changes of devices can affect the network.
    • Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more costly than Ethernet cards and hubs
    • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load

    Recommendation for which topology and medium to use

    Among these three topologies, it is recommended to use star topology with UTP cabling. As the advantages and disadvantages described above, the star-topology network with UTP cabling is the most suitable for a new taxi firm's local area network (LAN).

    The reasons for choosing star-topology include:

    • If one computer stops working in the network it does not affect any other computer in the network and the jobs of this computer can easily be switched to the other computer using the hub controls. In a Star Network Topology it is likely to have all the important data backups on the hub in a private folder. Therefore when a computer fails we can still use our data using the other computer in the network and accessing the backup files on the hub.
    • New devices or computers can easily be added to the Star Network by just extending a cable from the hub. As the central hub has the control on everything, the addition or removal of devices could be done using the hub. If the hub adds a device, for example a fax machine or a printer, all the other computers on the network can access the new device by simply accessing the hub. It is not necessary to install the device on all the computers in the network. So it is cost effective and easier to maintain.
    • Because all the computers on the network have independent control of their networks and only dependant on the central hub computer, the failures in transmission and other possible problems are less expected. Also if the hub is safe then every computer in the network is safe. This type of network also gives more privacy than any other network.
    • All the computers in the network are communicating with one main centrally positioned computer and there is no peer-to-peer connection. If this connection takes place it is goes through the central hub. By this way the privacy of every computer on the network is kept.
    • The reasons for choosing UTP cabling include:

    • UTP is also the most common cable used in computer networking.
    • UTP is a very simple media to install and reconfigure.
    • UTP system is colour-coded cabling.
    • UTP is less expensive than coaxial or fiber cabling.
    • UTP is physically smaller than many other cable types.
    • A high-quality UTP system could give good interference elimination.
    • Security threats to the transmission of vehicle location data

    • Viruses

      A malicious program attached to an executable program that was often integrity or denial of service attack deleting or modifying the vehicle data on the system hard drive.
    • Replay

      The attacker could to spy on the network traffic and record a progression of messages of vehicles sent across the network. After that, the attacker can replay the recorded messages to get a particular end result.
    • Trojan Horses

      An innocuous program that is to make it possible for the attacker to access the vehicle location data via a connected network.
    • Denial of Service

      An attack that sends many additional requests that regularly positioned process of vehicle location data is either slowed or completely interrupted.
    • Hacking

      A hacker steals the location data of a particular vehicle by taking the password to see the vehicle location. Later, he modifies the location and sends the wrong location to the control center.
    • Equipment Failure

      Physical damage to the vehicle positioning device.
    • Security threats to the voice communications transmission

    • Toll Fraud

      Internal or external users using the corporate phone system to place unauthorized toll.
    • Denial of Service

      Hackers utilize automated tools to send a torrent of annoyance traffic to IP phones, call-processing servers, or communications essentials. The goal is to weaken network resources so that calls are interrupted or cannot be operated.
    • Impersonation or "Spoofing"

      A hacker takes a valid user's identity so that the hacker's phone calls appear to come from another user. Hackers can either spoof an IP address or the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, which distributes IP addresses.
    • Eavesdropping

      An internal user overhears the IP address of a router or PC to spy on voice traffic as well as data entered during a voice conversation, such as password.
    • Man-in-the-Middle Attacks

      During a two-way conversation, a third-party has the opportunity to modify the information before transmitting it on to its intended recipients.
    • Equipment Failure

      Physical damage to the voice communication devices.

    Recommendation

    Possible security measures to reduce and remove the threats to the company

    • Authentication

      Using usernames and strong passwords and voice recognition devices.
    • Encryption

      In order for an attacker not to access the information easily, it is necessary to translate the information from its original clear form by applying an encryption algorithm to it.
    • Virus Protection

      To protect virus and Trojan attacks, it is necessary to install the anti-virus softwares to every computer on the network requiring regular updates and upgrades of the software.
    • Firewalls

      Preventing unauthorized access to the network from outside the firewall. Preventing users from file transfers into the protected networks.
    • Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)

      With encryption and encapsulation technology, it provides a private passageway through the Internet rather than expensive private lines to connect company networks
    • .
    • Physical damage protection

      ncluding fire prevention and detection equipment, keeping wiring and equipment closets locked and preventing unauthorized access to the company.

