Elearning In Malaysian Education System Education Essay

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CHAPTER 1

In October 1999, during a CBT Systems seminar in Los Angeles, the word 'E-Learning' was used for the first time. Associated with such expressions as 'online learning' or 'virtual learning', this word was meant to qualify "a way to learn based on the use of new technologies allowing access to online, interactive and sometimes personalized training through the Internet or other electronic media (intranet, extranet, interactive TV, CD-Rom, etc.), so as to develop competencies while the process of learning is independent from time and places".

Natalie Aranda is a writer about learning and technology. She proposed that E-Learning is a very broad term. It is used to describe any type of learning environment that is computer enhanced. There are multiple technologies that can be employed in E-Learning.

E-Learning has been a part of the classroom environment from the beginning when computers were used to facilitate the classroom instructor. The idea of online classes later on attracted the attention of pioneering colleges and universities. The undeniable fact is that within another generation the pendulum of E-Learning will shift completely to another phase of teaching and learning.

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This is proved by the development of the E-Learning revolution arose from a number of other 'educational revolutions'. Four such revolutions cited by Billings and Moursund (1988) are:

The invention of reading & writing;

The emergence of the profession of teacher/scholar;

The development of moveable type (print technology);

The development of electronic technology.

1.0.1 E-Learning in Malaysian Education system

Malaysia as a developing country gives importance to the growth of E-Learning. Universities, colleges and other educational institutions enroll hundreds of thousands students yearly. Therefore, introduction of ICT in the learning system creates a high quality course content to provide information, advice, resources and services.

E-Learning programmes are being conducted by most of institutions in Malaysia. Thus, it is relevant to take a look at motivational factors that affect students' online experience in local context. Only motivated students would be able to benefit from E-Learning process and at the same time will gain greater satisfaction by learning new competencies. One the challenges concerning E-Learning is encouraging and maintaining student motivation throughout a course.

'The National Institute of E-Learning' which is a plan to establish by MOHE should be able to conduct and coordinate research on E-Learning, especially concerning the impact of E-Learning on student achievement.

Malaysia Education Online (MEdO) contributes to a part of Malaysia GTP. The objective is to widen the international distance learning which delivers education programme while extending the global outreach for a positive development of the nation.

Besides, the National E-Learning Policy for Higher Education Institutions was launched to explain governments attitude policy towards E-Learning.

1.0.2 E - Learning in Maritime Industry

The current maritime system of training and education primarily depends upon 'institutional based training' and job training with mandatory sea service before the officer is being issued certificate of competency. In today's maritime world , it's impossible for a mariner to be competent and efficient as his job requires if he is equipped only with the bookish knowledge and classroom training. This is where the computer applications in maritime education becomes significant.

Today, CBT in the maritime field is a term which will describe how computer - run software can be used to support training applications by using information technology. As the proverb says "Good teaching is good teaching no matter how it is done", E-Learning is brining quantum leap in the maritime education. CBT helps in continuous professional development for a mariner from each level of success ladder.

1.0.3 E-Learning in ALAM

SEAGULL is a training software used in Akademi Laut Malaysia with the objective of facilitating senior cadets with better understanding of their maritime subjects. This seagull training or E-Learning is used by senior cadets (post sea) students in ALAM without the need of support or assistance by lecturers. This is an interactive training program which can identify the students by their identification number (ID) and produce their assessment records including the training time. The modules in CBT presents a wide variety of topics to cadets which will enhance their maritime knowledge. The interesting part of CBT or SEAGULL is that it covers almost all aspects of a ship. It includes not only the operational aspects like mooring and anchoring but also the management aspects such as bridge team management and International Safety Management (ISM). Being trained with the help of all these modules, cadet will have a good understanding about the different subjects related to his/her profession. Therefore, the cadet becomes competent. In their work life only these competent seafarers will know what to do when something has to be done. Competent mariners are products of good knowledge and training.

1.0.4 The Value of E - learning

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Unsurprisingly, given that the respondents were drawn specifically from a database of those interested in E-Learning, 68% of respondents remarked that they thought that E-Learning is, or could be, very valuable for their learning and teaching needs, 6% suggested that it was quite valuable, 17% that it was valuable, and only 11% were unsure or thought it inapplicable.

