Emotional Intelligence And Organisational Effectiveness Education Essay

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Introduction:

This is a self motivated statement by Pulitzer Prize winner Robert Frost (American Poet) that speaks of a person's aspiration to reach higher pedestals in life without getting distracted by vicissitudes of life. It is any entrepreneur's dream to have employees with this level of self motivation. But the fact is a far cry from the ideal picture. According to the Gallup Management Journal's Employee Engagement Index, 29% of employees are actively engaged in their jobs, 54% are not-engaged, and 17% are actively disengaged. The statistics on workforce engagement are surprising. Almost two third of the workers are either moderately engaged or not engaged. *

Obviously, it is hard to ignore this wake up call. Managing human resource for productive reasons has global implication too. Human resources play a crucial role in the development process of modern economics. As quoted by Sitaram Singh in his book, Arthur Lewis observed, "There are great differences in development between countries which seem to have roughly equal resources, so it is necessary to enquire into the difference in human behaviour." (Lewise, 1965) [1] . Considering that India is one of the world's fastest emerging economies, developing human resources for competitive advantage should be one of the prime concerns for organizations operating in India.

According to NASSCOM reports, the IT-BPO industry will witness a healthy growth in this year, led by growth in the core markets and supplemented by significant contributions from emerging markets. The Indian IT-BPO Industry is expected to exceed USD 70 billion in FY'11. The improving demand scenario has led to increased hiring and therefore employment grew by almost 9% in a demand constrained environment. The industry headcount addition is expected to double this year to touch 200,000 new employees, leading to 2.5 million direct employment.

"People are our greatest asset "is a clichéd statement we often encounter in annual reports and journals of various organizations. It is an uncontested fact that people are the assets on which competitive advantage is built, whether in the public or private sector, in the corporate world or in the world of education, especially due to the shift of focus from manufacturing sector to service orientation. Companies spent a huge amount of resources like time, money and energy to improve their business and to bring in the cutting edge by adopting the best strategies like Six sigma, Employee empowerment, Information sharing matrix, Business ownership, Superior work life balance, Learning organizations etc. A common thread running within all this is Human Resource- indisputably the most importance resource for an organization. Therefore, studies concerning improvement of Human Resource have greater significance.

1.1Back ground of the theme of research

Growing awareness that Emotional Intelligence is critical for work success has captured the attention of many business houses. According to Goleman(1998) the factor that separates a superior performer from an average performer is Emotional Intelligence. When Goleman reviewed competency models of 121 companies for 181 different positions, it was found that almost two third of the competencies required for effective performance were emotional competencies. Emotions are integral part of human behavior. In Charles Darwin's book, 'The expression of emotions in Man and Animals' (1872), he wrote about emotional valence and intensity. According to Darwin's model, there are 7 primary emotions, which include; Happiness, Surprise, Disgust, Contempt, Anger, Fear and Sadness. Intensity could be experienced and understood by the individual himself and may be expressed in terms of percentage. Darwin postulates that facial expression of basic emotions is universal and can be understood by people across different cultures. Emotions are inside out and outside in. An individual tends to feel the emotion congruous to the facial expression. For instance, frowning will create the emotion of resentment.

Every, people-oriented job demands correct use of emotions, though emotions by itself will not take you very far in career. Even though emotions are an intrinsic part of our biological make up, our cultural wisdom prevents us from exhibiting emotions in work place. The experience of emotion is determined from the point of view of the individual and is very subjective. It has a biochemical and hormonal component. Expressing emotions, including the negative emotions, is natural. It indeed requires training to choose the right degree of expression of emotion in response to daily events of life.

Many researchers have strengthened the body of research pertaining to emotions. Robert Plutchik (1980) has contributed to this field by creating wheel of emotions that talk about primary and secondary emotions and varying combinations of emotions and intensity of emotions.

Robert Plutchiks Wheel of Emotions

Source : Robert Plutchik,(1980) Emotion: A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis, New York: Harper & Row, 1980. ISBN 0-06-045235-8

Robert Plutchik (1980) describes the relation between emotion concepts, analogous to the colours in the colour wheel. Like the colours of wheel, primary emotions can be combined to form secondary emotions. For example, Fear and Surprise together can produce awe. In the wheel of emotions, 8 primary emotions (Trust Vs Disgust, Joy Vs Sadness, Fear Vs Anger, Surprise Vs Anticipation) are arranged in 8 sectors of 4 pairs of opposites. The segments contain positive and negative emotions of varying degrees. For instance, apprehension, if not controlled at the right time will increase in degree to become sadness, ultimately culminating in grief. Similarly, annoyance can become anger and can be heightened to become a state of rage. The intense emotions takes a lot of energy and are generally short lived and eventually gets converted in to more natural and enduring lesser degrees of emotions.

