Energy in our daily life

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Abstract

While there are a number of factors influencing the attitudes and opinions towards energy efficiency, most notably the increasing cost of energy and a rising social conscience, it is likely to be legislative drivers that have the greatest impact on changing behaviours and practices. Respective governments internationally are introducing energy saving targets and effecting regulations to ensure they are met. Under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized countries have agreed to reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% by 2008-2012, however, compared to the emissions levels expected by 2012 prior to the Protocol, this limitation represents a 29% cut. The target in Europe is an 8% reduction overall with a target for CO emissions to fall by 20% by 2020 and up to 50% of CO emissions of residential and commercial buildings are from electricity consumption. Moreover, as domestic appliances, computers and entertainment systems grow; other equipment such as air conditioning and ventilation systems increase in use, electricity consumption is rising at a higher rate than other energy usage. The ability to meet targets by simply persuading people to act differently or deploy new energy saving or energy efficient technology is unlikely to succeed. Just considering construction and the built environment, new construction is far less than 2% of existing stock. If newly constructed buildings perform exactly as existing stock the result by 2020 will be an increase in electricity consumption of 22%. On the other hand, if all new construction has energy consumption of 50% less than existing stock, the result is still an increase of 18%. By 2020 in most countries 80% of all buildings will have already been built, the refurbishment of existing building stock and improving energy management is vital in meeting emission reduction targets are the only potential for further savings is by reducing the amount of energy consumed. The most important ingredient however, lies with the ability of those in control of residential, industry, business and government to concentrate their hearts and minds on making energy efficiency a critical target. Otherwise, it might not be just the Kyoto targets on which the lights go out.

Introduction

Background

Nowadays, we can obtain energy easily in our daily life. We can enjoy the air-conditioning system, lighting, fuel, and different kinds of electrical appliances, etc, all of which have enhanced our quality of life. It seems there is no immediate risk in terms of energy. But we all heard about the word - Energy management. So why do we need Energy management?

Most of the energy production all over the world relies mainly on the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. The burning of fossil fuels actually gives our earth a lot of negative impacts. A large amount of carbon dioxide and other pollutants will be generated during the burning process. Some of these gases are greenhouse gases and will contribute to the global warming effect. Even worse, some of them are actually harmful and impact our health. Besides the side effect, the limited recourse of fuels is also another potential risk. Studies show that the world energy consumption has risen 45% since 1980 and it is projected to be 70% higher by 2030 and in terms of CO emission, it is 33% up of since industrial revolution, rising faster than ever.

Although we can help our planet by turning off the lights or electric devices, this only represents for a very small proportion of energy. In fact, industry and building, account for more than half of todays energy consumption.

Therefore applying energy management would be the quickest, cheapest and cleanest way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission in order to meet the Kyoto targets.

The Energy Dilemma

Below is the study from different parties trying to point out the energy dilemma:

1. By 2050, energy demand will double and world population will increase 46% (Source - www.worldenergy.org)

2. By 2050, CO emissions must be reduced by 50% to limit temperature rise to 2°C (Source - UNFCC Fact sheet: climate change science)

3. 70% of electricity is generated via coal or hydrocarbons (Source - www.americaspower.org/Issues-Policy/50)

4. The renewable share of total world energy usage increases from 7% in 2004 to 8% in 2030 (Source -http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/archive/ieo07/world.html)

5. Greenhouse gas emissions has increased by 70% just between 1970 and 2004 (Source - IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007)

6. Emerging markets represents 75% of new energy demand (Source - IEA)

7. Lighting consumes 19% of electricity in the world (Source - IEA)

8. The buildings in which we work, shop, play and educate our children use about US$200 billion worth of electricity and natural gas each year (Source: Energy Information Administration. "2003 CBECS Detailed Tables. Table C4A. Expenditures for Sum of Major Fuels for All Buildings, 2003." December 2006. 1 June 2007)

9. Commercial and industrial buildings in the U.S contribute 45% of our natural emissions of greenhouse gases (Source: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas and Sinks: 1990-2005. "USEPA #430-R-07-002)

10. Over the next 25 years, greenhouse gas emissions from buildings are projected to grow faster than any other sector, with emissions from commercial buildings leading the way a projected 1.8% a year through 2030 (Source: U.S. Green Building Council)

Energy Challenges And Opportunities Are Everywhere

Energy Future, What Is In Our Future?

Our planet required 50% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions tstabilize the greenhouse effect by 2050, but with todays technology only 30% possible savings that could reduce emissions or electrify the rest of the non-electrified world.

The reasons why the pressure on energy use will not go away because emerging markets such as China and India accounted for more than 75% of new demand placing new pressures on global resources. Meanwhile, mature markets such as US, Europe and Japan will also face increased demand and limited resources. These mature markets will continue legislating to reduce consumption, shift talternative energy sources, and improve energy security.

On the other hand, increase of resources competition and political instability cause oil and natural gas prices to grow above current levels for the foreseeable future. Therefore coal will continue to be a cheap and plentiful resource especially in emerging markets. This will maintain pressure on reducing emissions and sustain the need for global climate change actions.

More than ever, global warming is at the top of the human concern. Environmental concerns and public opinion on climate change will drive continued actions by legislators, opinion leaders, and special interest groups forcing industry to respond.

According to US federal figures, Coal consumption continues to grow, energy cost rose 31% from 2003 to 2005 and there is no indication that these costs will fall in the future. The US Department of Energy foresees 30% sustained increases in the cost of electricity. The impact of high energy prices is felt in every residential building, but only minorities of building owners have made any attempt to improve the efficiency of their facilities. It is important for human being to learn to adapt and manage energy consumption, energy costs, and pollutants.