    Report for Network Recommendations for "A2B Cars" Taxi Company

    Summary

    • Providing sample vehicle tracking systems available in the country and choosing the best one suitable to purchase equipments for "A2B Cars" Company.
    • Giving ideas about available methods for two-way voice communication and recommending the most appropriate methods for setting up the system.
    • Explaining the possible local area networks for the company and deciding the best topology and media suitable with the system.
    • Examining the security issues relating to the data and voice transmission to and from the system and providing the most useful counter measures to reduce the possible security threats to the company.

    Investigated vehicle tracking systems

    • iTRAK GPS Vehicle Tracking System
    • Masternaut Three X Vehicle and Asset Tracking System
    • Skygistics Asset Management System
    • HawkEye Vehicle Tracking System

    Information about the vehicle tracking systems investigated

    iTRAK GPS Vehicle Tracking System

    This company designs, develops, implements, and supports GPS tracking systems for commercial fleet management in a wide range of industries.

    Generalization of the System

    • Event-based reporting: more accurate location data without wasting air time.
    • Redundant server configuration with 24x7 monitoring.
    • Java-based application.
    • Data delivery confirmation by server ensures no lost data.
    • Real-time Status Alerts
    • Tracking method

      using the strength of combining five different technologies:

    • Global Positioning System (GPS)
    • iTRAK mobile device
    • Cellular network
    • The Internet
    • iTRAK Fleet Managerâ„¢ mapping & reporting application

    Accuracy of Method

    It provides real-time data:

    • International maps from Microsoft MapPoint.NET, updated quarterly
    • Real-time "fleet status" summary table
    • Geo-fencing feature sends alert when vehicle enters/leaves predefined locations
    • Vehicle information displayed/recorded:
    • Vehicle name (and alias)
    • Time/Date of last position
    • Speed/Direction
    • Number of GPS satellites in view

    Transmission of Data using iTRAK Mobile Device

    • Transmission of location data is determined by events, not just by time.
    • Transmission of position data set off by:
      1. Distance traveled (default=1 mile)
      2. Vehicle stopped (default=2 minutes)
      3. Vehicle starts moving (default=5 MPH)
      4. Status of optional sensors (ignition on/off, doors open, etc.)
    • Data sent regularly when vehicle is in motion (e.g., 1, 2, 4, or 10 times per mile).
    • No unnecessary transmission of data when vehicle is stopped.

    Cost of using the system

    • All features are included in base price. Recurring cost of less than $1/day per vehicle.
    • Additional services of the system

    • For larger enterprise customers, iTRAK Fleet Manager can be delivered as an in-house "enterprise" system, with no monthly tracking fees.
    • Application Programming Interface will be provided to customers or their software vendors at no charge (under a Non-disclosure Agreement), allowing full integration with market leading software packages.
    • iTRAK Report Managerâ„¢ simplifies fleet operations by generating after-hours, automated fleet reports.
    • Limitations of the system

    • No traffic reports.
    • No navigation instruction is provided.
    • No two-way communication, only server could see the vehicle status.
    • No emergency alerts on safety issues.

    Masternaut Three X Vehicle and Asset Tracking System

    With Masternaut Three X's vehicle and asset tracking your mobile workforce needn't be out of sight or out of mind. Reduced costs, improved efficiency and increased customer satisfaction all result from the 'total visibility' that their web-based tracking solutions offer.