(Source: Survey of E-Learning in Africa

Based on a Questionnaire Survey of People on the

E-Learning Africa Database in 2007

Tim Unwin May 2008)

1.0.5 Standard of Training and Education required by STCW '95

STCW code speaks to the need for mariners to acquire knowledge as the basis for the duties they perform:

"Scope of knowledge is implicit in the concept of competence. This includes relevant knowledge, theory, principles and cognitive skills which, to varying degrees, underpin all levels of competence. It also encompasses proficiency in what to do, how and when to do it, and why it should be done. Properly applied, this will help to ensure that a candidate can:

work competently in different ships and across a range of circumstances;

anticipate, prepare for and deal with contingencies; and

Adapt to new and changing requirements."

(Source: Manila Amendments, Chapter II, Section B-II/1, Paragraph 14)

Thus, it is well understood that competent mariners make a difference - they make the ship safe.

1.1 Problem Statement

1.1.1 Overview

'Computer Assisted Instruction or Tutorials' or commonly mentioned 'Computer Based Training (CBT)' is becoming style of learning in today's educational environment. CBT is all about learning using software applications installed in computers. In the past, students were not able to access this facility due to large amount hardware and software, plus their immoderate price. But today, the scenario has changed that all learning institutions enjoy the facility of CBT. This method is often useful for students who actually have their own speed of learning.

Tan Sri Datuk Dr Johari, the former Secretary-General of the Ministry of Education said that benefits of E-Learning in Malaysian education system are vast. He said that E-Learning provides learning opportunities to adults who are no longer on the formal education age which ranges from 17 to 25 years old. His statement was further enhanced by Galloway who said that E-Learning opens up a new platform to adults who have been tied up with many commitments and enables them to learn anytime and anywhere they want at their convenience.

The development and use of E-Learning programme represents an individual, organisational and social investment. For this reason, the effectiveness of E-Learning should be evaluated. One cannot value of the use of E-Learning without knowing the efficacy of it.

In ALAM, there has been a substantial increase in the interest, development and deployment of CBT among senior cadets. E-Learning has been targeted to senior cadets with the objective of compliance with regulations such as STCW '95, SOLAS and MARPOL. With the STCW Convention coming into force, ALAM senior cadets are aspired to sit for the various classes Certificate of Competency examinations. The E-Learning concept could be usefully applied here by having the academic contents of the course completed through E-Learning class, leaving the simulator and other practical components of course to be conducted at ALAM. This way, senior cadets in ALAM could greatly reduce the time to gain the practical knowledge despite the syllabus imposed by ALAM to obtain Diploma in Nautical Studies and Diploma in Marine Engineering. Furthermore, Classification Societies, such as DNV, do realise the need for trained manpower for the maritime industry especially for the job requiring a detailed level of knowledge.

Having all this in mind, there is a problem concerning senior cadets in ALAM and E-Learning. That particular problem has made us to conduct a research and inspired us to come up with convincing solutions to convey our point that E-Learning is an effective element in senior cadets' syllabus.

Thus, our statement of problem is the unawareness of the effectiveness of E-Learning among senior cadets in ALAM.

It is very obvious that most of senior cadets in ALAM are not taking E-Learning seriously. The actual scenario is during this subject which has been slotted in our daily class timetable, only few of them do actually be focused and attempt the module and questions. Whereas, the rest of them keep themselves engaged with other assignments, projects or Lecturer's Assessment (LA) preparations. Worst of all, this 2 hours is being used by senior cadets to access Facebook and other social websites including chatting site by breaching standard PETRONAS policy block. There is also a scenario where senior cadets proceed to their cabins even though it is clearly underlined in ALAM Code of Conduct that staying in cabin during class hours is a breach of rule.

1.2 Research Question

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E-Learning is now a part of ALAM senior cadets' compulsory subject. A report published by Sloan Consortium in November 2005 defined 'E-Learning' as learning in which the internet is used in delivering 80-100% of the content. E-Learning is the most recent evolution of smart learning that facilitates learning with the use of interactive technologies.

Most of the medias are saying that E-Learning and CBT contribute to self-development of an individual. How many senior cadets in ALAM do really agree with this statement?

Thus, it is our motive to convince them that E-Learning is an effective subject in final year course.

With this our research question is "What are the effectiveness of E-Learning to senior cadets in ALAM?"

1.3 Objectives and Aims

1.3.1 Overall Objective

The purpose of this project paper is to evaluate the benefits of E-Learning towards the senior cadets in ALAM. Hence, it will help to increase the awareness and attitude of the cadets towards this technology aided subject. It will also help ALAM in its inspiration to be a leader maritime education and training. Nevertheless, it will bring ALAM to a level where it's education system goes in conjunction with global education standards.