Prepare And Understand What Is Achievable Through Energy MANAGEMENT

The avoid of construct 1000 new power plants can save 30% energy in 2020 actually, we can all adapt to the new energy world, energy use reduction and management will be a continued focus of all of us, the followings are the key focus of our energy future:

1. Limiting final energy consumption in all areas

2. Measuring and tracking energy use to establish benchmarks and targets

3. Promoting alternative green energy sources and technologies

4. Opening markets to promote emissions trading and demand reduction

Opportunities Of Saving energy

In fact, 30% energy savings in a building can reduce overall operating cost by 10%. For examples cutting energy use by 30% would result the same bottom line benefits as a 3% increase in rental income in a building or a 5% increase in net operating income. In hospitals reducing energy costs by 5% would increase earnings. In non-profit healthcare centre, $1 savings in energy would equal to $20 in new profits. In supermarkets reducing energy costs by 10% would increase profit margins by 6%. In hotels reducing energy costs 10% equates to an increase of $1.35 in average daily usage.

In industry, experience proof that, non-energy benefits often exceed the value of the energy savings on energy efficiency projects; also there has a positive relationship between energy efficiency and productivity. In order to understand the impact and opportunity in saving our planet, energy management is the quickest, cheapest, cleanest way to extend our worlds energy supplies.

The below data pointed out the impact and opportunity in saving energy in different sectors:

Residential

  • Over 20% of energy consumption
  • Using energy efficient products may save 10% to 40% electricity

Industry

  • Over 30% of energy consumption
  • Motors account for 60% of the electricity usage
  • Average facility can reduce its energy consumption by 10 to 20%

Buildings

  • Over 20% of consumed energy and goring
  • 3 key areas: HVAC, lighting and integrated building solutions
  • Technical projects can yield up to 30% of energy savings

The fact is residential and industry offers the largest and most accessible opportunities for savings.

Energy Consumption By Markets

(Source: EERE Building Energy Data book 2006 & EERE Manufacturing Systems Footprint)

Residential: 21%

  • Energy Efficiency products may save 10 to 40% in electricity
  • Lighting and appliances represent 40% of energy usage. Heating represents 30%

Commercial Building: 18%

  • Renovation can yield up to 30% of energy savings
  • Motors represent 30% of electricity usage
  • Commercial buildings use more than 50% of their energy for heating and lighting

Industry & Infrastructure: 31%

  • Average facility can reduce consumption by 10 to 20%
  • Motors represent 60% of electricity usage

Data centres: 2%

  • Power and cooling can reduce power consumption by 20 to 30%
  • Power and cooling systems represents 50% of electricity usage

Transportation: 28%

Temperature and Lighting control are the main domains for the energy efficiency value. The following table shows the average breakdown of energy consumption of residential building and Office building. We can see that, the main sources of consumption are temperature control and lighting.

Major OBJECTIVE Applying Energy Management In Residential Building DEDIGN AND MAINTENANCE

Apply energy management in residential building to reduce energy consumption, mainly in lighting and temperature control. Temperature and lighting control are the most energy consuming functions at home; todays technology can already provide a large set of solutions to reduce drastically the energy consumption. Moreover applying energy management can maximize energy savings while keeping comfort, safety and security at home. These solutions are scalable and flexible enough to be used in new constructions as well as for retrofit, renovation or extension of existing applications.

The major objective applying lighting control is:

1. Reduce needless lighting time;

2. Proper management of lighting level according toutside brightness;

3. Optimized the lighting level in different parts of the house according tthe level of activity;

4. Increase comfort by energy saving;

5. To control and visualize the energy savings.

The objective for applying temperature control is:

1. Reduce needless heating or cooling time;

2. Proper management of temperature level according tthe outside temperature;

3. Optimized temperature level of different activity;

4. Increase comfort by energy savings;

5. To control and visualize the energy savings.

Nowadays, there are many products helping us in terms of saving energy, for example dimmers, timers, movement detectors, switches. The technology is tconsider energy efficiency in all its coming solutions for residential, using gateways and network integrated systems will allow more sophisticated energy management as well as support for added value services for the end user, also, extended communication capabilities, advanced control and remote access will allow fine tuning energy management at home.

The combination of HVAC and lighting used more than 70% of energy in many buildings. Therefore, building implementation, from design to commissioning, should be carried out in a way that achieves optimum energy saving results.

Nowadays, people are starting concerning energy efficiency and always being the highest priority at all means. However, not all people understand what energy efficiency really involves and how energy saving initiatives can be implemented. For this reason, in this report, two approaches to energy efficiency have defined: Passive Energy Efficiency; and more significantly Active Energy Efficiency.

Many people may consider the thermal issues in the building fabric with remedies such as insulation, glazing, and heat loss countermeasures are the major energy measures. However, lighting should be the clue which often constrained to install with low consumption system. The entire above are actually the passive countermeasures that largely reduce energy loss rather than the energy deployed.

Instead of passively prevented, it would be much better for find active energy efficiency methodology. That means, not only energy saving devices and equipment are needed to be installed, but also controlling their energy required and applied. By controlling, it is critical tachieving the maximum efficiency. Just take an example for better illustration, consider an energy efficient lamp which is left turned on in an empty room. The energy waste actually as much as using an ordinary lamp!

Another important factor that makes active energy efficiency from this point forward is the need to meet desires carbon reduction targets set by those governments in alliance with the Kyoto Protocol. In the built environment, unless all the existing buildings are made energy efficient, otherwise, it is impossible treach the targets set for 2020.

This report will looks at the approaches to Active energy efficiency that can be applied within new and existing residential buildings.

Literature Review

Due to natural efficiency of most power plants as well as losses in transmission and distribution in electricity network, 1kWh of usage in a building actually requires 3kWh of production; therefore, each energy unit saved in the building could save 3 times as many at production level.

Just simply changes procedural and behavioural. And by understanding where and how energy used could contribute up to 10% savings without any capital investment,

Energy Efficiency And Energy Management

Energy Efficiency is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms. The useful output may be electric power, mechanical work, or heat. Thus the calculation depends on the model, e.g. Heat can be either useful power output if we measure a heater while it can be a loss if we measure a motor.