    Generalization of the system

    • Masternaut Three X's driver ID solution:

      Double the insight with individual driver and vehicle tracking
    • Masternaut Three X's mobile access solution:

      To monitor individual vehicles and to view the correct movement of your entire mobile workforce
    • Masternaut Three X satellite navigation solution:

      Provides accurate, step-by-step instructions as well as up to the minute traffic reports, road closures and blocking information to help avoid delays.
    • Masternaut Three X's stolen vehicle recovery solution:

      Track a full range of vehicles in real-time to the correct street and provides a process that can even immobilize it for faster recovery.
    • Mastercold:

      To ensure that once your vehicles have left the depot they maintain the required temperature for the duration of the trip.
    • Vehicle Data Terminal (VDT):

      Dashboard mounted communications device that is connected directly to your tracking hardware. With two-way communication it helps improve workflow.
    • Masternaut Three X's working time directive solution:

      Logs the hours worked by each individual driver.
    • 24/7 installation with expertise guaranteed

    • Synchronised web activation

    • This system uses the followings to track a vehicle (tracking method):

    • Microsoft Virtual EarthTM
    • Simple and secure web-portal
    • Combination of Masternaut Three X' solutions

    Accuracy of Method

    • Real-time data keeps decision making in-time
    • The tacho interface produces highly detailed data on the accurate movements of any vehicle and driver. This powerful tool is joined directly to a vehicle's tachograph and gives key information in real-time, such as working time, driving time, waiting time and rest times as well as periods of availability.
    • This data can be combined directly into the Masternaut Three X tracking solution and controlled through your secure, central web-portal. Data captured by the tacho interface can be integrated with other vehicle information, like location and speed, which means you can adhere to driving time limitations, identify high risk areas and handle resources more effectively. The result is an in-depth 360 degree view of your workforce 24 hours a day.

    Transmission of information

    Using mobile devices Rapide

    • To monitor individual vehicles, or access a 7 day history
    • View the exact movement of your entire mobile workforce with minute-by-minute update
    • Using Vehicle Data Terminal (VDT)

    • Two-way communication is provided.
    • Method of data transmission from vehicle to center

    • Location updates are recorded and transmitted back to our servers to be viewed on the Masternaut system
    • Or via a web enabled mobile device using Masternaut RapideTM...
    • The information is easily accessed online and by email.
    • Cost of using the system

    • Save in the area of £80,000 per year for each vehicle.
    • Additional Services

    • Equipment and plant hire.
    • Electricity, Gas, Plumbing and Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning service fleets.
    • Facilities management.
    • Roadside assistance.
    • Insurance and inspection.
    • Telecoms and data services.
    • A complete safety and communication solution for lone workers using Lokate personal device
    • Hosting and managed services
    • Limitations of the system

    • Need to buy many devices to have a complete vehicle tracking system. No one central device is provided.

    Skygistics Asset Management System

    Skygistics is a company registered and incorporated in the Republic of South Africa, which makes focus on the condition of advanced communication systems that facilitate businesses to position, monitor, track, control and recover both fixed and mobile assets and enable the monitoring of situations in remote areas.

    Generalization of the system

    • Fleet Track

      Both inside and outside South Africa borders.
    • Asset Track

      Managing corporate assets.
    • Agriculture Track

      From harvest to controlled temperature transport and export.
    • Container Track

      Both inside and outside South Africa borders.
    • People Track

      Monitoring personnel and equipment.
    • Vessel Track

      Monitoring shipping and cargo vessels
    • Elephant Track

      Monitoring wild life movements
    • Rail Track

      Monitoring locos, wagons and container movements
    • Tracking methods

    • Combines Geo Satellite Communication, GPRS and GSM wireless technology
    • Provides a wide range of modern and technologically superior asset management products which combine state of the art Internet, Satellite, and GSM communications systems.
    • One of the devices which is on the market today is "Slap 'n Track' Locator"
    • Accuracy of the method

    • Near real time
    • Global Asset monitoring - transforming remote data into strategic business information.
    • Detailed mapping and positional information as well as historical route review.
    • Sharing of the information via the web by global multiple work stations.
    • True global tracking locate critical equipment quickly.
    • Red flag reports on temperature deviations.