1.3.2 Specific Aims

To encourage senior cadets to utilize E-Learning for their knowledge and skill development.

To address the role of E-Learning in gaining maritime basis knowledge.

To relate E-Learning with the development of informative seafarers.

1.4 Scope of Study

The study is focusing to the usage/ implementation of E-Learning during training.

The study is limited to the selected group

Person(s) undergoing the E-Learning course (ALAM's 3rd year students/ senior cadets)

Person(s) conducting the course (ALAM's lecturer)

Person(s) gone through the course.

Limitation of project paper (research area)

Malaysian Maritime Academy (ALAM)

1.5 Definition of Terms

A Study of the Effectiveness of E-Learning among Senior Cadets in ALAM

Study - A through research of a subject of interest which will finally result in a convincing solution or conclusion.

Effectiveness - The degree to which objectives are achieved and the extent to which targeted problems are solved. Effectiveness means "doing the right thing."

E-Learning - Includes all forms of electronically supported learning and teaching. It utilizes information technology to facilitate in knowledge and skill development of learners. E-Learning is essentially the computer and network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-Learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual education opportunities and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. It can be self-paced or instructor-led and includes media in the form of text, image, animation, streaming video and audio.

Senior Cadets - Post-sea students of ALAM who are pursuing their final year studies in Diploma in Nautical Studies and Diploma in Marine Engineering. They will be completing their Semester 5 and 6 before attending Class 3 Oral Examinations in MARDEP. Senior cadets of ALAM have the experience of at least 1 year sea-phase training as Deck or Engine Cadets. They sailed in various types of ships such as oil tankers, containership and supply vessels. They possess their ship specific knowledge and skills as per the training targets set by ALAM.

ALAM - The first maritime academy in Malaysia which is comes under Ministry of Transportation. ALAM belongs to PETRONAS, the leading oil major company in the world. Yearly, hundreds of cadets graduate as officers and engineers who are capable of handling their onboard ship tasks safely and effectively. ALAM works in tandem with the professional requirements underlined by MARDEP to reach its vision to be a leader in maritime education and training.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Literature review is a review or summary of a research done by any researcher. In this chapter we have summarised few research articles that has been written by some other researches who have studied or researched on this topic before us.

2.0 Introduction

Internet and intranet when utilised wisely become highly potential for the fast spread of knowledge and information to a worldwide workforce. Elliott Masie, president of the Masie Center, a New York - based training think tank, estimated that 92 percent of large organizations will use some form of online learning every year.

In addition to traditional learning methods, E-Learning has now become a popular and handy tool to most of the learning institutions. Learning, in fact has undergone an evaluation period from the traditional classroom to E-Learning, where students learn in "invisible classrooms". With the advancement of information technology, educational institutions are evolving the use of E-Learning methods to meet the global demands of user in supporting a conceptual learning environment.

E-Learning system is designed to fully involve users in realistically modelled environments and scenarios to build knowledge and to assess performance. It involves software applications and computer training to effectively provide new information and learning method.

Quality issues are the major concern when delivering educational courses and it always important to evaluate the experience in E-Learning faced by students. Quality control and proper use of resources determine the perception on E-Learning as an important method of learning and gaining knowledge.

Thus, the effectiveness of E-Learning has to be evaluated in a frequent interval in order to deliver the best education and learning environment to students. It is relieving when a subject is fully supported based on its positive and building qualities rather than blindly encouraging it because of external unbalanced force such as political and economical influence.

2.1 Definition

"Effectiveness of E-Learning among senior cadets in ALAM" is a research to realize the importance of E-Learning among cadets who have finished their mandatory sea time training and have returned to their academy, ALAM to prepare themselves for their oral examinations in Marine Department of Malaysia.

E-Learning is a computer based training where the student is trained by the computer. If done right, E-Learning can enhance better performance among students and can produce good results.

2. 2 Types of Course Addressed by E-Learning

When asked about the educational levels addressed by their E-Learning courses, respondents listed the following:

This reinforces the view that, amongst practitioners who responded to the survey, the majority of uses for E-Learning were in the higher educational and vocational fields.