Energy Management is a strategy to achieve organizational objectives at minimum energy consumption and cost. The key principles of energy management are:

  • Purchase energy at the lowest available price
  • Manage energy consumption at peak efficiency
  • Utilize the most appropriate technology

Measuring the energy efficiency is one of the most important steps for energy management. Besides, technical knowledge on building energy systems, analytical techniques for assessing energy use, financial management methods for evaluating energy efficiency investment, and social marketing skills for building organizational commitment are all the essentials at working on the energy management.

While, tbe honest, working on only energy management cant save our world forever. The fuel will be finally used up and thus we need to look for new energy resources, e.g. solar energy, waste energy.

Where To Focus?

Up to 12% of energy lost per year without monitoring and maintenance. So we must identify potential actions to improve and control energy efficiency. By analysing energy consumption, we can expose in excess of 30% energy savings potential.

Actually, we can focus on the demand side energy actions in 3 areas:

Reduction of Energy Consumption:

  • All types of energy in all aspects of your operations
  • Actions leading to cost savings and emissions reduction

Optimization of Energy Cost:

  • Reduction through strategies that optimize or reduce the cost of acquiring energy or managing energy supply

Improvement of Reliability and Availability:

  • Sustaining gains though reliable and efficient equipment operation
  • Minimizing risk of outage through design and strategy

From above data, when applying efficient devices, automation and control system, monitoring and maintenance, the energy consumption can be reduced from 10 to 30%. Actually, keep up an energy management program only cost around 1 to 2% of total energy costs. But if without monitor, control, maintain and improvement programs up to 12% of energy savings would lost.

Enabling Energy Saving

Technology today can save about 30% of the Energy. The solutions can be applied along the whole energy chain easily which can enable and sustain energy efficiency at about 10 to 30%. While, of course, technology is the key tachieve energy efficiency and energy smart innovations would continue thave significant impact on enabling energy and emissions reduction.

Also, to apply technologies in practical and economically ways for saving energy, information, expertise and knowledge are crucial. Besides, human behavioural and procedural actions would help facilitating the ability initiate and to sustain all savings.

How Can We Optimize Energy Consumption And Spending?

Analyzing energy consumption and cost allocation is the first key step tachieve energy reduction. Analyze energy consumption means to analyze the usage and understand all relevant utilities including Water, Air, Gas, Electricity, and Steam. Building owners can allocate cost more accountable for energy costs based on sub-billing reports and subsequent actions can further reduce overall energy usage by 8 to 10%.

Another priority for energy saving is to minimize risk and maximize value through secure stable electricity contracts. Energy tariff optimization system can help utilizing the overall. Building owners can optimize the energy cost and maximize energy savings if they can gain with the strategy mentioned in this study which is able to fully leverage the best available tariffs.

Area Possible To apply Energy Management:

  • HVAC, Ventilation, Fan control, Lighting control and management
  • Pump, compressor control, Motor control and management
  • Power management and critical power solutions
  • Facility management and process optimization
  • Energy Information services, Audits and Assessments
  • Energy services

Enabling Technology For Energy MANAGEMENT:

  • Metering, Monitoring and Control, Automation and Sensors
  • Drives and motor control
  • Lighting control systems
  • Building automation systems and Electrical distribution
  • Power Factor Correction and Power Filtering
  • Uninterruptible Power Systems
  • Information Systems and Management Tool

Energy Use Analysis And Tariff Optimization With Power Management Systems:

Power Metering:

Power metering can provide the field worker with the initial understanding of the electrical flow in a network. This meter would generate information on electricity consumption in subsystems and real-time power factor information. This first analysis capability improves knowledge of energy use, saves money through improved efficiency and allocation, and helps to avoid peak demand penalties.

Power Monitoring And Analysis System:

Power monitoring and analysis system provides accurate information on electric flows to the fields users. This kind of system often embeds advanced functions to log and sort events on the electrical network. The data screens and reports provide a means tencourage and drive behaviour towards efficient energy usage through identifying usage patterns and allocating costs according tcost centre, production unit, shift, etc. in a facility.

Enterprise Energy Management:

Enterprise energy management system is a complete enterprise-level, energy focused business intelligence software solution. Even in enterprises with multiple sites and complex energy data, this kind of system provides the tools tquantify the cost of energy.

How To improve Electrical Network Performance And Upgrade Energy Efficiency?

Power Factor Correction:

Some countries have specific policies for billing for reactive energy. Price penalties are applied if the active power or clear power ratio is not within the guidelines. Since, every electric machine needs active and reactive power to operate. Power factor measurement can identifies the level of reactive power and optimizes it to minimize cost and avoid penalties. The power factor correction bank would modify the level to avoid penalties if the power factor drops below the limit set by the utility (example in France: 0,92). By correcting poor power factor, these solutions also reduce kVA demand results in a 5 to 10%, lower utility power bill, cooler equipment operation and longer equipment life. In addition, proper power factor correction helps optimize electrical network loading and improves reliability.

Harmonic Filtering:

Harmonics would stress the electrical network and potentially damage equipment. Equipment likes drives, filters, inverters, transformers and discharge lamps generate voltage distortion or harmonics. These harmonics would make stress tthe network, overload cables and transformers, cause damage and disturb equipment such as computers and telephones and greatly reduced the life of equipment. Harmonic filtering equipments is to reduce and eliminate the harmonics. They increase the service life of equipment up to 32% for single phase machines, 18% for three phase machines and 5% for transformers.

How To make Savings On Ventilation And Air Conditioning?

Ventilation and Air Conditioning can consume over 40% of energy consumption in many buildings and facilities. Improved control and management of ventilation, temperature, and system usage will reduce energy consumption and sustain it at the optimal level.