    How often the information is transmitted from vehicle to central control system

    The information is transmitted over the following events:

    • The exact speed driven
    • Harsh breaking being taken place, if the vehicle is driven in a high risk area
    • Deviation from the planned route
    • Tyre pressure changes
    • Temperature changes in pipelines and, indeed, in vulnerable cargoes.
    • The method of data transmission

    • Event-driven
    • 24 hour, seven day a week internet access to information;
    • Two-way text communication with the vehicle;
    • Auto alarms to key staff either by phone or cellphone;
    • No specialised IT equipment or licensed software applications
    • Cost using the system for end-users

    • 100% Tax deductible
    • Operating expense
    • No capital budget required
    • Off balance sheet finance
    • VAT paid monthly
    • Additional services

    • 24/7 Bureau Service consisting of the following package:
    • Ignition On or Off
    • Vehicle position
    • Vehicle poll, possible unit fault report
    • Alarm received escalation
    • Alarm received report
    • Limitations of the system

    • Events on report are limited, vehicle status such as on moving or stop status are not included. It emphasizes on safety rather than on tracking the vehicle.

    HawkEye Vehicle Tracking System

    The Hawkeye is an Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) System, which uses the GPS, GSM and SMS technologies to allow businesses to keep track of their fleets of vehicles. The system provides management with accurate information through MIS reports and can be interfaced with ERP and JIT systems to enhance and monitor employee productivity and efficiency.

    Generalization of the system

    The Hawkeye AVLS (Automatic Vehicle Locator System) comprises of:

    • A Hardware unit which is mounted in the vehicle,
    • A Control Station run by the service provider
    • A Server on the Internet which displays the position of the vehicle
    • Tracking Methods

    • Combines (GPS) Global positioning system, GSM, SMS and Internet Technologies.
    • A ready product, comprising fully debugged HawkEye hardware and software.
    • Accuracy of the method

    • The time interval between SMS messages can be set or changed from the Control Station or the end user's screen.
    • It is likely to have SMS set to an 'On Demand' mode. This is useful in situations where continuous monitoring is not required. Whenever it is necessary to track the vehicle, a command is sent out from the Control station / end user and the current location of the vehicle is plotted on the screen. This reduces the cost of SMS significantly.
    • Data is sent in an encrypted format, so it cannot be decoded by anybody except the intended receiver.
    • Data is sent in a compressed form. This lets us to send data for at least 20 positions in one SMS. Hence, if the frequency of SMS messages is set at 1 hour, when one SMS message is received by the Control Station, it updates the last 20 positions the vehicle has traveled, on the map (one position every 3 minutes).
    • In addition, time, speed, position and heading, other parameters can also be monitored and the data sent in the SMS e.g. temperature in Reefer vans etc.
    • How often the information is transmitted

    • It updates one position every 3 minutes.

    The method of data transmission from vehicle to the central control system

    • The Hawkeye hardware unit in the Vehicle computes an exact latitude and longitude position when it receives data from at least 3 GPS satellites.
    • This position and certain other data such as heading (direction), speed and time are encoded, compressed and sent by SMS to the Control station.
    • The Control station sends the decoded data from the Vehicle to the Web server.
    • The Web server displays the position of the vehicle together with any other data specified, on the map.
    • Cost of using the system

    • The software can be modified to track the number of SMS messages sent by each user and bill each customer accordingly.
    • Alternately, Clients can subscribe to their own SMS service and pay the SMS provider directly. In this case, the client is billed for SMS only when the system is used in the 'ON Demand' SMS mode and the vehicle is polled by the Control Station. In this case, the number of SMS's used are recorded and the client can be billed accordingly.

    Additional services

    The Hawkeye AVLS is for applications which require continuous monitoring.

    • Trucking
    • Vehicles in Game Reserves and other desolate locations
    • Security vehicles
    • Courier services
    • High value cars
    • BEST & ST buses
    • Farming
    • Tourist busses
    • Refrigerated Vans used for food, vaccines etc.
    • The Hawkeye Datalogger which is an 0ff-line system which tracks and keeps a record of the route a vehicle has taken. This application is very helpful in various situations:

    • Garbage disposal trucks.
    • Newspaper Delivery vans.