Correct use of emotions will contribute to successful and fulfilling life. At the same time, out of control emotions can prove to be disastrous. In work life as well as personal life, it can affect individual's self identity, relationship with others and task completion. Psychology connected articles often mention about " Amygdala hijack", a term originally coined by Daniel Goleman (1996) in his book " Emotional Intelligence - Why it can matter more than IQ ?". To understand the concept of Amygdala hijack, it is essential to digress a little from the research topic to mention a few biological concepts briefly. Different environmental stimuli received by different sensory organs are processed by Thalamus in the brain and it directs the information to Neocortex ( The Thinking brain) that routes the signal to Amygdala ( The Emotional brain). The Amygdala then releases peptides and hormones to the blood stream to generate emotion and action. But when high degree of perceived threats are encountered, the smooth sequence is disrupted and Thalamus bypasses Cortex and directly send s signals to Amygdala , which in turn generates the primitive fight or flight response, there by generating irrational and disruptive emotions, leading to Amygdala hijacking. This amounts to out of control behavior which leads to workplace rage

Though emotions have such a strong biological base , emotions and responses to emotions can be tamed. Learning to master the emotions and utilizing the appropriate emotions at the work place will go a long way in achieving a successful balance in the work place. Controlling the disruptive emotions before it erupts in to heightened form will ensure harmonious work environment. This makes it imperative to understand Emotional competence and Emotional Intelligence.

Until the last two decades, it was strongly believed that IQ is all it takes to be successful life. Gardner's multiple intelligence theory in the early 1980s brought in a different perspective and outlook towards intelligence and brought inter personal and intra personal intelligence to the fore front. Emphasizing Gardner's view point, Steven Covey in 1990 wrote a book, " 7 habits of highly effective people" wherein he said that verbal and reasoning ability form a very small spectrum of human intelligence and inter and intra personal skills are most important for being effective and successful. Slowly, many more researchers added on to the body of research, where they concluded that non cognitive ability is equally or more important than IQ.

It is evident that individual competency of employee contributes to organizational success, but the socio -behavioral characteristics and work place adjustments of an individual largely determines an employee's success in his job. A contemporary organisation's employee needs to think globally and act locally to arrive at career success.

The current research has implications at individual, organizational and national level. According to Sumantra Ghosal, renowned professor of strategic leadership of London Business school and formerly Harvard university, "The most important source of a nation's progress is quality of its management" (Mann 2000 pp23). Since the core objective of the study is to identify the positive impact of Emotional Intelligence on career success of individual employee, which will contribute to organizational success and there by, betterment of Nation, the study has National relevance.

According to Zeidner , Mathews and Roberts (2001), people with high level of Emotional Intelligence experience more career success, build more stronger personal relationships ,lead more effectively and enjoy better health than those with lower EQ . More motivated, emotionally healthy and socially cohesive work force is a sure sign of reduced trend of "brain drain" (Other countries taking away the cream of indigenous talents).

At organizational level, it is understood that EQ of employees play a major role in company's progress. The Tata Group, for instance, identifies future leaders based on a combination of experience and emotional intelligence - self awareness, self management, self motivation, empathy and social skills.( What is Emotional Intelligence? March 15, 2010,Human Resource Management) http://www.citeman.com. ) . The emotional maturity and value system of the leader impacts the team to a large extent. Emotionally intelligent teams will propel the organizations to greater heights.

In a model of Emotional Intelligence and organizational effectiveness, Cherniss et al (2001) describes how Emotional intelligence can impact organizational effectiveness. The organizational factors on the left hand side of the model, viz Leadership, HR functions and organizational climate and culture influence emotional intelligence through its impact on relationship and each of these three factors influence the other two. For instance, Emotional Intelligence of organizational leadership influences the organisation's climate and thereby impacts organizational effectiveness. Different HR functions like recruitment, selection , training, succession planning etc will impact organizational leadership, there by affecting the organizational effectiveness. Leadership in turn can influence the HR functions there by deciding the extent to which employees can improve their Emotional Intelligence by deciding the extent of Emotional Intelligence training. This explains the interconnectivity of organizational factors, individual and team Emotional Intelligence and ultimately, organizational effectiveness. By correct and timely deployment of resources, organizational effectiveness can be improved to a great extent.