From simple stand-alone control products up to building management systems, HVAC solutions can save up to 30% of the energy consumption. For fan ventilation applications, solutions based on drives can save up to 50% in energy consumption compared to conventional motor starter and flow regulation installations.

Stand Alone Temperature And Energy Control With Thermostats And Load Shedding Contactors:

Based on a load shedding strategy, thermostats and simple contactors are used to optimize energy consumption and to shed load at peak demand. This would help to lowers energy bills, reduces peak demand charges and prevents unexpected tripping of loads. This solution can be applied in the residential area to manage air conditioning systems and electrical appliances and in the commercial building to manage lighting, heating and other small industrial processes.

Enclosed Drive For Variable Torque Applications:

This is designed for HVAC pump and fan applications, these application are cost effective and energy saving. The enclosed drive are preassembled, prewired and pre-programmed, this makes great reduce on installation time.

HVAC Control System With Centralized Management:

This is an open, scalable control platform which could communicate with the main building management system for advanced air treatment control. By using standard communications couple drives, controls and graphic user interface to fully manage the HVAC systems from a central control station.

Small Stand-Alone HVAC Control Solution:

This is an IP-based building management controller combined with building control, web functional, alarm handling and graphics. As a stand-alone solution the controller is for smaller installations where cost and simplicity matters.

HVAC Management System:

HVAC management systems able to provide complete control of heating, ventilation and air conditioning; it is based on open, IT-friendly standards and includes management software, a complete range of controllers, communication devices and field devices. The system enables a centralized management of alarms, temperature setting, scheduling, data logging, graphs and reporting. User can monitor and control one or several buildings both on-site or remotely through multiple devices. The benefits are energy savings, more efficient facility operations and an optimal indoor environment.

How To Make Saving On Lighting Control?

In a building lighting can contribute over 35% of energy consumption, therefore, lighting control would be one of the easiest ways to save energy costs and one of the most common applications. Comparing with traditional lighting switches, lighting control solutions can save up to 50% on the electricity bill, also, lighting systems are always flexible and designed for the comfort to users. The solutions can range from very small and local, such as timers and occupancy sensors, up to complicate customized and centralized solutions that are part of complete building automation systems.

Movement Sensor For Automated Lighting:

Movement sensor can ensures automatic control of lighting according to presence and light levels from 90۫ up to 360۫. This solution provides energy savings up to 16%. Because no light switch required, lighting is not switched on when not needed but a switch to override the sensor can be provided for optional. It is easy to install and thoughtful.

Lighting Control System With Sensors And A User Interface:

Lighting control solutions would able to combine controls, sensors and user interfaces to deliver energy savings and meet customized needs of the broad range of applications. Up to 65% energy can be save up with occupancy sensors, up to 40% via daylight dimming, up to 13% via lumen control and up to 35% with time scheduling.

Automate Public Lighting According To Sunrise And Sunset:

Using a programmable light sensitive switch would allow automatic on and off of lighting according tsunrise and sunset times Up to 8% to 16% potential energy savings compare with traditional timer based solutions and it would increases the reliability of public lighting operation. Its more reliable than a brightness detector since it is not affected by dirt and is easier to install and maintain.

How Can A Residential Building Manage And Maintenance Energy Usage More Efficiently?

Based on open and scalable systems, an integrated building management solution allow monitoring and control of all building systems including HVAC, lighting, access control, security and other special systems. Complete building solutions would provide significant operation and maintenance benefits during the life cycle of a building. Also, by combining those multiple systems up to 35% reduction in overall energy usage would provide.

By controlling all building functions such as mechanical and electrical equipment for ventilation, air conditioning, lighting, shutters/blinds, power distribution, etc; access control, CCTV, etc. for security, building automation and control systems design would contribute tequipment availability and energy savings as they can control

Engineering maintenance enable the equipment to get the best energy performance throughout the equipments entire life cycle. This makes user to get the best possible energy ratings for the buildings. On site monitoring and alarm handling can assure the very best efficiency in building operations. Keep the value of a building at a strategic level via regular adjustment and optimization of systems. Regular maintenance and exchange of spare parts according to plan maintenance schedules can save up to 2-8% of energy consumption. Therefore this combination design and approach will be further discussed in the report.

Methodology:

Lifecycle solutions for Energy Efficiency

The lifecycle for making permanent energy efficiency improvements is common sense, every improvement starts with a decision about what to implement. In most cases, an energy audit is an appropriate first step, to collect information about the opportunities and leverage measurements that are readily available, for example, from utility bills, existing meters and monitoring systems. With this information, informed decisions can be made about the next steps.

Generally, the first identified actions will be passive measures to fix the basics. Replacing inefficient devices with low consumption devices, repairing leaks and putting in insulation are often low-cost measures that pay for themselves quickly.

Close after the passive measures, optimization of systems such as lighting, HVAC and motor control. Automation of these systems ensures that common-sense measures like turning off lights at night are enforced.

When the measures implemented are effective and maintained, additional meters and monitoring may be required. Having more detailed energy data available is likely to show that more energy savings can be made. This leads to the next loop around the same lifecycle.

Measure And Analyse

Many energy home owners need help to get started to identify the opportunities for energy improvement on their home and select the priorities. Energy Audit provided with the insight to create improvement strategy.

Residential owner can easily conduct a home energy audit by themselves. With a simple walk-through, owner can spot many problems in any type of house. When doing the audit, build the energy balance sheet and keep a checklist of areas that have inspected and problems found and this list would help to identify quick energy savings with prioritize energy efficiency upgrades.

Inspect heating and cooling equipment annually, or as recommended by the manufacturer. Generally, equipment should change about once every month or two, especially during periods of high usage. Have a professional check and clean the equipment once a year would also help to reduce energy usages.

If the unit is more than 15 years old, owner should consider replacing the system with one of the newer, energy-efficient units. A new unit would greatly reduce energy consumption, especially if the existing equipment is in poor condition.

