A Study on elementary school students music creativity

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Some of the studies shown a significant result which related our study the creativity in music in terms of varies view of research. In a study of development of music creativity among elementary school students (Kiehn, 2003), which he compare the music improvisational creativity of students in Grade 2, 4 and 6 with two different research questions, the grade level or gender differences and the relationship exist among music improvisational creativity, figural creativity and academic achievement. On his studies, he randomly selected participants (N=89) and two measures of creativity, first, the Vaughan Test of Musical Creativity (music improvisational creativity) and second, the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (figural form). Two independent judges' responses on Vaughan test to determine the music improvisational creativity. The results shows that the development leveling exists from Grade 2 (mean=26.15) to 4 (mean=29.36) and not between Grade 4 (mean=29.36) and 6 (mean=29.98). The gender differences shows that the boys (mean=29.33) scoring high music creativity than girls (mean=27.59) and finally, the relationship between music creativity and figural creativity shows a weak but statistically significant correlation. The strength of this study shows strong reliability coefficients, minor revisions of the Vaughan test and the content validity. And the limitations is the judge during training session, findings relied on non-standardized test instrument and the test criteria used, hence, cause this study slightly have gender-biased and some certain dimensions on the test are more suitable for boys than girls. Therefore, Kienh added that several longitudinal studies (Cohen, 1980; Flohr 1985, as cited in Kiehn 2003) contribute to building a theory of creative musical development based on the careful observation of children's improvisations.

Another study conducted by Thomas Priest: the self-evaluation, creativity and musical achievement is to examine the relationship between students' self-assessments of their musical compositions and experts assessments (Priest, 2006). According to Priest (2006) their study using college students (N= 54) who were enrolled in a music fundamentals course for elementary education students participated and conducted by using three composition-performance assignments and one of the compositions set used as a measure of the students' compositional creativity. After the assignments, independent judges were separated students in high, middle and low creativity groups according the agreement of their assignments. Priest (2006) results shows that students in the high and middle creativity groups were more likely to cite experimentation and express optimism than students in the low creativity group (p < .05); the high and middle creativity groups were also more likely to cite eight or more factors in their self assessments (p < .001). He also found out that students in the high creativity group were more likely to employ an expressive intent in their title and engage in critical analyses than the other two groups (p < .05) and no significant correlation between the judges' evaluations and the students controlling feedback. Overall study, a useful discovery the experimentation factor which can interpret they are exhibiting higher levels of task-involvement and intrinsic motivation plus providing themselves with useful informational feedback and their strategies as conductive towards cognitively separation themselves from the harmful effects of controlling feedback. When the critical analysis factor tried to acknowledge those students between global and specific musical attributes but temporal factors seem no significant in the self-assessment from this inquiry, therefore making them to more aware of the temporal factors or the structural qualities of their compositions. Another weakness is the optimistic comments which leading the low creativity group to have an external locus of causation believing their efforts will not make a significant difference in their achievement. Priest felt that informational feedback would be good for developing musical composition to nurture their involvement in the compositional task.

An additional research study about the creativity and flow in musical compositions: an empirical investigation which examines a group composition task to study the relationship between creativity, flow and the quality of the compositions produced (Macdonald, Byrne & Carlton, 2006). Researchers determine whether high level of flow would be reflected in the quality of the group composition by four of the conditions flow. Csikszentmihalyi's (1992, as cited in Macdonald, Bryne & Carlton, 2006) four of the conditions flow presents: 1) there are clear goals every step of the way, 2) there is immediate feedback, 3) there is a balance between challenge and skill and 4) fear of failure is reduced. Researchers' using empirical research to focuses on the relationship between musical, psychological and social variables. Macdonald, Byrne and Carlton (2006) conduct this study by using first year university students (N=45) worked on a group composition task during three meetings. Students completed a detailed questionnaire that assessed aspects of each student's experience of the group compositional process using an 'experience sampling form' based on Csikszentmihalyi's previous work whenever they met. All date is recorded and rated for quality and creativity by the participants and a group of music education specialists (N=24). According to Macdonald et al. (2006) found out that the mean score for all individuals on the ESF was 163.30 and SD = 26.30. Mean creativity rating by lecturers and mean staff criteria score by lecturers were highly significantly correlated (p < .001). Students own ratings for creativity correlated (p < .05) with all experienced raters but were more similar to the postgraduate student raters. According to Macdonald et al. (2006) indicate that the results that increased levels of flow are indeed related to increased levels of creativity and suggested that higher levels flow reported by individuals within a group correspond to that group's composition being rated as having higher levels of creativity. Some of the ESF scores is not significantly correlated is because the group levels of flow that are more closely related to higher compositional creativity than individual levels. The postgraduate rating appear to be more similar to the participant ratings than the lecturer ratings are because in terms of educational and life experience are almost the same and so, affected the ratings. On the other hand, participants self ratings of their own compositions did not highlight a link between creativity and flow; these explained that their ability to recognize what constitutes a creative composition is less well developed than older postgraduate raters. Macdonald et al. (2006) raises two important issues; first is the influence of particular social and psychological variables upon the creative musical process and second issue relates to the nature of feedback given to students who complete compositional activities.

A qualitative study which related to our research creativity in music is about the influence of teachers backgrounds on their perceptions of musical creativity: a qualitative study with secondary school music teachers (Odena & Welch, 2007). Odena and Welch (2007) examines the relationship between six secondary school teachers background and their perceptions of musical creativity and involve composition and improvisation activities with pupils aged 11-14 aged was videotaped for each teacher. During the interviews, participants is invited to comment on the videotapes which analyzed by using the computer program NVivo. Teachers were also asked to reveal on specific instances that had shaped the direction of their musical outlook by completing a Musical Career Path questionnaire. The whole study observed that teachers experiences fell into three strands; musical strand, teacher-education strand and professional teaching and these will influence on the teachers thinking is discussed in four sections that refer to a four-fold framework. There are six different teachers backgrounds; Patrick, Emma, Laura, Helen, Elaine and Sarah. From the NVivo results shown that some of the teachers' experiences appear to have influenced their views of creativity and together examining the Musical-Career-Paths and the interview which equally provide the data, combined and summarize into three strands: 1) musical strand, refers to the teachers past and present musical experiences, 2) teacher-education strand, refers to the participants comment regarding their teacher-education courses; and 3) professional teaching that includes their teaching experiences in their current and previous schools. Together with the strands on the teachers perceptions is discussed in the following four sections. Firstly, the teachers perceptions of creative pupils, results found the professional teaching and the music strands had a significant effect on the teachers views. Next, teachers views on an appropriate environment for the fostering of creativity, which shows that musical strand that emerges as the most influential on the teachers views. Thirdly, the teachers perceptions of the creative process shows the results to revealed that two of the teachers with composing experiences (Laura and Emma) presented views of the process of creativity that could be described as more "open" than the other teachers.