    Recommendation for which system to purchase

    • I recommend that it is the best for our 'A2B Cars' taxi company to purchase vehicle tracking system from the HawkEye vehicle tracking company where all of the benefits of above systems combine in one location.
    • The reasons for my recommendation:

    • First, the method it uses is more accurate for tracking and managing a vehicle than that of other systems.
    • econd, the security issue is more reliable because of the encrypted data from vehicle to the control system.
    • Third, all of HawkEye software is developed on the Open Source Platform. Hence there are no royalties payable to anybody else and modifications can be made quite easily.
    • Fourth, safety issues such as alerts for route deviation, unscheduled stops, long breaks en route, over-speed, signaling when under attack, when wires to the power supply are cut, etc. are supported.
    • Fifth, two-way communication between vehicle and the control centre is provided.
    • Finally, reduce unnecessary cost: Cost of using the system is based on SMS numbers used.
    • Two-way voice communication methods investigated

    • GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)
    • GPRS (General Packet Radio Services)
    • CDMA2000 (Code Division Multiple Access 2000)
    • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service)
    • GSM Technology

      How the method works

    • SM provides the integrated high-speed data, fax, voice mail, paging and short messages services features.
    • GSM operates on the different frequency levels like 850 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz or 1900 MHz.
    • High speed data communication channel like 9.6kbps.
    • Full-duplex communication.
    • Limitation of the method

    • Different mobile phone networks around the world operate at different frequencies. If we want to use our mobile communication devices outside of our GSM frequency range then we should use a communication device such as mobile/handset that supports multiple frequencies.
    • Before purchasing a mobile phone, we should ensure that it is well-matched with the different bands of the GSM.

    GPRS Technology

    How the method works

    • It is a packet-based wireless communication service that promises data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps.
    • Different frequencies (850/ 900/ 1800/ 1900 MHz).
    • The GPRS is running at 800 MHz in Europe while In US, it is running at 1900 MHz.
    • Full-duplex communication
    • Limitation of the method

    • Limitation in speed of circuit switched data (9.6 kbps) and the data length when using SMS (Short Message Services).
    • The extent of the impact of cell capacity depends on the number of timeslots, if there are any they are reserved for extensive use of the GPRS service.
    • The max GPRS speeds will be significantly less than GPRS maximum.
    • CDMA2000 Technology

      How the method works

    • CDMA2000is a hybrid2.5G/3Gtechnology of mobiletelecommunications standardsthat useCDMA, a multiple access scheme fordigital radio, to send voice, data, andsignalingdata (such as a dialed telephone number) betweenmobile phonesandcell sites.
    • It is defined to operate at 450MHz, 700MHz, 800MHz, 900MHz, 1700MHz, 1800MHz, 1900MHz, and 2100MHz.
    • Full-duplex Communication

    Limitation of the method

    • Forward / reverse link imbalance

      RF coverage on the forward link is much larger than that on reverse link; excessive BTS Tx power is allocated for the remote user.
    • Excessive soft handoff area

      Caused by improper cell site layout, misuse of base station antennas.
    • Improper RF parameter settings

      RF parameter settings should be fine-tuned according to the traffic loading distribution to improve the overall network performance.
    • The uplink of WCDMA system is interfered by the downlink of CDMA 2000 system and will impact to degradation of capacity- while the impact to CDMA 2000 is negligible.
    • The different carrier spacing (guard band) and the geographical distance between CDMA 2000 and WCDMA in 1900 MHz band will make capacity loss due to interference.
    • UMTS Technology

      How the method works

    • UMTS is a third-generation (3G) broadband, packet-based transmission of text, digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps).
    • Frequency bands 1885-2025 MHz for future IMT-2000 systems, and 1980-2010 MHz and 2170-2200 MHz for the satellite portion of UMTS systems.
    • Full-duplex communication.
    • Cost of using the method

    • Users can choose to pay per bit, pay per session, flat rate, or asymmetric bandwidth options.
    • Limitation of the method

    • UMTS requires new cell towers and new frequency allocations.
    • Compared to GSM, UMTS networks initially required a higher base station density.