Energy for lighting accounts for about 10% of the electric bill. Examine the wattage size of the light bulbs in the house. It may have 100-watt bulbs where 60 or 75 watts would do. Also, consider of compact fluorescent lamps for areas where lights are on for hours at a time.

Methodology Highlight

1. Walk-through audit (1 to 2 days), then build the energy balance or performance sheet

2. Benchmark the major electrical applications, for examples: Lighting systems, Air conditioner/ HVAC control and Tariff analysis

3. Establish a structured methodology to identify major fields of savings

4. Identify quick energy savings with estimated ROI report

5. Elaborate a medium-term energy efficiency action plan

Fix The Basics

In an electric network, if there are unexpected trips, or failure in electrical circuit boards, this electrical network may have a low power factor or be polluted by harmonics, because most equipment with integrated electronics creates harmonics currents and voltages in an electrical network; harmonics were not yet considered a real problem ten years agbecause their effects were generally minor. However, the increase apply of power electronics in equipment has made the situation far more serious in all sectors of economic activity.

In an ideal world, the electrical supply to and within a factory is a smooth wave. Unfortunately, high efficiency lighting, computers and modern electrical equipment tend to create effects that make the waves irregular. This can cause overloads that can prematurely age equipment, and may even cause breakers to trip and interrupt operations at home. This causes lost time, wastes energy, annoying and expensive on electricity bill.

It is necessary to measure and reduce harmonics which pollute the network by filtering and have tbe taken into account in electrical network design.

Also, electrical motors generates twtypes of powers; the first one is active power, it is converted into mechanical power, and the second one is reactive power, it is maintained the electric field in the motor, but reactive power would causes extra loss, extra power losses and charges would apply to users in some country if reactive power exceeds a certain threshold. Therefore, capacitor bank is necessary to optimize the power factor.

Methodology Highlight

1. Discuss the symptoms present and review the electricity bill

2. Measurement of power factor and harmonics

3. Expert study and recommendation

4. Delivery, installation and commissioning of low power consumption equipment and systems in residential building, for example capacitor bank, passive and active filter

Automate And Regulate With Active ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Residential buildings are rarely appropriate for precise metering and measurement. However, there are still steps that can be taken towards adopting active energy efficiency practices.

It is reasonable to suggest that the biggest influence on domestic residential energy consumption will come from changing the publics habits, but that is a very long process. The natural feeling to turn off equipment that is on stand-by (the LEDs in equipment such as TVs, DVD players, hi-fi, home PCs etc., consume huge amounts of electricity collectively) will take time to instil. Meanwhile, there are technological aids that can provide big savings. One possibility is to install inexpensive lighting controls. These range from the most complicated home automation to simple room occupancy sensors.

In multiple occupancy residence such as apartment buildings, there is scope for active energy efficiency tbe applied in public areas with occupancy controls for lighting, heating and ventilation. With a growth in mixed occupancy building where apartments, for example, are constructed above commercial premises, the benefits of metering can also be applied. Again lighting and heating controls also contribute.

Methodology Highlight

1. On-site audit to check the level of illumination against required level

2. Study occupancy levels and movement

3. Take note of aesthetic needs

4. Turnkey projects consistently

5. Taking intaccount to the cost and payback targets

Energy Monitoring, Analysis And Control

Energy monitoring, analysis and control solutions provide users with means to understand energy consumption and drive appropriate actions. There has a range of solutions, from the simple to the sophisticated. Those systems can help users manage not only electricity, but other utilities such as water, air, gas and steam.

If the residential owners do not have access to energy data, they will probably miss some of the areas for improving energy usage. Energy measures that are taken may not be effective, or may be effective at first but decline over time. Therefore owners should access historical data, usage trends and benchmarks to pinpoint saving opportunities.

Also, sub-metering helps a user to understand how the bill breaks down into different areas. It can also show how energy use varies depending on the time of day or time of the week. Very often, energy consumption and nights and weekends are higher than it should be. An energy information system can show that, providing reasons to implement proper shutdown procedures. The system can also show if those procedures are being followed.

Another benefit is bill reconciliation. Without energy data, significant errors in utility bills can be overlooked. With an energy information system, and control, energy consumption and costs can reduce intelligently while increasing reliability.

Methodology Highlight

1. Identify and prioritize the needs

2. Select the system adapted to the requirements

3. Thorough training and handover to ensure the best performance from the system

Implementation

Of course, the easiest way to improve energy efficiency is to use low energy luminaries, switching lights and appliances off whenever they are not in use, adopting efficient insulation and glazing, etc. However, all these measures are not tbe considered as active methodology, and the result is the lowest. Just like leaving a low energy light on when the room is not occupied is actually wasting much more energy than using a normal lighting system. Thus, we had tuse a more proactive way for implementation and it is a must to understand the management of energy and ensure sustained savings.

Active energy efficiency means we not only need to install energy saving devices or equipment, but also controlling, which means they only use the minimum energy that required. Sour key aspect is how we can control the energy with optimizing the performance. In other words it is the provision of measurements, monitors, controls, maintenance and management of energy. To return to the low energy luminaries example, it is of course wise to install energy efficient lighting, but it is far better to also fit lighting controls that ensure lamps are turned off in unoccupied areas.

Energy management is not only talking about measure and monitor the energy used, as mentioned, controlling is always the most important part. But of course, cost and risks are always being the top concern. But actually energy control can be implemented at a cost-effectively way and payback can be as quick as two years.

There are actually very simple and inexpensive steps that if taken at the beginning, can simplify the approach to managing energy and quickly achieving significant savings. An energy audit carried out by experts that understand both energy use and importantly, its control, will create an action plan with priorities.

The second vital stage is to install meters and monitors to record energy usage. The adage that one cannot manage what is not measured is particularly true when it comes to energy consumption.

The remainder of the measures depend on the findings of the energy audit. Usually, actions will take the form of the installation of a certain amount of hardware like controllers, monitors and management systems; and a degree of education in terms of getting people to understand and subscribe to the energy efficiency plans.

