Emotional Intelligence Of Teachers Education Essay

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INTRODUCTION

When we speak of a person's intelligence, we usually think of his or her knowledge or capacity to acquire knowledge. However, there are many different facets of intelligence, including problem solving, artistic intelligence, reasoning ability and creative intelligence. Emotional intelligence is one form of intelligence that extends to and affects all human beings.

Emotions, as most of know, are a powerful tool in motivating actions. When someone does something that we don't quite understand, they might tell us to 'walk a mile in my shoes.' This is because emotion very often overrides reason and causes outsiders to think that one is acting in irrational ways. Emotions when used properly are an indispensable tool for a successful and fulfilling life.

Emotional Intelligence refers to the effectiveness of an individual's response to his or her own feelings or emotions and to those of others. An emotionally intelligent person can use his or her understanding of emotion in harmony with good reasoning skills to make reasonable decisions while maintaining good relationships. Emotional Intelligence, simply put, is a learned ability to identify, understand, experience, and express human emotions in healthy and productive ways. Emotional experience and expression are unique to each teacher and student. No one else can think, express feelings, choose to behave, and act in the same way.

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The development of emotional intelligence is an intentional, active, and engaging process that allows emotions to become an effective tool that works for rather than against an individual.

Difference between IQ and EQ

"It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change." - Charles Darwin

Definitions

IQ - A number that signifies the relative intelligence of a person; as reported on a standardized test to the chronological age. IQ is primarily used to measure one's cognitive abilities, such as the ability to learn or understand new situations; how to reason through a given problem/scenario; the ability to apply knowledge to one's current situations

EQ - A measure of one's emotional intelligence, as defined by the ability to use both emotional and cognitive thought. Emotional intelligence skills include but are not limited to empathy, intuition, creativity, flexibility, resilience, stress management, leadership, integrity, authenticity, intrapersonal skills and interpersonal skills. It is the emotionally intelligent

Traits of Emotionally Intelligent People

They listen well and have great oral communication skills. They have mastered the art of listening, can hold off giving their opinion, and keep an open mind to what is being said. They also can speak in a positive, friendly and encouraging manner even when giving constructive feedback.

They are adaptable and have creative responses to setbacks and obstacles. These super star performers look creatively and hopefully at setbacks and turn those obstacles into opportunities.

Highly successful people have strong personal management skills and confidence. They don't need to have someone constantly supervising them to complete the job. They do things in an organized manner and are confident of the outcome.

Highly effective business people possess group and interpersonal effectiveness. Top performers have exceptional group skills in cooperation, teamwork, and negotiating skills.

They are effective in the organization they work in. They want to make a contribution to the organization and have leadership potential. They often start with informal power and then are promoted to formal leadership.

They posses the emotional skill of self-control. They are composed under pressure and remain calm, confident, and dependable.

They are conscientious. Peak performers take responsibility to fix problems and then move on.

High performers are trustworthy. They have high integrity, with concern for the needs of others.

Our superstars have great social skills. They are empathetic, sensitive and show tact for all levels of workers around them.

They build bonds and leverage diversity. They demonstrate cooperation, appreciate, and enrol the diversity of people around them.

CHAPTER II

PRESENT STUDY

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The present study has been specifically intended to study the emotional intelligence of teachers. The relative contributions of independent variables (gender, age, qualification, institution type and school board) are investigated in this study.

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The problem is stated as

A Study of Emotional Intelligence of Teachers

METHODOLOGY

The present study focuses on the study of emotional intelligence of teachers. 'Action Research' is a method of collecting and analysing data obtained from respondents representing a specific population collected through highly structured and detailed questionnaire. Data are gathered, tabulated, classified, interpreted and then generalisations are made. Everything proceeds towards understanding and solving educational problems.

NEED OF THE STUDY

Educators live in a time of rapid change and increased demands. Teaching can be a stressful profession. Often unrealistic expectations, lack of clear performance standards and constructive feedback, increasing physical demands and added responsibilities, inadequate pay and resources, etc. lead to teacher dissatisfaction. High levels of negative stress lead to burnout and results in physical and psychological problems that exhaust their response abilities making it difficult for teachers to remain effective in demanding classroom environments.