    Legal requirements

    Policies that can be followed by government agencies:

    • Tax exemption:

      In this case, the existing operators obtain some form of tax exemption or rebate which is made proportional to the terms of service at acceptable levels in chosen country areas.
    • License refund:

      In this case, the existing operators obtain a refund of a percentage of the license fee which is also made proportional to the condition of service at acceptable levels in some chosen rural areas.
    • License-fee free licenses:

      This is for operators committed to rolling out service in designated areas. This will make investors paying attention in roll out services and also support financial institutions to fund such investors as the capital expenses will be significantly reduced due to the removal of the license fees.
    • Provision of a telecom fund for the funding of rural telephony:

      In this case, a percentage of the license fee paid by the major operators can be set aside and used to give a funding support for operators dedicated only for rural telephony.
    • Provision of broad band infrastructure to rural areas:

      This will support investors since they will not have to include the cost of a network back bone to the capital expenses required.
    • Costs of setting up and operating the system

    • Infrastructure Costs:

      ncluding costs for site acquisition and fencing, power supply system costs and equipment installation costs, tower construction, antenna system and installation costs, step-down transformers, air conditioners, etc.
    • Operating Costs:

      ncluding costs for maintenance, training and salaries, and advertisements and promotion, etc.
    • License Costs:

      Including costs for licenses, taxes and levies, etc.
    • Recommendation for how voice communication should be set up and run for "A2B Cars" taxi firm

    • In Myanmar, our country, there is only one advanced technology, GSM 900, to provide two-way voice communication.
    • So I recommend that it is the best to use the communication system that uses combination of GSM/GPRS technologies for this communication although each with particular limitations.
    • Also, other investigated systems, CDMA2000 and UMTS, are still difficult to be available (almost unavailable) in our country.
    • To reduce cost expensiveness, we should use license-fee free licenses for this communication system.
    • Special financing arrangements can be made with banks, financial organizations and equipment manufacturers to facilitate fast network roll out.
    • Possible network topologies and media for in-house network (LAN) for use by A2B Cars Taxi Company's Controllers

    • Bus Topology ( with RG-58 thin net cabling)
    • Star Topology( with unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper cabling)
    • Ring Topology( with shielded twisted pair (STP) cabling, IBM Type 1 Shielded cable)

    How each topology operates

    • Bus Topology
    •                      It operates on a single cable, usually called backbone or segment or trunk, which connects to all devices in the network. The cable runs from device to device by using T-connectors that plug into the network adapter cards. A packet sent by a computer travels in both directions on the cable, until the destination PC accepts the packet. At this time, the network is occupied and no other computer can send. The packet is detected by all the computers but is received only by the computer to which it is addressed. Broadcast Packets, however, are accepted by all computers on the central cable. This topology needs to place terminators at both ends of the cable. Terminators will prevent network signals from reflecting back into the cable and colliding with other transmissions. Otherwise the whole network could break down.

    • Star Topology
    • This is the most widely used topology for LANs. In this topology, each computer has a dedicated point-to-point link only to the central controller called "the hub" which provides services and communication to all connected computers. If a computer wants to send a message to the other computer, the message has to travel through the central hub.

    • Ring Topology
    • The topology contains the ring-structure network in which each computer has a dedicated point-to-point connection with the ones on either side of it. The network has no beginning or no end. When a computer wants to sends a message, a token or a small data-packet is passed from this computer along the network in one direction until it reaches to the one with the destination address. Then the receiving computer accepts the data packet and resends it with the acknowledgement of the receipt onto the network. Each device in this network contains a repeater for regenerating the network signal.

    Advantages and disadvantages of each topology

    • Bus Topology
    • Advantages

    • Less expensive than star topology.
    • Less needs of cabling.
    • No need of central hub.
    • Suitable for small networks needing no high speeds.
    • One computer's failure does not affect the entire network.
    • Disadvantages

    • Limited in speed and size.
    • Troubleshooting is difficult.
    • The heavier the traffic on the bus, the slower the network.
    • Star Topology
    • Advantages.