High Density Metering

To understand the energy consumption, we can apply energy usage analysis based on historical data, usage trends and benchmarks. But of course it is not easy to everyone, especially the home owners, whare unable to access this kind of data that they will miss out the most important areas for improving energy usage. Thus, the energy measures may not be effective, even it is effective, but may not be able to last for long. Significant errors can be easily overlooked. There is no way for improvement without clear data. Energy used will be easily worse than before.

There are different ways for energy usage analysis. The basic one is to measure all relevant utilities including water, air, gas, electricity, steam, and emissions. Some of strategies and actions may be simple, while some may be sophisticated. But the measurement can always enable you to identify the most relevant areas for improving the energy used and applying the most appropriate measures.

By using of analytical software can help performing comparative calculations which can show the trends. This can help identifying the required savings areas and assess results of actions. Besides, the cost allocation reports can help owners to verify utility billing accuracy and drive accountability in every level. The ability of showing electricity costs distribution, users can manage energy effectively, which results in lower overall energy costs.

Another effective way is to sub-bill building or facility owners. Each owners need to share the electricity cost. As a consequence, this will help motivating them to use energy wisely and improve their electivity consumption effectively. In this way, a building owner can approximately reduce the overall energy usage for a building by 8 - 10% for their energy costs.

Home Control

Building automaton meets the needs and objectives of the building and its owners, providing easy, straightforward, and economical use. The system is suitable for different types of housing, for both new buildings and renovation projects, and for buildings small or large.

Building automaton is todays solution for real-estate and housing owner, the system automatically takes care of the most important tasks, it monitors the functions and conditions of the building or house, always sets the correct conditions for the various spaces, provides reports, and issues alarms in the event of an emergency.

Energy consumption data are saved in the building automaton systems database for use at any time. It is easy to present the data saved by the system in graphs or tables. All data can be transferred readily to owners home or corporate computer. This makes archiving and follow-up of information straightforward.

Another important selection criteria in home energy efficiency is the comfort and safety, and of course, the ability to reduce the environmental footprint of the house. It can achieve energy savings automating various functions of the regular daily life. Lighting control is actually the whole spirit; it can turn off unnecessary lights when there is none in the room by using a presence detector, it alscan dim the light intensity according to exterior lighting conditions, or even schedule exterior lighting according predefined patters.

For temperatures, HVAC control can help setting optimal temperatures for the different rooms of the house, or predefine a heating or air conditioning patterns in advance according to regular needs. Besides, users can remotely controlling heating or air conditioning.

Home automation solution is another solution. It is focused on the specific automation requirements of private homes and in the comfort and security of its residents. Usually, there are three main system architectures classified regarding to the intelligence of the system resides.

The first one is centralized architecture; a centralized controller would receive information of multiple sensors and, once processed, generates the opportune orders for the actuators.

The second is distributed architecture; all the intelligence of the system is distributed by all the modules that are sensors or actuators. Usually it is typical of the systems of wiring in bus system.

The last one is mixed architecture, this systems with decentralized architecture as far as which they have several small devices able to acquire and to process the information of multiple sensors and to transmit them to the rest of devices distributed by the house.

Lighting Control

Lighting control is a proven way to lower energy costs rapidly. The principle is to integrate all the control features with lighting, with using of occupancy detection, dimming, daylight linking, scene-setting and blind control, either from a centralized intelligent control panel or a distributed system. This can effectively reduce energy consumption by 25-50% in most spaces.

Lighting can represent up to 40% of energy consumption in buildings depending on segments. Therefore, lighting control is definitely one of the easiest ways to save energy costs on one of the most common applications. By applying effective lighting control system, it can save up around 50% of the energy consumption.

Lighting solution is based on three main parameters. The first one is time the second one is intensity and the last one is presence in which these can help optimizing lighting automatically. Lighting solution can be local and total solution. Take timers as an example, it can very sophisticated and customized but it can obtain high flexibility or being a centralized solutions as part of building automation systems.

Reinforce The Safety Of A Home

By using a programmable time switch, it can offer an easy to access presence simulation function and reinforce the safety of home during the periods of absence. Presence simulation allows, in a fully random manner, control of part of indoor or outdoor lighting or of any other electrical device connected to the product, so as to simulate presence of an occupant. Therefore, safety is enhanced at lesser cost and this solution is simple to install and use.

Automate Lighting Of Access Home

This solution is tensure that light automatically turns on when somebody comes in but only when its dark. This is a way help tsave energy without affecting the comfort or safety. Up to 50% energy saving by automatically turn off lighting when it is not necessary, therefore, automation avoids relying on uncertain human action and secures savings while providing increased comfort and safety.

The lighting can alsbe controlled by a movement detector. By installing a detector at compulsory passing places, the lighting will automatically turns on or to a certain brightness level based on a persons presence or motion. Detection range level for a movement detector is around 12 m by 6 m. The access point for lighting is always correlated tthe preset brightness threshold. It usually can be adjusted from 1000 lux to 2 lux, tripping in daylight and darkness respectively

The time delay keeps lighting switched on during a preset time after the last movement detection and is adjustable within a time period. An optional switch can be associated tallow ON override of lighting if required.

Optimize Room Lighting Through The Use Of Dimmers

If you dim lighting at 25%, you can obtain up to 20% energy saving. By applying wall box dimmers allow reduction of energy used for lighting instead of having lights only ON or OFF, light level can be adjusted to required level by using a dimmer and it enables the homes owner to control light level independently allows to control light sources from one or several control points. Dimming solution can reduce lighting-related energy consumption, change room atmosphere and improve comfort.

With different type of load control, there are different kinds of dimming devices. No matter the choice of push button or rotary, stand alone or accompany with other devices, there are tomany options nowadays.