A model of Emotional Intelligence and Organisational Effectiveness (Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman2001)

Leadership

HR Functions

Organizational Climate and Culture

Relationships

Organizational Effective

Individual Emotional Intelligence

Group Emotional Intelligence

Source : Cary Cherniss and Daniel Goleman, "The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How To Select For, Measure, And Improve Emotional Intelligence In Individuals, Groups, And Organizations", 2001,Published by Jossey-Bass, Page 8, ISBN 0-7879-5690-2

At individual level, EI has large implications on individual success. As Goleman states, "out-of-control emotions can make smart people stupid" (1998, p. 22) . Debra Benton, (1992) wrote in "Lions Don't Need to Roar", that people who are incapable of understanding and relating to others have a very short life cycle in jobs. She feels that the differentiating factor between high-powered professionals and others is a high level of EI, compassion and energy to function in a team environment (DA Benton , "Lions Don't Need to Roar", 1992 - Grand Central Publishing). Individuals with high Emotional Intelligence can identify and control their emotions easily and use their emotions the right way to influence and control others behavior. Their ability to adapt to change gives them an edge over their peers.

Importance of Emotional Intelligence in the field of academics has a very logical base. Academicians are entrusted with grooming tomorrow's citizens of the nation. Emotionally Intelligent academicians will contribute in training the students in with right outlook towards life. Researchers have started realizing the importance and relevance of research in this thrust area. Progressive nations like Singapore have already taken active initiative in Social & Emotional Learning (SEL). Other countries like Malasya, Hongkong, Japan, Korea, UK, Australia etc have also included the concepts of Emotional Intelligence at schools. In 2002, UNESCO undertook initiative to promote SEL by sending ten basic principles of implementing to education ministries of 140 countries.

A research conducted in UK by Hay McBer (2000) came up with a framework for effective teaching. Data was collected from 80 schools and 170 teachers. Career history and qualification of teachers, their teaching skills, their professional skills and classroom climate were analyzed using classroom observation, in depth interviews, questionnaire, focus groups etc. Pupils' progress data were collected and analyzed separately. Research findings identified 3 main factors within teachers control that significantly influenced pupil's progress. They are ; Teaching skills, Professional characteristics, Class room climate . Professional characteristics are deep seated patterns of behavior like how the teacher does the job, self image, values, traits, motivation that drives performance etc, which are often displayed by outstanding teachers. They identified 16 characteristics, for effective teachers which are clustered under 5 heads . Interestingly, almost all these characteristics overlap with facets of Emotional Intelligence. The study concluded that there is a moderate correlation between higher level of pupil achievement gain over time and higher level of Hay teacher effectiveness measure. This study has given impetus to the current research to find out the relationship between career success of academicians and their emotional intelligence.

Model of professional characteristics of teachers (Hay McBer, 2000)

PROFESSIONALISM

Challenge and support, confidence , Creating Trust, Respect for Others

THINKING

Analytical Thinking , Conceptual Thinking

PLANNING & SETTING EXPECTATIONS Drive for improvement, Information seeking , Initiative

RELATING TO OTHERS

Impact and Influence , Team working , Understanding others

LEADING

Flexibility ,Holding People Accountable , Managing Pupils . Passion for learning

From this model, it is evident that Emotional Intelligence of academicians plays a key role in pupil performance. Deploying resources to improve the Emotional Intelligence will go a long way in achieving desired academic performance. Training in Emotional Intelligence will also bring out the best in the pupil, who is equipped with competencies of self awareness, self control and social awareness. This will eventually produce quality work force when they join their career.

Advances in technology and science provide innumerable opportunities for companies to define new boundaries, come up with innovative products, and provide their products and services at best competitive prices- processes that ultimately help satisfy the needs of the society. Companies grow only when their employees grow. Growth within the organization helps companies tread new grounds with confidence and senior leaders in the organization are on the constant lookout for young and talented professionals within the organization who can take up new challenges in unknown frontiers. Today's aspiring leaders and competent managers face challenges on emotional and mental front while meeting deadlines, achieving targets, accepting new challenges or facing fierce competition. They have to be well equipped and trained to manage this challenge to achieve higher echelons in career.