    • More suitable for larger networks.
    • Easy to understand and implement.
    • Easy to enlarge network.
    • Easy to troubleshoot because problem usually isolates itself.
    • Easy to connect and disconnect devices/computers from the network.
    • Cabling types can be mixed.
    • If a computer fails, the whole network can still work since it does not depend on the cable.
    • Disadvantages

    • If the central switch or hub fails, the whole network leads to stop working.
    • Cabling is more expensive than bus topology.
    • Ring Topology
    • Advantages

    • Each computer has equal communication access on a ring-network, providing good performance for each computer.
    • Can expand network using Token Ring.
    • Disadvantages

    • Failure in one workstation or bad port in the (Multi-Access Unit) MAU can create problems for the entire network.
    • Removes, adds and changes of devices can affect the network.
    • Network adapter cards and MAU's are much more costly than Ethernet cards and hubs
    • Much slower than an Ethernet network under normal load

    Recommendation for which topology and medium to use

    Among these three topologies, it is recommended to use star topology with UTP cabling. As the advantages and disadvantages described above, the star-topology network with UTP cabling is the most suitable for a new taxi firm's local area network (LAN).

    The reasons for choosing star-topology include:

    • If one computer stops working in the network it does not affect any other computer in the network and the jobs of this computer can easily be switched to the other computer using the hub controls. In a Star Network Topology it is likely to have all the important data backups on the hub in a private folder. Therefore when a computer fails we can still use our data using the other computer in the network and accessing the backup files on the hub.
    • New devices or computers can easily be added to the Star Network by just extending a cable from the hub. As the central hub has the control on everything, the addition or removal of devices could be done using the hub. If the hub adds a device, for example a fax machine or a printer, all the other computers on the network can access the new device by simply accessing the hub. It is not necessary to install the device on all the computers in the network. So it is cost effective and easier to maintain.
    • Because all the computers on the network have independent control of their networks and only dependant on the central hub computer, the failures in transmission and other possible problems are less expected. Also if the hub is safe then every computer in the network is safe. This type of network also gives more privacy than any other network.
    • All the computers in the network are communicating with one main centrally positioned computer and there is no peer-to-peer connection. If this connection takes place it is goes through the central hub. By this way the privacy of every computer on the network is kept.
    • The reasons for choosing UTP cabling include:

    • UTP is also the most common cable used in computer networking.
    • UTP is a very simple media to install and reconfigure.
    • UTP system is colour-coded cabling.
    • UTP is less expensive than coaxial or fiber cabling.
    • UTP is physically smaller than many other cable types.
    • A high-quality UTP system could give good interference elimination.

    Security threats to the transmission of vehicle location data

    • Viruses

      A malicious program attached to an executable program that was often integrity or denial of service attack deleting or modifying the vehicle data on the system hard drive.
    • Replay

      The attacker could to spy on the network traffic and record a progression of messages of vehicles sent across the network. After that, the attacker can replay the recorded messages to get a particular end result.
    • Trojan Horses

      An innocuous program that is to make it possible for the attacker to access the vehicle location data via a connected network.
    • Denial of Service

      An attack that sends many additional requests that regularly positioned process of vehicle location data is either slowed or completely interrupted.
    • Hacking

      A hacker steals the location data of a particular vehicle by taking the password to see the vehicle location. Later, he modifies the location and sends the wrong location to the control center.
    • Equipment Failure
    • Physical damage to the vehicle positioning device.

      Security threats to the voice communications transmission

    • Toll Fraud

      Internal or external users using the corporate phone system to place unauthorized toll.
    • Denial of Service

      Hackers utilize automated tools to send a torrent of annoyance traffic to IP phones, call-processing servers, or communications essentials. The goal is to weaken network resources so that calls are interrupted or cannot be operated.
    • Impersonation or "Spoofing"

      A hacker takes a valid user's identity so that the hacker's phone calls appear to come from another user. Hackers can either spoof an IP address or the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server, which distributes IP addresses.
    • Eavesdropping

      An internal user overhears the IP address of a router or PC to spy on voic

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