Also dimmer switches can save energy, since dimmed lighting uses less electricity than full power lighting, extend the lifetime of the light using the soft-on dimmer function, adapt the light level to fit the desired atmosphere in the room, regulate the lighting by simply pressing or rotating, according to the choice of product, and can be installed easily without changing the wiring.

HVAC Control

HVAC Control is the key equipment for connecting and controlling building management systems; it not only controls internally, but also helps controlling according to the physical environment. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning can represent over 40% of energy consumption in many buildings. Improved control and management of ventilation, temperature and system usage can reduce energy consumption and sustain it at the optimal level. From simple stand-alone control products up to global building management systems, applying HVAC solutions can save up to 30% on energy consumption.

Different methods can be combined to save energy costs for HVAC in a range of 15% t30%:

1. Program temperature set point according to occupancy

2. Adapt heating or cooling production power according to real building needs

3. Raise temperature tcomfort level when occupant presence is detected

4. Adapt ventilation flow according toccupancy or internal air pollution level

5. Recover heating or cooling energy from extracted air

Smart valves, actuators, sensors, thermostats and variable speed drives combine treduce and optimize energy usage. Millions of products are shipped daily to customers around the world, spanning a wide range of industrial, commercial and residential building applications. If people all over the world efficiently take control of their building's energy costs, better control of building's systems means better control of costs and energy usage.

Stand-alone control products like time switches, thermostats, clock-thermostats, stand-alone controller are used for local or central control, and HVAC control systems permanently provide each area with optimized environmental conditions. Also building management systems control HVAC among various functions, such as lighting control, blind control, or security.

Multi Application System For Home Applications

Applying preprogrammed system of domestic automation able to offer the most frequently required functionalities within the house like alarms, energy saving, comfort and simulation of presence that eliminating all the programming complexity of on its start-up.

Home control central makes an automatic shut-down of all the light points of the house in a centralized way. It can also connect to automatic circuit of illumination by using movement detectors; therefore, individual light points of the house can be controlled automatically. Moreover, some home control system can use the cellular phone to manage the applications from everywhere.

Discussion

There is not a single person that can afford to ignore the potential for saving energy, particularly electrical energy. If individuals, organizations and management do not act now, they will be forced to act with no control over timescales or requirements. The fact is that there is available expertise and easily affordable technology investments that can be made simply and payback quickly. In most cases however, there is still the battle to win the hearts and minds of people to focus on energy and think about it differently.

Few people fully appreciate how much energy they use, how and where they use it and how much they actually need. This is possibly even truer of those in industry and commerce than for the general public.

In many cases there is a lack of understanding about how energy can be managed and how energy efficiency can be achieved. Those with the expertise, experience, knowledge and technology must concentrate their efforts on educating, informing, influencing and persuading people tconserve electrical energy because everybodys futures depend on it.

Managing Energy In Residential Properties

The residential sector breaks down intthree distinct areas as far as electrical energy efficiency is concerned:

  • Private home owners/tenants
  • Builders/architects/developers
  • Public and residential social housing

Electricity save in residential building

Private occupiers of houses and apartments represent the market pull through on electrical energy efficiency. This group makes its own decisions on whether or not to buy energy efficient lamps and tubes, or to install lighting controls and so forth. Home buyers and tenants will become an increasingly influential group if people begin to demand energy efficient homes or houses with better controls. Until such time, the quest is to ensure that the public is informed as to where technology can play apart in saving energy.

Builders, architects and surveyors have a direct influence on the electrical energy efficiency of the residences they build. However, as in the commercial sector, most attention has focused on thermal measures such as insulation and glazing. In most regions, builders will only invest in features within their properties that will enable them to sell or be rented quickly. Hence, the greatest investment in enhanced living tends tbe the installation of luxury kitchens and bathrooms, rather than in practical energy efficiency systems. This group needs to understand that if presented to the public attractively, the benefits of, for example, zone or occupancy lighting controls can be great.

Those responsible for the building and refurbishment of social residential housing should also aware of electrical energy efficiency. However, again there appears tbe widespread lack of knowledge of the controls available and the relatively low cost of installing them.

In all cases in the residential sector, the need for builders, landlords and tenants tunderstand all the ramifications of electrical energy efficiency is a priority, if targets for emissions reductions from the sector are tbe realised.

Case study

The below case study will discuss about the energy efficiency proposal which lighting control solution was applied. Assume a residence building consist of 40 floors, detail floor distribution as below:

  • 37 Storey (Omit, 4, 14, 24, 34)
  • G/F: Entrance Lobby
  • 2/F & 3/F: Car Park
  • 5/F & 6/F: Club House
  • 7/F ~ 40/F: Tenant Floor
  • 1 Apartment per floor (~200 sq meter)

The below table is the lighting circuits assumption in common area and tenant floor.

The electricity tariff in Hong Kong is 1.28 ($/KWH), in common area, most of the residential building in Hong Kong would turn the light on 24 hours each day and 50% of tenant forgot to turn off their light.

The below table show the baseline power consumption which using traditional lighting switch.

After the study of the power consumption in the building, active energy efficiency control strategies are able to apply to the building. In the common area, dimming control, time scheduling and Occupancy detection are proposed.

The below are the detail control strategies of common area:

A: Entrance Lobby

Time Scheduling and Dimming Control:

12:00pm 5:00pm Dim down to 70% (compensated by daylight)

10:00pm 7:00am: Dim down to 50%

Turn on when no daylight

B: Lift Lobby Tenant

Occupancy Detection(Dimming Control):

Dim down to 30% when unoccupied

C: Lift Lobby Maid

Occupancy Detection(On/Off Control):

Turn off when unoccupied

D: Staircase

Occupancy Detection(On/Off Control):

Turn off when unoccupied

E: Club House (5/F & 6/F)

Time Scheduling (Dimming):

Dim down to 30% from 12:00pm t5:00am

After active energy efficiency strategies applied, the total power consumption per year decreased to $82000 which have 43.4% save compare with traditional lighting switch.

