Emotional Intelligence May Predict Coping Strategies Education Essay

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Studies conducted by Montes-Berges et al., with nursing students have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. They examined the role of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, in the use of stress-coping strategies, in the quantity and quality of social support and in the mental health of nursing students. The results indicated positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and mental health. Hierarchy regression analysis pointed out that clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support, and emotional repair is the main predictor of mental health. These results show the importance of PEI in stress coping within the nursing framework.

Naidoo et al., (2008) has conducted a survey to gain some understanding of the explanatory factors for stress and an evaluation of the role that emotional intelligence (EI) plays in the experience of perceived stress (PS). It also aimed to compare EI and PS and explore the association between academic background, satisfaction with career choice and EI, and PS in first year dental students. The Survey was conducted on 43 male and 55 female students, Results of Correlation analysis between EI and PS indicated a statistically significant inverse relationship between EI and PS. Stepwise regression analysis identified significant predictors of PS as gender, previous higher education qualification, satisfaction with decision to study dentistry and EI. The t statistic indicates that EI is relatively the most important predictor of PS. The finding revealed that low EI is associated the stress.

EI Training and Development Interventions

Many scholars have written on EI; but there exist limited evidence on how to develop it (Grant, 2007; Riggio and Lee, 2007; Watkin, 2000, Wong et al., 2007). No international framework is available for those who seek to enhance EI. Previous EI training and development interventions are generally based on one of the known EI modelscompetency, ability, or mixed models of EI. Clarke (2006) argues that "in relation to mixed models and competency models of EI there have been some positive findings reported suggesting that training can have an impact on developing some of the key interpersonal and intrapersonal dimensions associated with the identified emotional competencies or traits" (p. 428). Though not published in peer reviewed journals, in one study EI levels of sample participants (two groups of 20 Brazilian managers and consultants and 19 participants from a large US accounting organization) were assessed using ECI-2. The sample then participated in two five-day EI workshops designed to educate them on EI competencies. Finally, after eight months for the first group and 14 months for the second group, participants' progress was measured by another 360-degree ECI-2 test. Results showed significant improvement on 8 out of 20 EI competencies for the first group, and 19 out of 20 for the second (Sala, 2002).

In one study Groves et al. (2008), in order to test the possibility of deliberate EI development, chose to design their EI training program based on the Mayer and Salovey (1997) ability model. Their 11-week leadership development program focused on EI was provided for 75 fully-employed business students (having a control group of 60 from the same group). They designed Emotional Intelligence Self-description Inventory (EISDI) for EI measurement specifically for training applications the items of which was derived from Mayer and Salovey (1997) model. Data analysis showed that the treatment group had improved across each EI dimension (perception and appraisal of emotions, facilitating thinking with emotions, understanding emotion, and regulation and management of emotion) and the control group did not show any improvements.

In an interesting study Grant (2007) compared the results from a 13-week and a two-day EI training program. He showed that the former was more effective andenhanced EI and coaching skills of the participants, while the latter was not significantly effective in increasing EI scores. In the 13-week study, he conducted 13 face-to-face training seminars which was attended by 23 students studying goal-focused coaching as a part of a postgraduate degree program in management and psychology, and wished to learn coaching skills for use in workplace or professional development. The two-day "Manager as Coach" training program was attended by 20 middle-level managers as a part of professional development. In both cases a pre and post test design was utilized. Scores of EI abilities showed significant improvement following the 13-week program, while no improvement was gained over the two-day program (both captured by Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale). He concluded that perhaps longer training programs are more effective in improving EI. Latif (2004) conducted a management skills course that sought to examine the impact of the management skills course on EI improvements of 65 first-year Doctor of Pharmacy students. Based on social learning theory and following skill assessment, skill learning, skill analysis, skill practice, and skill application steps, improvements were observed using pre-/post EI tests adopted from Weisinger's (1998, as cited in Latif, 2004) work. Some scholars have dedicated time and effort to describe guidelines for delivering effective EI programs (Bagshaw, 2000; Cherniss, 2000; Cherniss and Caplan, 2001; Goleman, 1998; Orme and Langhorn, 2003). Bagshaw (2000) describes three factors necessary for the effectiveness of EI training programs: first, the participants must be ready, second, EI requirements for a job must be recognized, and finally, change must be continuously reinforced. Cherniss and Goleman (2001) provide an optimal process for promoting EI in work organizations including four steps: (1) pre-contemplation and contemplation; (2) preparation; (3) action; and (4) maintenance.

Workshop-based interventions are also found to be effective at improving EI (Sala, 2002). Clarke (2006) discusses alternative means other than training programs, most notably through workplace or on-the-job learning methods. Findings from these interventions provide evidence regarding the effectiveness of emotional competence training and development efforts, though they are relatively limited in number. Despite these facts, researchers on the EI training and development interventions are challenged by critics. Clarke (2006) points to the difficulty in making an appropriate comparison or judgment regarding the effectiveness of any EI development interventions, which is due to the lack of coherence in conceptualizing EI, and the absence of consistency reflected within the literature analyzing the development of EI.