(Source: Survey of E-Learning in Africa

Based on a Questionnaire Survey of People on the

E-Learning Africa Database in 2007

Tim Unwin May 2008)

2.3 Comparison between Past Distance Learning and E-Learning

Past Distance Learning

Present E-Learning

Definition

Any approaches to education delivery that

replace the same-time, same-place, and face-to-

face environment of a traditional classroom

(i.e., correspondence teaching; multimedia distance teaching)

The most recent evolution of distance learning that creates, fosters, delivers, and facilitates learning, anytime and anywhere, with the use of interactive network technologies (i.e., E-Learning)

Paradigm in education

Focus on teaching: lesson based Objectivist model of learning in which learners are passive

A series of lectures for efficient transfer of knowledge from instructor to learner

Focus on learning: learner based

Constructive, collaborative, and cognitive information processing of learning

Individual differences in the learning process;

learning as a social process

Interaction

Lack of direct interaction between the teacher and the learner

Asynchronous interaction

Interactions between instructor and learner, and among learner Asynchronous/synchronous or real-time (e.g.,

chat forum, instant messaging, video

conferencing) interaction

Technology

Written or printed materials, broadcast media,

audio/ videotapes, telephone, and CAI/ CBT with stand-alone computers

All electronic media, especially, network

technologies such as the internet, intranets, and extranets

The researcher has made a practical comparison between the past distance learning and current E-Learning to emphasize the importance and advantage of this technology aided subject. The researcher has also successfully came up with factors that affect the effective implementation of E-Learning program in Malaysian Education system.

(Source: E‐learning in Malaysia: Success Factors in

Implementing E‐learning Program

Chai Lee Goi and Poh Yen Ng

Curtin University of Technology)

2.4 Theory of E-Learning

The researcher here has highlighted the advantage of E-Learning in learning process based on students' perspective. In addition conventional style of learning and its limitations have been highlighted. The researcher has conducted a successful research on the capabilities of E-Learning towards the learning activity.

"The principal advantages of distance learning are flexibility, cost saving and more efficient use of time. It can be more effective - people learn at their own pace and retain more information, and learners are proactive. Daniel (1997) believes that the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning will provide at least part of the solution to many issues. He added, most of all, E-Learning needs to be compelling to the audience it targets, offering the learner a resource that it seen to be appealing, valuable and productive to their goals and aspirations.

The concept of a teaching has been given attention for over a decade. Patterson (1999) discusses the idea of learning organizations and applies it to universities, suggesting that they adapt to the changing environment and that they become learning universities. The author identifies developments in national policies, increases in student numbers and demands for increased efficiency as factors necessitating change."

(Source: Universiti Teknologi MARA

Effectiveness of E-Learning Capabilities

By: Nor Syahada Binti Ahmad)

2.5 The Positive Side of Computer-Based Training

The researcher conducted a research on CBT and its advantages to learners. The researcher, at the same time has researched on the disadvantages of CBT and the relationship between CBT and technology. The researcher has successfully highlighted the effectiveness of E-Learning compared to conventional method of learning with adequate source of information. The followings are the founding of the researcher:

"(1) self-paced learning. According to Lawson (1999):

"Within a self-paced instructional program, an employee may review specific topics on which he/she needs clarification. This is in stark contrast to classroom instruction, in which a group of employees is trained based on a predetermined time and are individually expected to master the topic during that time."

(2) Flexibility of schedules it provides.

"Training can be taken by most employees on a twenty-four hour basis without leaving the work site. Further, it is accessible almost anywhere a computer can be located" (Congram, 1995). Also, "the self-pacing learning concept eliminates the need for group instruction and scheduling" (Dhanjal & Calis, 1999).

(3) Cost-effectiveness of using CBT.

Since "employees can train on-site avoiding the need to travel to training facilities, this results in savings in costs on travel and accommodation costs" (Dhanjal & Calis, 1999). "When the costs are compared, the price of training and retraining drops from possibly hundreds of dollars per student for (live instruction) to thirty dollars or less per employee for computer-based training" (Blankenhorn, 1999).

(4) Reduced training time (Janicak, 1999).

One study conducted by Maul and Spotts as reported in an article by Lawson (1999) showed "the CBT group averaging a thirty-four percent decrease in training time when compared with a traditional classroom instruction group."

(5) Increased knowledge retention it affords to students.

"Content retention is increased by engaging multiple senses (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) during the learning process" (Dhanjal & Calis, 1999). Well-designed CBT may "incorporate full-color animation, product simulation and supportive narration to create a professional, yet inviting tone" (Information Today, 1997).