In such a scenario the teacher is demoralized and is unable to motivate the students. The teacher lacks innovation and is not likely to design new teaching practices that can stimulate and boost students' ability to learn. The teacher is unable to use time and resources effectively. Interpersonal relations with other members of the staff are also strained. This results in poor working conditions, which affects the entire school system. Under such conditions when teachers find themselves faced with the additional responsibility of learning a new curriculum/system, it brings in added stress. They become resistant to change or adaptation.

The investigator is pursuing a B.Ed. course. The investigator has chosen the topic "Emotional Intelligence of Teachers in International schools and State schools" in order to find the extent to which this intelligence is inherent in teachers. The investigator realizes how important it is for teachers to possess this form of intelligence in order to accomplish the sole aim of all round holistic development of the students.

The investigator also realizes that the need exists for teachers to develop their own emotional abilities in order to equip them to better to face the future challenges of increased student diversity and inconsistency in learning skills. To achieve the high goals and expectations of education in the 21st century, the intentional inclusion and development of emotional intelligence skills in teacher preparation programs and student development programs are required.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To study the emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to the type of school.

To study the emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their gender.

To study the emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their age level.

To study the emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their subject of specialisation.

To study the emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to the Post Graduation degree.

To study the emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their professional qualification.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION

Emotional Intelligence: The ability of teacher to analyse and understand relationships, take someone else's perspective, resolve conflicts, and manage one's own anger.

Teachers: The teachers of DR. PILLAI GLOBAL ACADEMY, New Panvel and the teachers of MAHATMA SCHOOL OF ACADEMICS AND SPORTS, Khanda Colony, New Panvel.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to the teachers of DR. PILLAI GLOBAL ACADEMY, NEW PANVEL and the secondary school teacher of MAHATMA SCHOOL OF ACADEMICS AND SPORTS, KHANDA COLONY, NEW PANVEL.

The study does not include other schools of Navi Mumbai like Kalamboli, CBD, Belapur and Vashi. The investigator used the method of survey for the study. A questionnaire of 34 items was used as a tool for the study. The study is restricted to the teachers belonging to schools practicing International curriculum of CIE (Cambridge International Examinations) and IBO (International Baccalaureate Organisation) and the Maharashtra State Board curriculum. It does not include the curriculum from other boards like CBSE and ICSE.

SAMPLE

The sample selected for the study was of DR. PILLAI GLOBAL ACADEMY, NEW PANVEL and the secondary school teachers of MAHATMA SCHOOL OF ACADEMICS AND SPORTS, KHANDA COLONY, NEW PANVEL. The teachers were 15 (50%)in number each, from both the schools.

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Gender: 30% of the samples were males while 70% of the samples were females.

Age: 33.3% of the sample belonged to the age-group of 21-30 years old, 43.3% of the sample belonged to the age-group of 31-40 years old, 16.7% of the sample belonged to the age-group of 41-50 years old and 6.7% of the sample belonged to the age-group of 51-60 years old.

TOOLS EMPLOYED FOR THE STUDY

To study a problem, one may use various devices. Selecting the right tool is very important for the success of the research. A questionnaire of 34 items was used to assess the problem.

Tool - Questionnaire for teachers:

The questionnaire for the teachers was meant to evaluate the emotional intelligence of the teachers. The questionnaire was divided into 11 dimensions as follows:

9% of the questions were based on Motivation

12% of the questions were based on Decision

6% of the questions were based on Self dependence

18% of the questions were based on Management

12% of the questions were based on Responsibility

21% of the questions were based on Interpersonal

3% of the questions were based on Flexibility

3% of the questions were based on Emotional Control

6% of the questions were based on Optimistic

6% of the questions were based on Ethics

6% of the questions were based on Self Concept

Administration of Tool

The investigator solicited the cooperation of the teachers by explaining the purpose of the study to both the groups of teachers. The investigator personally administered the tool to the teachers after seeking their cooperation.

CHAPTER III

DATA ANALYSIS

Table 1

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to type of school

Sr. no.