Along the same lines, Groves et al. (2008, p. 229) argue that the failures in the available

EI interventions are limited by three general issues:

(1) EI conceptual and measurement concerns;

(2) Limited information concerning the training treatment and short duration of      treatment; and

(3) Absence of a control group and/or necessary statistical controls.

However, various studies quoted in the this chapter & literature review have tried to determine the impact of using and managing emotions in the workplace and the difference between employees in dealing with emotions and the impact this may have on other variables within the work environment such as team work, leadership and managerial effectiveness, sales performance, organisational commitment, job stress, job satisfaction. Though, relatively little research has been conducted in examining the role of emotional intelligence in moderating these relationships and suggesting emotional intelligence training programs especially in the Indian organisational setup.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

The utility of emotional intelligence has been found manifold insightful into personal productivity, work / life-balance, team performance, career-success, stress management, motivation, talent retention, leadership, conflict resolution, customer satisfaction and so on. Further development of emotional intelligence skills can benefit a broad range of people within an organization, namely bank professionals, business executives, team leaders, sales professionals, technical professionals, customer service representatives, etc.

As the ability to get things done through people is the vital task of the managers, emotional quotient is an important factor. If managers do not balance their intelligence quotient skills with emotional intelligence like understanding and empathy, employees might feel insecure and unappreciated. At times they can even feel underestimated, criticized and disrespected. These negative feelings can result in seething dissatisfaction leading to absenteeism, passivity, lack of productivity and attrition. As an employee with desired potential is scarce these days, only those who are adept in retaining employees can excel in their jobs and competitive environment.

The research in this field becomes all the more desired in case of Bank Employees as they go through the emotional turmoil besides the pressures of the competitive environment where they are often confronted with situations and problems which cannot be resolved by intelligence alone, for which emotions are equally required. Also they are responsible for achieving results by relying more on people. Their ability to lead quickly and flexibly system-wide organizational change, while inspiring and energizing their followers cannot be discounted for. Enhancing emotional intelligence skills of banking employees will help them to regulate their emotions and motivate themselves more effectively, allowing them to manage their own emotional turmoil effectively and demonstrate compassion and empathy for their employees. Also this will help management devise programs to cultivate a high degree of emotional intelligence for effective management and development of human resources and achieving managerial excellence.

Since emotional intelligence is expected to play a major role in moderating behavioral issues and related outcomes so it will be desirable to study emotional intelligence among bank employees working in different banks. We all know that behavior outcomes and emotions are related but how far performance suffers and stress levels rise because of the lack of emotional skills is a question that still bothers our mind. There is a little evidence to support the claim that emotional intelligence predicts better performance and moderates employee's job stress especially among bank employees in the Indian setup.

Objectives of the Studies

To study present level of work stress in banking sector.

To study the practices of EI in banking sector.

To gauge the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and occupational stressors and strain

To study the impact of Emotional Intelligence in predicting stressors and Strains.

To study feasible ways and means to reduce the occupational stress through EI competencies.

Hypothesis

Based on the above objectives, Three hypotheses were formulated to assess the job Stress level, presence of EI and the relationship between EI and workplace variables. Examination of relevant literature presented in this thesis allowed for some specific hypotheses to be made in current Study.

H1: There is a strong impact of EI competencies to prevent the stress in job.

H1a: There is High Level of Stress among Bank Employees.

H1b: Emotional Intelligence practices are not prevalent in Banking Sector in Jammu &         Kashmir.

H1c: There is a Strong Correlation between Job Stress and Emotional Intelligence.

Scope of the Study

In view of the specific objectives of the study and hypothesis developed, the methodology for carrying out this study will include the research questions, research design, sample selection, sources of the data and the research technique. The main theme in view of the objectives of present research is to investigate the phenomenon of job stress and EI in the perspective of overall operational working of banking sector. The research design will be to evaluate impact of EI, its handling and operationalisation to reduce job stress. The area of present study is commercial banks included in the sample of this research study. The bank organisations will be chosen on the criteria such as, large size banks, medium size banks and small size banks on the bases of their network, size, assets, loans, employee Demographic & career variables and financing by banks.

In carrying out the present study both primary and secondary sources of data collection will be used, besides the questionnaire package consisting of the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (Palmer & Stough, 2001) and the Occupational Stress Questionnaire will be used. The questionnaires will be pre-tested to detect loophole, if any, so as to make them more purposeful and practical. Appropriate statistical tests will be used to analyze data collected for testing the hypothesis for comparative study of EI and job stress among bank employees. The present study is exploratory in nature.

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