(6) Consistency of message, which cannot be assumed with a live instructor (Dhanjal & Calis, 1999),

(7) Measurability, which can be accomplished using self-check questions, pre-tests and post-tests (Lawson, 1999)

(8) Customization.

"Through customization features, a company can tailor a genetic program to match its own policies and procedures" (Lawson, 1999)."

(Source: Computer-Based Training: Useful or Useless?

By: Camille Chappell

URL: Computer-Based Training Useful or Useless.htm)

2.6 Separating Fact from Fiction

The researcher has conducted a research to reveal some interesting findings about E - learning. According to the researcher, the discussions about E-Learning are common and abundant. However, the researcher here has came up with a new kind of information to reveal the facts of E -learning as some of them seemed to be fictional for the researcher. The researcher has covered teaching and learning method of E-Learning without opposing the fact of the effectiveness of E - learning. The researcher's findings are as follows:

"1. E-Learning was found to be 11% more effective than classroom training when it leveraged its inherent advantages to offer tutorials, real time communication, and interactive exercises.

TRUE: When the same instructional methods are used, E-Learning and classroom instruction have been found to be equally effective. However, E-Learning has been found to be superior when it utilizes a variety of instructional methods. The most effective E-Learning does not merely put classroom training online via PowerPoint slide sets and audio-visual lectures; rather, it incorporates a wide variety of activities that require the student to actively participate. Examples include chat rooms, webinars, synchronous human interaction along with increased learner control of timing, pace, and sequence (Sitzmann, Ely, and Wisher, 2008).

The multimedia nature of E-Learning is not the significant factoring that influences learning. Its variety may spark interest and improve acceptance but it doesn't improve effectiveness. The measured learning gains have been found to relate to the actual instructional methods that provide variety and interaction (Clark and Craig, 1992).

2. Most academic leaders believe that the learning outcomes achieved through E-Learning are inferior to the outcomes achieved in the classroom.

FALSE: Online instruction has steadily gained the support of the academic world. Sixty-two percent (62%) of Chief Academic Officers rated the learning outcomes in online education as the same or superior to those in face-to-face classes (Allen and Seaman, 2006).

3. The upward trend of technology-based learning is expected to continue.

TRUE: The effects of E-Learning on all types of professional and academic training have been dramatic, and all indications point to its influence for years to come. Advancements in the use of technological tools enable learning content to become more dynamic than ever. Learning has shifted from something that is done at a specific time, in a specific place, for a limited number of individuals to a resource that is available virtually anytime, anyplace, to anyone (Paradise, 2008)."

(Source: An Extract from MoreStream.com Newsletter

URL: Effectiveness of E-Learning.htm)

2.7 E-Learning System for Marine Training

This is a research done to allow the students to understand the effectiveness of E - learning. A good number of advantages of E-Learning in maritime world have been listed. KONGSBERG e-Coach system has found be an enhancing element here to provide an effective E-Learning experience in marine training. The founding here has been noticed to be closely related to KONGSBERG e-Coach system but has successfully brought up the positive effects of E-Learning in general, especially for maritime industry.

Self study simulation training

E-Learning system is designed to fully immerse users in realistically modelled environments and scenarios to build knowledge, exercise required skills, and to assess performance.

Flexible, sophisticated learning on demand

Students can access the stored exercises according to the policy given by the training centres. The training centre or school can make new exercises available as additional training needs arise, ensuring a highly flexible and cost effective system for student, instructor and vessel owner/operator.

E-Coach managed learning

With highly flexible e-Coach system, students can train around the clock, but they are never left to their own devices. Offering pre-defined in-depth instructor messages, the e-Coach provides automatic, instructions whilst students work alone. In addition, a full student activity logging is possible when including a LMS in the E-Learning set-up.

Cost-effective licensing

The concurrent licensing system expands on a small core number of licenses through shared usage by a large number of students. The initial procurement cost is therefore reduced and shared among a larger pool of users.

(Source: E-Learning System for Marine Training

URL: E-Learning system - Kongsberg Maritime.htm)

2.8 Understanding E-Learning in Maritime Job Training and Familiarization

The researcher has conducted a research to reveal the strengths of E-Learning and most importantly has highlighted the implementation of it in maritime industry. The researcher has confidently mentioned the role of E-Learning to train marine students in order to gain knowledge.