From the below equipment list of common area the total investment for the builder or landlord is $341000 and the return of investment for control system is only 4.2 years.

In the tenant area, dimming control, Scene control and Occupancy detection are proposed.

The below are the detail control strategies of tenant area:

A: Living & Dinning Room, Bed Rooms, WC, Kitchen, Bathroom, Storage Room

Master ON/OFF Switch (Control all lighting/Socket in Master Area or/and Maid Area)

Maid sub-master Switch ON only for part of lighting/Socket

Dimming Control

B: Corridor

Occupancy Detection (ON/OFF)

After active energy efficiency strategies applied, the total power consumption per year decreased to $430000 for all 37 storeys which have 57.7% save compare with traditional lighting switch.

From the below equipment list for tenant area the total investment for the builder or landlord is $591260 for 37 storeys and the return of investment for the control system is only 1.4 year.

Conclusion

There are three simple reasons why energy consumption cannot continue following current trends, first, there are not enough readily available energy sources tmeet the expected growth in demand and new sources will not be ready in time, second, fossil fuels cause pollution, which is damaging to the health of people, plants and animals, third, fossil fuels alslead tglobal warming that is likely to cause great hardship through flood and drought.

Therefore, energy dilemma is a problem where we cannot choose either of the possible solutions. It is not acceptable thalt or reverse growth in energy consumption because it stops economic expansion and development of emerging countries and may lead trecession in developed countries.

We cannot continue economic growth and development but suffer the consequences of continued pollution and global warming, and run out of the non-renewable energy sources we depend on.

In fact, energy efficiency offers a way out of the energy dilemma, provide a means to limit pollution and global warming, conserve supplies of non-renewable energy sources, and still provide the energy required for economic growth.

What mean by energy efficiency is the use of technology, processes and behavior to use less energy to provide the same levels of production or comfort. Passive energy efficiency reduces consumption by methods like low-consumption devices and insulation. These are important but not enough by themselves. Active energy efficiency uses monitoring; control, automation, and appropriate behavior tobtain savings and ensure those savings are not lost in the future.

Start with measurement because you do not change what you dont know, you dont know what you dont measure. Then, use the only necessary energy and only when necessary, make permanent improvements tprocesses, maintaining consistent performance through monitoring and maintenance services.

With nowadays technology measures equipment are easy to install, with a low implementation cost and a quick pay back, specifically when retrofitting existing building or installation. Active energy efficiency can be implemented in all sectors and is vital in addition to passive energy efficiency measures in order to reach the Co emissions reduction targets.

Calculating Carbon Footprint

Start with 3 points tcover emissions caused by government spending of your taxes on industry, health service, military etc. _3_

Energy use in your home

  • Does your electricity come from a renewable source, such as a wind turbine?

If so subtract 1/2 pt ___

  • Do you set your thermostat low? Is your home well insulated? Do you have

double glazing? Dyou only turn the heating on when absolutely necessary?

If you answer yes to at least two of these, take off 1 pt ___

Food and diet

  • Do you follow a vegan or vegetarian diet? Score 2 pts ___
  • Do you eat meat occasionally? Score 3 pts ___
  • Do you eat meat regularly? Score 4 pts ___
  • Do you eat meat with every meal? Score 5 pts ___

Transport do you travel:

  • Usually by car? Score 2 pts ___
  • Sometimes by car? Score 1 pt ___
  • Mostly by public transport? Score 1/2 pt ___
  • Mostly by walking or cycling? Score 0 pt ___
  • By plane, ever? For each two hour flight add a point ___

Holidays when you last went on holiday did you:

  • Stay in the state or country? Score 1/2 pt ___
  • Stay on your continent? Score 1 pt ___
  • Go somewhere off of your continent? Score 2 pts ___
  • If you went by car, add 1/2 pt ___
  • If you flew: make sure youve included your flight in the transport section above.

Materials and Waste

The consumption of material goods and the production of waste is normally the largest part of a footprint. Average waste is 2 black bags per week.

Do you have:

  • More than average rubbish? Score 12 pts, or 6 pts if you recycle ___
  • Average amount of rubbish? Score 8 pts, or 4 pts if you recycle ___
  • Below average amount of rubbish? Score 4 pts, or 2pts if you recycle ___

TOTAL: add up all your points tfind your score. ___

In your Carbon Footprint questionnaire did you score:

Under 5 - excellent!

You are living in one world - a truly low footprint lifestyle. If everyone lived like you, then human and non-human existence could be sustainable and equitable. About 69% of the worlds population has an ecological footprint in this range.

6 to 10 - well done!

You are close thaving a low footprint lifestyle. Even so, if everyone lived like you we would still need more than one planet to sustain us.

11 to 20 - not so good

If everyone lived like you we would need 2 or 3 additional planets to sustain us.

21+ oh dear!

If everyone on the planet lived like you we would need 3 or 4 additional planets to sustain us. About 5% of the worlds population has an ecological footprint in this range.

Here are some averages from around the world:

  • Luxembourg 21.6
  • United States 20.0
  • Australia 17.3
  • Canada 16.5
  • Finland 12.7
  • Germany 10.5
  • Denmark 9.7
  • Japan 9.5
  • United Kingdom 9.2
  • Norway 8.3
  • Italy 7.8
  • France 6.3
  • Sweden 5.9
  • China 2.9

Co emissions per country in tons per capita.

Source: wwww.Timeforchange.org

Ways Treduce Energy Consumption And / Or Pollution

Circle twtthree of the items below that you could dthis week tlimit your energy use.

1. Reduce, reuse, and recycle. One example is tprint and copy on both sides of office paper; then recycle it! Paper represents more than 70% of office waste.

2. Here are some things you can do around the house!

Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb - they use 60% less energy. This simple switch will prevent the release of about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.

Install a programmable thermostat - programmable thermostats will automatically lower the heat or air conditioning at night and raise

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