Dimensions

Type of School

International School

Mean

State School

Mean

1

Motivation

11.07

12.00

2

Decision

15.67

16.93

3

Self Dependant

8.93

8.47

4

Management

23.93

25.80

5

Responsible

16.07

16.67

6

Interpersonal

27.73

29.40

7

Flexibility

4.27

4.40

8

Emotional Control

3.80

3.60

9

Optimistic

8.87

8.93

10

Ethical

7.73

8.80

11

Self Confident

8.80

8.53

Overall

136.87

143.53

From Table 1 it is revealed that:

Overall emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to schools was high for State Board schools (143.53) and the same was low for International School (136.87).

It is found that dimensions of motivation, decision, management, ethical and interpersonal relations were higher for State Schools. However, dimensions such as self-confidence, emotional control and self-dependence were lower in case of State Schools.

Figure 1

Emotional Intelligence of Teachers with respect to Type of School

Table 2

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to gender

Sr. no.

Dimensions

Gender

Male (Mean)

Female (Mean)

1

Motivation

11.67

11.48

2

Decision

16.67

16.14

3

Self Dependant

9.00

8.57

4

Management

26.00

24.38

5

Responsible

17.22

16.00

6

Interpersonal

29.44

28.19

7

Flexibility

4.44

4.29

8

Emotional Control

4.22

3.48

9

Optimistic

9.11

8.81

10

Ethical

8.33

8.24

11

Self Confident

9.22

8.43

Overall

145.33

138.00

From Table 2 it is revealed that:

Overall emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to gender was high for Males (145.33) and the same was low for females (138.00)

It is found that all the dimensions of motivation, decision, management, ethical, self-confidence, emotional control, self-dependence and interpersonal relations were higher for males.

Figure 2

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to gender

Table 3

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to Age Group

Sr. no.

Dimensions

Age Group (Mean)

21 - 30

31 - 40

41 - 50

51 - 60

1

Motivation

11.20

11.62

12.00

11.50

2

Decision

15.90

16.31

16.60

17.50

3

Self Dependant

8.50

8.54

9.00

10.00

4

Management

24.20

24.92

25.40

26.50

5

Responsible

16.60

16.54

15.20

17.00

6

Interpersonal

27.80

29.00

28.40

30.00

7

Flexibility

4.20

4.38

4.40

4.50

8

Emotional Control

3.20

3.77

4.20

4.50

9

Optimistic

8.90

8.92

8.60

9.50

10

Ethical

7.50

8.69

8.40

9.00

11

Self Confident

8.50

8.85

8.20

9.50

Overall

136.50

141.54

140.40

149.50

From Table 3 it is revealed that:

Overall emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to age group was highest for age group 51 - 60 (149.50) followed by age group 31 - 40 (141.54) which is followed by age group 41 - 50 (140.40) which group 21 - 30 (136.50) being the lowest.

It is found that the teacher in the age group of 51 - 60 scored highest in all dimensions namely decision, self dependent, responsible, ethics, management, interdependent, flexible, emotional control, optimistic and self control.

Figure 3

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to Age Group

Table 4

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to subject of specialization

Sr. no.

Dimensions

Subject Of Specialization (Mean)

B.A

B.Sc.

B.Com

1

Motivation

11.80

11.38

11.43

2

Decision

17.30

16.00

15.43

3

Self Dependant

9.10

8.69

8.14

4

Management

25.60

25.31

23.00

5

Responsible

17.10

16.08

15.86

6

Interpersonal

28.80

28.54

28.29

7

Flexibility

4.30

4.38

4.29

8

Emotional Control

3.70

3.77

3.57

9

Optimistic

8.90

8.92

8.86

10

Ethical

8.50

8.23

8.00

11

Self Confident

8.70

8.54

8.86

Overall

143.80

139.85

135.71

From Table 4 it is revealed that:

Overall emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to specialization of subject was highest for B.A (143.80) followed by B.Sc. (139.85) and it was lowest for B.Com (135.71)

It is found that the teacher with B.A. as the subject of specialization scored highest in the dimensions of motivation, decision, self-dependent, responsibility and ethics, while teacher with Commerce as the subject of specialization is the lowest showing relatively low scores in dimensions like responsible.

Figure 4

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to subject of specialization

Table 5

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their Post Graduation Degree

Sr. no.