The researcher has made clear the importance of good knowledge for mariners as it is the foundations for their skills and he has also said that knowledge is very important in times where a quick decision is needed. As the researcher has highlighted the role of knowledge to produce skilful and thoughtful mariners, he has also mentioned about E-Learning for mariners as a substitute for hands-on learning.

The researcher has quoted a particular section from STCW to enhance his points that is knowledge is the master for mariners' job proficiency.

"Scope of knowledge is implicit in the concept of competence. This includes relevant knowledge, theory, principles and cognitive skills which, to varying degrees, underpin all levels of competence. It also encompasses proficiency in what to do, how and when to do it, and why it should be done. Properly applied, this will help to ensure that a candidate can:

work competently in different ships and across a range of circumstances;

anticipate, prepare for and deal with contingencies; and

Adapt to new and changing requirements."

(Source: Manila Amendments, Chapter II, Section B-II/1, Paragraph 14)

Knowledge and skills are both a requirement of the modern seafarer, and different training techniques are required for each. Thus, the best approach is neither hands-on nor E-Learning in isolation, but rather a blending of the two.

(Source: Maritime Training Issues with Murray Goldberg > January 2012

Part 2: Understanding eLearning in Maritime Job Training and Familiarization

By: Murray Goldberg)

2.9 Certificate of Competency Courses

The researcher has suggested that another sector where E-Learning concept could be initiated in the area of maritime and education is the Certificate of Competency courses. With the STCW Convention coming into force, seafarers aspiring to sit for the various classes Certificate of Competency examinations need to attend approved training courses before sitting the COC examinations. Therefore, the E-Learning concept could be usefully applied here by having the academic contents of the course completed through E-Learning program.

(Source: E-Learning - NEW CONCEPT IN MARITIME

EDUCATION AND TRAINING

By: K H K Rangan, General Manager

Teledata Marine Systems, Singapore)

2.10 MARDEP Guidelines for Oral Examinations

A review has been carried out on the expectations of MARDEP towards the candidates sitting for oral examinations. An organized and well structured guidelines are provided by MARDEP to ensure all the candidates attending COC examinations are fully prepared as far as knowledge and skill are concerned. Without portraying a good ability of understanding about a topic, it is impossible to obtain the mariner's licence. Competency is everyone's concern. The fact is that in today's maritime world survival of foetus is applicable only to the best ones.

"The Merchant Shipping (Training and Certification) Rules 1999, implements the requirements of the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 as ammended (STCW 95). In the interest of consistency in the oral examination, examiners should adopt the following guidelines as a guide when assessing a candidate's performance in that examination. The following list of topics has been prepared to assist examiners in the formulation of questions for the oral examination. Bearing in mind the limited width of the written examination, the list will provide a basis for extension of testing into areas which may not be closely related to the particular written papers for those examinations.

The topics are categorized as follows: ‐

(a) Vital

Topics of this nature are of primary importance and a significant deficiency should penalize the candidate to the extent of a failure in the oral examination. This candidate may qualify for a sea service penalty.

(b) Level 1

Items of lesser importance, from the safety viewpoint, but still of significant importance, from the safety and competency viewpoint, should not lead to failure if covered to a reasonable degree. However, an accumulated deficiency of say 2 or 3 of these items would warrant failure.

(c) Level 2

It is sufficient for these topics to be known to a reasonable level but not to the same degree as level 1 topic.

Each Examination will be conducted from a particular perspective and this will be based upon the level of responsibility assumed and grade of certificates they applied for. In matter of detail, the list is open‐ended and is not intended to be restrictive in any way. At the same time, examiners should take account of any limitations imposed or implied by the examination syllabuses, e.g. particular matters which are confined to management level certificates. Candidates should demonstrate the ability to apply the knowledge outlined in this oral examination syllabus by appropriate responses, anticipations and reactions to a range of routine, non‐routine and contingency scenarios as presented by the examiner, from the perspective of the grades they applied for."

(Source: GARIS PANDUAN PEPERIKSAAN LISAN /

GUIDELINES FOR ORAL EXAMINATION

Malaysian Marine Department)

Conclusion

All the articles that have been reviewed above, emphasise on E-Learning as an effective and important tool for students to improve their learning skills. Even the research articles on importance of E-Learning in tandem with COC exam have been reviewed. In all the reviewed articles the researchers collectively say only one thing. That is, E-Learning plays a very important role in producing competent and efficient mariners. This is because competent mariners are the flesh and blood of shipping or in other words, they are the backbone of shipping industry as a whole.