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The method I will take to study them will be; to devote time doing research in the LRC at south Cheshire College I have chosen to do this because there is a wealth of information available in the array of books in the library. The evidence that I will produce to support my research will be in the reference and bibliography the second approach will be to research on the internet. The internet although may not be totally perfect it has a vast array of knowledge which can be accessed very quickly.
Negotiating with Learners.
Negotiating with learners can be a very intimidating exercise and it can also be disheartening for the tutor or even the learner is going about it in the wrong way. The way in which a tutor or teacher shows this can either lead to the learner having great respect for the tutor or a lack of respect.
As a rule the teachers have had control of what happens in the classroom and the students have surrendered their freedom of choice after making the initial decision to do the course. (HEFCE, 2004).
The ability of the teacher to negotiate is affected by:
â€¢ The view of education within the organisation; the established view of how the organisation operates
â€¢ Personal factors which influence the extent to which the teacher feels comfortable
â€¢Negotiating with learners
â€¢The demands of the course which define the limits of what can be negotiated and to what extent
Areas of Negotiation
There becomes a point when at some time there begs the question what can be negotiated in the classroom.
It is good point to remember that the matter is never a straight forward choice between 'negotiable' and 'non-negotiable'. Between all the cases there has to be a range of negotiability, between both the teacher and the learner. There is always the possibility to reach some degree of negotiation though here are some examples.
â€¢ Course process
â€¢ Method of assessment
â€¢ Assessment process
â€¢ Assessment process
â€¢ Control and discipline
â€¢ Control and discipline
This gets well away from the conventional view of the learner's role where his or her control is largely abandoned after making the initial choice of course of study. (McCarthy, 2002).
Initial Assessment is the method of gathering information about how much the student knows. (Clues and Charlton, 2007).
Initial assessment of the learners' requirements and chosen learning style takes place before their courses starts. When this has been assessed by the course tutor then the Learners can be matched to the course that suits those most.
Learners are able to agree some or all of their learning goals in negotiation with tutors.
A helpful and respectful affiliation between learner and teacher enables the planning of achievable learning goals
Access to differentiated online learning resources can expose more extensive and appropriate ranges of options for the learners
Motivated learning through online resources and tutorials can enhance learners' confidence to take up more learning opportunities
Learning matches learners' lifestyles
The tutor can employ the use of different delivery methods in his or her lessons that can suit the different needs of the learners.
Heinich et al. categorized instructional methods into the following ten categories (Heinich et al. 2002):
6 Cooperative learning
10 Problem solving
Some research suggests that learners have different experiences when learning in the classroom so there are some points to remember when delivering the session
1 Keep it fun
2 Make it active
3 make it interesting
There ought to be no obstacles to education. Teachers deserve access to the content, tools, resources, and people that can help them do their valuable work. This section was created with one goal in mind: to help our colleagues connect with the resources they need to play a vital role in their classrooms and communities. (Teach without borders, 2010).
The most significant recourse of today has to be the computer. This used in together with an overhead projector is used to show power point presentations or film clips. This can also be used for the internet and used to show real-time clips from sites such as YouTube.
Adapting Session Plans
Adjusting the session plan can be very challenging and it needs to be looked at in detail so not to lose the main characteristic of the learning inside it. The following adjustments can be made to any session plans;
The appearance of the work, Try to cut the assignments into smaller more manageable chunks or create smaller tasks and explain what is asked from the learner and why.
Adjust the learning environment, make use of the technology available (computers, tape recorders, calculators, etc.), try to seat learners in a way free from any distractions
Adjust time constraints; maybe allow learners extra time to complete their task.
Functional skills are practical skills in English, mathematics and ICT that enable learners to deal with practical problems and challenges. They allow individuals to work confidently, effectively and independently in everyday life.
For example, they help us recognize good-value deals when making purchases, write an effective application letter, or use the internet (fssupport.org, accessed 26/02/2011)
Integrating Functional Skills within their studies include language, literacy, maths, ITC.
Functional skills will be embedded in key stage 3 and 4 and GCSEs at school and will play a compulsory role in all diplomas, apprenticeships and foundation learning and also being its own entity for adult learning.
Functional skills is an integral part of our lives, and it plays a key part in the government's strategy for the 14-19 year olds and the people in adult education. The delivery of function skills can be taught using an array of different methods, from individual tutorials to full group delivery.
Functional Skills qualifications in the subjects covered are there to help give the learner more self-confidence and their being able to cope better with the demands of everyday life.
There are a very large number of online content concerning barriers in communication. You can categorise some of the barriers to learning as
â€¢ Physical there can be insufficient lighting in the classroom or background noise or maybe the temperature is too hot or cold.
â€¢ Personal some learners may have psychological barriers or personal issues. It is common for learners to have personal issues.
So to try and take down some of those barriers we need to make the classroom feel as comfortable as possible try and create fewer distractions for the learners.
Gravells (2008) lists a lot of various barriers. These can be categorised as verbal, non-verbal and writing related issues. Verbal barriers this can be in the form of the tutor talking to slowly or even too quickly.
Having a strong or broad accent can be a barrier also
Lower level students can find it difficult and confusing if a more complicated words are used. Non-verbal can give reference to your body language and domineer, it is very important to get eye contact t with your lerners,always use a smile to give your learners a sense of warmth also get hands out of your pocket, try to use your hands and arms to express yourself.
There are also the written barriers in communication these can be from lack of pictures or images for example on hand-outs or overloading a slide with too much information.
Also the type of font used size and colour are examples of written barriers.
Nonverbal Communication (NVC) is also a useful tool i.e., verbal language is not the only source of communication. However, much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction, where it can be classified into three principal areas: environmental conditions where communication takes place, the physical characteristics of the communicators, and behaviours of communicators during interaction. Knapp & Hall, 2002, p.7
G. W. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories:
Physical. This is more of the personal type of communication. It includes the use of facial expressions, the different tones of a voice, sense of touch, sense of smell,
Aesthetic. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: like playing an instrumental, music, dancing, and painting.
Signs. This is the mechanical type of communication, which comprises of the use of say signal flags, the 21-gun salute for example also things like horns.
Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of say religious matter
Verbal Communication is the spoken orally and is an unwritten way of communicating. It uses words, vocabulary, numbers and symbols and is organized in sentences.
Barrier - physical or nonphysical obstacles or hindrances that can slow or stop communication. (CDCP, 2010).
The Disability Discrimination Act has a vital role to play in dismantling barriers and delivering equality of opportunity for disabled people in higher education. Initiatives to recognise diversity within the student population and to understand the continuum of learner differences will help institutions to recognise and reduce barriers to learning for disabled people. However, some barriers to learning may still persist, either because they are outside the control of institutions or because they are a feature of a person's impairment. (The OU, 2006).
Negotiating with learners can be a daunting task. At some point the all-important question has to be addressed: what, precisely, can be negotiated in the classroom, given the constraints established by consideration of the issues outlined in this paper. Initial assessment is fundamental to setting a base from which to teach. Learners are able to agree some or all of their learning goals in negotiation with tutors. The use of different delivery methods means that any tutor can branch out and deliver a session in many ways to suit the needs of the learner or the group. Teachers deserve access to the content, tools, resources, and people that can help them do their valuable work. Teachers and professional tutors need to work in partnership to respond to pupils' diverse needs. This can be achieved through careful school and curriculum planning which anticipates potential barriers to learning and the creative use of access strategies to overcome any difficulties.
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