Effective utilization of human resource will reflect in organisation's performance. This study attempts to understand the impact of emotional Intelligence on employees success in career.

1.2 Understanding EI

Emotional Intelligence is all about understanding self, controlling and tweaking the expression of emotion appropriately, keeping an optimistic outlook towards life by self motivation, understanding others perspectives, Influencing others effectively for positive outcomes, building bonds and developing others and finally to manage stress without hampering productivity.

Majority of studies on Emotional Intelligence dating back to 1980s are concentrated in the western countries, though there has been cross cultural studies on Emotional Intelligence. Studies conducted in India in the field of EI have given more attention to understanding the relevance of EI in the corporate settings. (Singh, S.K,2007, Sinha & Jain, 2004, Hari Shankar Pande , 2010, Srivastava & Bharamanaikar, 2004, C.P. Khokhar et al ( 2009) , Rathi . N & R. Rastogi(2009) . A study of EI of employees across nations were also conducted by Singh .D (2005).

There is a paucity of research in the filed of relevance of EI for academicians and no published information is available on comparing the EI levels of software professionals and academicians.

'This becomes all the more important , considering the fact the this is an era of multi national and global companies wherein there is larger drift of human resource from one geographical location to another distant location , due to which understanding and adapting to the work culture and new challenges have become a common work related activity. Understanding and managing one's emotions correctly, coupled with understanding others and eliciting the required work related responses helps an employee to climb the ladder quickly.

1.3 History of Emotional Intelligence

There is a large body of research on Emotional Intelligence across various nations. But the very concept of Emotional Intelligence was understood and studied by many in earlier days. The first recorded concept of Emotional Intelligence can be traced back to Charlse Darwin. The first book on emotions was published in 1872by Charles Darwin- The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals .In this book, Darwin talks about various primary emotions and emphasizes the theory of Survival of fittest, that talks about adaptability to the surrounding , which is the key to success. In 1930s, Edward Thorndike describes the concept of "social intelligence" as the ability to get along with other people. During   1940s, David Wechsler defined intelligence as aggregate of global capacity to act purposeful, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. Wechsler proposed that no intellective abilities are essential for predicting one's ability to succeed in life. David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life. Gradually there came a shift in the concept of intelligence , where intelligence included a broader array of mental abilities. Howard Gardner pioneered the concept of Multiple Intelligence in 1983. He proposed that Interpersonal and Intra personal Intelligence are as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ tests. He advised educators to appreciate students with varied skills and learning styles. In 1985, the first use of the term "Emotional intelligence" was attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis "A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning in/coming out/letting go)." In 1985, Dr Reuven Baron coined the term "Emotional Quotient "to describe his approach to asses emotional and social functioning. In 1987 in an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term "emotional quotient." It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term. Rigorous research in this field was done by psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer and later in 1990 they published an article titled, "Emotional Intelligence," in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. The two psychologists concluded seven years later that emotional intelligence comprised four mental processes. Though a lot many researches were undertaken and published in this field , the term Emotional Intelligence did not gain popularity and momentum till 1995, when a cover page article by Nancy Gibbs et al appeared in Times magazine , which read " What is your EQ? " (Time Magazine, October 1995). Daniel Goleman , psychologist and New York Times journalist, through his best sellers " Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ? (1995) ", and "Working with emotional intelligence" (2000) brought the word "Emotional Intelligence "as a common term, even understood by a layman. In the year 1997, Reuven Baron created EQ-i, the first test to measure Emotional intelligence, published by a psychological test publisher. In the year 2000, American dialect society chose the term "Emotional Intelligence "as the most useful new word of the decade.

1.3 Definition, models and measures of Emotional Intelligence:

There are varied definitions of emotional intelligence and considering any one as a standard definition has become virtually impossible. Some of the following are most popularly used definitions of Emotional Intelligence, used by majority of the scholars and researchers in the field of Emotional Intelligence.

Salovey and Mayer's Definition: (1997) "Emotional Intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth."