Dimensions

Professional Qualification (Mean)

Without Post Graduation (PG)

With Post Graduation (PG)

1

Motivation

11.53

11.53

2

Decision Making

16.00

16.60

3

Self Dependent

8.80

8.60

4

Management

23.80

25.93

5

Responsible

16.60

16.13

6

Interpersonal

28.73

28.40

7

Flexible

4.33

4.33

8

Emotional Control

3.60

3.80

9

Optimistic

9.00

8.80

10

Ethical

8.27

8.27

11

Self Confident

8.60

8.73

Overall

139.27

141.13

From Table 5 it is revealed that:

Overall emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their Post Graduation qualification was higher (141.13) for those with Post Graduation degree and lower (139.27) for those without a Post Graduation degree.

It is found that the dimension of motivation is the same for both the groups. However, dimensions like decision-making, management, responsible and flexible are high while those of self-dependent, emotional control and ethics are high.

Figure 5

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their Post Graduation Degree

Table 6

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their Professional Qualification

Sr. no.

Dimensions

Professional Qualification (B.Ed.)

Without Professional Qualification

With Professional Qualification

1

Motivation

11.50

11.55

2

Decision

16.50

16.23

3

Self Dependant

8.88

8.64

4

Management

23.37

25.41

5

Responsible

16.75

16.23

6

Interpersonal

27.88

28.82

7

Flexibility

4.38

4.32

8

Emotional Control

3.63

3.73

9

Optimistic

9.00

8.86

10

Ethical

7.88

8.41

11

Self Confident

8.88

8.59

Overall

138.63

140.77

From Table 7 it is revealed that:

Overall emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their Professional Qualification (B.Ed.) was higher (140.77) for those with B.Ed. degree and lower (138.63) for those without B.Ed. degree.

It is found that the dimensions of motivation, management, interpersonal, emotional control and ethics are high for teachers with the B.Ed. degree. However, they are low in the dimensions of decision making, self-dependent, responsible, flexible, optimistic and self-confidence.

Figure 6

Emotional intelligence of teachers with respect to their Professional Qualification

INTERPRETATION

When samples of the International schools and the state schools were compared it was found that the emotional intelligence of teachers in state schools was higher than that of the teachers in the International school.

This may be because the International school is a new school, which started operations during this academic year i.e. 2009-2010. Being a new school, the teachers are still trying to settle down and learn everything about the school system, its administrative system, etc. The international boards being new to the country as well as to the teachers, there is a certain degree of anxiety amongst the teaching group. They have to spend longer hours trying to draw parallels with the teaching resources available and the resources prescribed. This adds to the time spent in doing the same tasks, which may lead to building up of stress. Another important factor could be that the international school is a high-tech school with ample use of technology. The classrooms are interactive classrooms and involve the use of modern equipment. Most of the teachers may be unfamiliar to this kind of environment and find it difficult to adjust to the same. They might be reluctant to ask for help and thus develop a complex. Teachers worry about making mistakes and are thus exposed to higher levels of stress.

As compared to this, the state school has been functional for the last 20 years and is a more stable system. The teachers here, have developed a high degree of familiarity with the system and hence exhibit higher levels of emotional security and intelligence. This may be so because the state board has been into practice for a fairly long time. Teachers as well as students are familiar with the system and regulations. Parents too are accustomed with this system and hence the level of comfort is high in these teachers.

It is observed that the emotional intelligence of the male sample is found to be higher than that of the female population. This could be because the male teachers are able to focus on their jobs even after school hours as they do not have much to do after school hours, at home. However, female teachers have higher domestic responsibilities and become the provider and nurturer to their families once they reach home. This being the case, they may feel less prepared or lack the level of efficiency exhibited by their male counterparts as far as preparedness is concerned, which would add to their level of stress.

Another observation is that the emotional intelligence of teachers from the Arts stream is the highest, while that of the Commerce stream is the lowest. This may be because the Art stream teachers teach the subjects English, history, geography, etc. are generally involved in the development of the value system and ethics of students in the school. They are responsible in developing a healthy attitude in students towards social discipline, social awareness, and social problems thereby moulding them into healthy contributing citizens of the nation and often schools practice yoga and other disciplinary forms to instil this discipline into the students. These activities reduce their stress level and increase their emotional control.