Ability Model of Peter Salovey and John Mayer (Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997)

The most popularly used ability based measure of Emotional Intelligence is Mayor Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). It has chronbach alpha of 0.68- 0.71.

Dr. Reuven Bar-On's Definition: "Emotional -Social Intelligence is a cross section of interrelated emotional and social competencies, skills and facilitators that determine how effectively we understand and express ourselves , understand others and relate with them, and cope with daily demands (Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): a test of emotional intelligence. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems. ). Baron's definition lays more emphasis on adaptation to environmental challleneges

Dr Reuven Bar-on's Emotional and Social Intelligence Model (Bar-On, R. (1997).

Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi ) is the tool used to measure Baron's Emotional Intelligence. It has a chronbach alpha of 0.85.

Daniel Goleman's Definition: "Emotional Intelligence refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships.

Goleman's Emotional Competency model ((Goleman, D. (1998).

Goleman's Emotional Intelligence measure is Emotional Competency inventory (ECI) by Boyatzis,Goleman and Hay Mcber (1999) . It has chronbach alpha of 0.71- 0.85.

d) Petrides and Furnham (2000) proposed Trait EI (or 'trait emotional self-efficacy'), which refers to "a constellation of behavioral dispositions and self-perceptions concerning one's ability to recognize, process, and utilize emotion-laden information".

Trait Emotional Intelligence or Trait Emotional Self efficacy Model (Petrides, K. V. & Furnham, A. (2000).

FACETS FACTORS

Adaptability

Self-motivation

Assertiveness

Emotion management (others) SOCIABILITY

Social competence

Emotion expression

Relationship skills

Trait empathy EMOTIONALITY

Emotional perception (Self and others)

Impulsiveness (low)

Stress management SELF-CONTROL

Emotion regulation

Self-esteem

Trait happiness WELL-BEING

Trait optimism

Trait Emotional Intelligence is measured using TEIQue developed by Petrides, Perez and Furnham (2003). It has a chronbach alpha of .85.

Proliferation of different models and tools of Emotional Intelligence which are standardized globally and available in local language makes it difficult to choose a tool which is universally accepted . There are more than 60 different types of EI inventories mentioned in a book written by Schutte & Malouff (1999) titled " Measuring Emotional Intelligence and related constructs" . This is apart from the non standardised and tested EI tests freely available on the world wide web. All the above mentioned models of EI one common feature is that the models bifurcated the EI competency with respect to self and society. It is difficult to rate any of the measures of EI to be superior over the other. According to Salovey et all (2007) , mental ability model can only be called aptly as emotional intelligence model, the others being more generic. Mental ability the model is empirically tested and it meets the criteria of standard intelligence. Due to the presence of too many models, definitions, tests and books on EI, the research in the field of EI has become highly diverse. It is too early to come to a consensus on a universal definition, model and test of EI, considering the fact that even the most widely accepted test for IQ, The Wechsler intelligence scale was coined after over 100 years of clinical assessment and research . (Salovey .P. , 2007). Researchers in this field should judiciously choose the tool to measure EI of respondents based on the research purpose and context.

According to Holt and Jones (2005),mixed model of EI is predominantly used across the world.

Many researchers tried establishing role of emotional intelligence with career aspects of employees. Different jobs may need different levels of emotional intelligence. Influence of Emotional Intelligence on job performance depends to a large extent on the type of job. Academics is one field which requires high level of emotional intelligence. In a study of college of principals by Sala (2000), it was found that emotional intelligence was positively correlated with performance measures.

There are many closely related studies showing the predictive power of Emotional Intelligence job related attitudes in different occupations. Multiple studies conducted by Sitarenois, G. (1998), Sergio, R.P. (2001), Slaski,M. & Cartwright,S (2002) and Zeider et all (2004) concluded that higher Emotional Intelligence is associated with better performance rating.

Stephane Cote(2010), from University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management concluded that emotional intelligence is a separate trait from other leadership qualities such as having cognitive intelligence and being cooperative, open to ideas, and conscientious. According to him, anybody who wants to pursue a position of leadership and power can benefit from Emotional Intelligence.**

Emotional intelligence connected skills help an individual to achieve the career objectives in synchronization with organizational objectives. At any given level in an organization, employees will be dealing with varied stakeholders at different points in their career. The skills required for interacting with them are largely EI connected skills, along with cognitive ability. The following table gives a bird's eye view on EI connected skill that could be used for effectively managing the organization.

Table 1.1 Emotional Intelligence connected skills for managing the organizational environment

SL No

Stake holder

Objectives

EI connected Skills

1

Management

Growth as per target, Quick information, Delivering on margins

Achievement Drive, Commitment, Self motivation, Adaptability

Optimism

2

Customers

Good service, Timely delivery

Lower price

Social awareness, Service orientation

Commitment, Empathy

3

Vendors

Higher price, Higher volume

Timely payment

Leveraging diversity, Conflict management, Negotiation skills

4

Direct reports

Career Growth , Learning

Earning

Developing others, Leveraging diversity

Political awareness, Empathy, Influence

Communication, Leadership, Change catalyst

Conflict management, Building bonds, Collaboration and cooperation ,Team capabilities

1.4 Work related attributes of high EI individuals

The prime competence of high EI individual is good self awareness. This ability helps an individual to control disruptive feelings while dealing with hostile people. Mirror concept of self awareness is alexithymia, which is communication disorder, where in the individual is devoid of the ability to understand and express emotions as it occurs.

Accurate self assessment is almost always an attribute of a star performer. They are aware of their strengths and they seek out feedback for self improvement. According to Boyatzis, 1982, high degree of self confidence differentiates the best from average performers.

High EI individuals are generally bestowed with High initiative too. Those with initiative act before they are forced to do so by external forces. This means two things: Taking anticipatory actions to avoid problems before they happen and taking advantage of opportunities before they are visible to others. They have farsightedness to distinguish between a wise decision and poor decision.

Empathy gives an astute awareness to others emotions, concerns and needs. High empathy persons pick up others emotions from non verbal cues. Sensitivity to others is critical to a job performance especially the job demands interpersonal interaction. Empathy has significant application in culturally diverse work force. Empathy helps in assimilating accurate information rather than resorting to stereotyping of individuals, which leads to distorted perception about stereotyped individuals.

Organisational awareness gives a high EI individual an insight into political under currents and behind- the- scene networking , which in turn helps in influencing employees to arrive at a required outcome.

Influencing others is naturally a differentiating attribute of star performers. They do so using various strategies like impression management, Inspirational appeal, Rational persuasion, Ingratiation etc.

Creating and maintaining open channels of communication is a hallmark of high EI person.

A good conflict management style is an essential manifestation of high Emotional intelligence. Maintaining diplomacy while handling difficult people is the key to conflict management.

1.5 Ethical consideration:

The globally standardised questionnaire TEQue -SF is used to conduct survey research after taking the approval of copy right exclusively for research purpose. Data collected from various companies in the Information Technology and Educational Institutions were collected with the consent of the respective authority in each of the institution with a non disclosure clause. Confidentiality of participants' responses was ensured.

1.6 Organisational Implication of the study

Corporates have started realizing the benefits of embracing the concept of Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence can be effectively used in Succession planning. Some of the Indian business companies like TATA group (March 2010)*** identifies future leaders based on a combination of experience and emotional intelligence - self awareness, self management, self motivation, empathy and social skills. Companies that hire and promote people to leadership positions may find the positive relationship between transformational leadership style and emotional intelligence useful. Promotion and development of High EI transformational leader will help in creating a harmonious organizational culture.

In the area of Selection, finding new hires with already high EI will reduce the training cost to a large extent, as the new job incumbent is deft in adapting to new situations.

Progressive organization takes proactive decision and formulates policies, which promote participation and progress of women there by creating loyalty among women employees especially during the time when loyalty is a vanishing virtue. Understanding the gender difference in emotional intelligence can help the organization to tap the area of competence of individual employee by allocating most suitable job profile based on emotional competence. Tailor made training program based on the area of improvement of EI competency rather than having a generalist approach to training can cut down training cost.

Emotional Intelligence goes a long way in improved employee relationships. High EI can bring in organizational change faster than Low EI person. High-EQ individuals are deft persuaders and motivators because they can read others' cues and adjust their own words and behaviors accordingly.

The current study will give a rough idea about the EI level of employees of IT industry as well as academicians. EI score of employees in both the industries will be an indicator to identify training needs in the area of Emotional Intelligence.

The secondary literature shows that managers with high EI learn foreign languages faster and adapts to new situations. This can help in deciding on choosing the expatriates for MNCs.

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