It is also seen that the emotional intelligence of teachers in the age group of 51 - 60 is the highest as they are more experienced and have been practicing for a long time now. It is also seen that teachers possessing the post graduation degree exhibit a higher level of Emotional Intelligence. This may be because they have a higher command over the subject due to the in depth study done during the post graduation years. They are also efficient in managing the school resources efficiently and shoulder bigger responsibilities. Besides they also enjoy higher levels of self esteem as well as salary scale due to the higher qualification leading to higher levels of Emotional Intelligence.

Finally it is seen that teacher with the professional qualification of B.Ed. displayed higher levels of Emotional Intelligence. This may be because this course orients and prepares them for the challenges they may face in the process of teaching and thus

they are well prepared with the right tools as well as attitude to deal with the problems. Thus they feel less stressed and are better prepared. The subjects of the 'Bachelor of Education' programme help to equip the teachers to handle the class effectively, aware about philosophical, psychological and technological aspects about the teaching profession. This programme helps teachers recognize the importance and values of the teaching profession. It helps teachers to become aware about the psychological principles of children which then allow them to manage the class effectively. During the training period, teachers plan lessons, practice lessons, go through internships, etc. All this experience gives teachers an insight and helps them know more about the problems that they may face in the classrooms. Community service projects helps teachers become aware of real life issues prevalent in society and realise their role of a social engineer.

CHAPTER IV

SUGGESTIONS

In order to improve the performance of the teachers, the level of emotional intelligence of teachers need to be raised. Following are some of the recommendations:

Teachers need to be educated about Emotional Intelligence and trained on methods which would help them identify their emotions and allow them to rationalise and control them. This will help in improving their interpersonal relations along with improving their personal well being. A workshop on Emotional intelligence as well as REBT (Rational Emotional Behaviour Therapy) will help to a very large extent.

When recruiting teachers for the international school, care should be taken that the most appropriate candidate with requisite qualifications are appointed. On appointment, the fresh teachers should be oriented to the international programmes and teamed with an experienced teacher in the school who would then be the mentor for the new teacher and guide them on the affairs of the school.

The teachers of the international school should be provided dedicated time to study and understand the international curriculum so that they are able to understand the content and the format ways of delivering it. They should be asked to make lesson plans that reflect the philosophy of the school as well as the international organisation.

The school should encourage teachers without professional qualifications to pursue the same so as to increase efficiency and confidence by helping them

understand the psychology of the students and understand the science behind the methods they employ in the teaching process.

The teachers should be sent for subject workshops conducted by the respective organisations which are led by veteran teachers so that they have the opportunity to interact with these teachers who have dealt with the subjects for a long period of time and have gained deep insight into the philosophy as well as the techniques of dealing and delivering the subject. This will raise their level of confidence.

They should also be encouraged to interact and network with teachers of other similar schools so that they are able to share information and benefit from each other's experiences instead of groping in the dark.

The new teacher should be trained on using the equipment available as resources in the school. This will ensure that there is maximum utilisation of the resources and also ensure that the objectives of the school are achieved.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION

The development of emotional intelligence is an intentional, active, and engaging process. Affective learning requires a person-centered process for teacher and student growth and development. When emotional intelligence skills are a focus of learning, teachers and students build human development behaviours that are intricately related to the positive outcomes of achievement, goal achievement, and personal well being.

Emotionally healthy behaviour is reflected in characteristic ways of thinking, identifying, managing, and expressing feelings, and choosing effective behaviours.

By examining the emotional intelligence of staff members and determining effective ways to manage environments that are influenced by emotional intelligence, leaders can create cooperative learning situations that will benefit students. Emotional intelligence is not stagnant, but rather something that can be improved and learned. By posing case studies, suggesting thought-provoking questions, and offering suggestions on the ways, teachers will be able to improve their emotional intelligence.

REFERENCES

http://www.aiaer.net/ejournal/vol19207/12._Singaravellu.htm

http://www.developingteachers.com/articles_tchtraining/intelligence1_steve.htm

http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Z9-xmTTE4FMC&pg=PT4&lpg=PT4&dq=emotional+intelligence+of+student+teachers&source=bl&ots=Jyz_wU1qX3&sig=srbW2ibd0P-yKdwtPAKBOzI4ZA8&hl=en&ei=qRONS8_nO8-9rAfezN2VAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CB0Q6AEwBzgo#v=onepage&q=emotional%20intelligence%20of%20student%20teachers&f=false