Effects of Remedial Writing Programs to Retention Rates

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The author gives a detailed description of a successful learning community and describes basic writing as part of college curriculum that should be implemented with consulted efforts from different faculty members to address individual learning needs of each student. The paper discusses qualities and characteristics of an effective learning community as one with flexible curriculum restructuring models for first year students and suggests ways of working with writers and linking writing courses with other first year courses in order to develop learner's writing skills. The paper concludes by describing requirements of a successful writing program. This article embraces implementation of successful writing programs for first year students although it does not discuss their effectiveness in retention rates for first year students.

Perin, D. Can Community Colleges Protect Both Access and Standards? The Problem of

Remediation. Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University [PDF document].Research Paper.

The author highlights that many higher learning institutions require low scoring students to attend remedial courses even in absence of state mandate. The author criticizes community colleges for overindulging in remedial courses at the expense of baccalaureate transfer, while discussing how remediation results to increasing rates of student dropout. The paper discusses challenges facing remedial writing and teaching programs in many community colleges and expresses need for clear state and institutional policies during implementation of remedial programs to address challenge of conflict between access and standards of remediation. This article could be used to provide useful information on shortcomings of remedial writing programs.

Roksa, J. and Calcagno, J.K. (2010). Catching up in Community Colleges: Academic

Preparation and Transfer to Four-Year Institutions. Community College Research Center, Columbia University [PDF document].

This research paper discusses the effectiveness of mathematics and remedial writing courses in preparing students for completion of the student's Degree course and to what extent such remedial courses contribute to student's transfer rates from community colleges to four year institutions. The authors provide statistics showing that community colleges is an alternative road for entering four year institutions for students who were not academically prepared although such students continued to lag behind academically. The paper discusses challenges faced by academically unprepared students entering four year institutions from community colleges after successful completion of remedial writing courses, while emphasizing on their low chances of succeeding academically. The paper concludes by emphasizing on need for adequate preparedness for students entering four year colleges if they have to succeed in attaining their learning outcomes.

Tai, E. and Rochford, R. A.(2007). Getting Down To Basics in Western Civilization: It's About

Time. Community College Journal of Research and Practice. 31, 103-116.

This journal recognizes significant role played by remedial writing courses in preparing students for college level courses. The authors demonstrate how remedial writing and learning of English as a second language can integrate learners into college and improve their academic performance so long as remediation is in consistent with college level academic rigor. The authors discuss importance of academic staff working as a team to link remedial writing courses to other courses and to determine reading and writing assignments as well as design examinations to provide coherent educational experience that promotes student learning and development. This article contains useful information on importance of successful remedial writing courses.

Hindes, V.A., Hon, K & Brookshaw, K. (2002). Making Waves. Presentation at the International

Conference on the First Year Experience. [PDF document]. University of Bath.

The authors attribute remedial writing courses to increasing rates of unprepared and underprepared first year students who characterize college campuses. The authors discuss the effectiveness of college programs launched to improve student's retention rates and essential academic skills among first year students, emphasizing on disruptive academic interventions for first year students to promote student success strategies by implementing programs that address barriers preventing learners from succeeding. The paper emphasizes on high content course work, student motivation, cultural enrichment activities and quality student's services to enhance academic and personal growth. This article can be used for research on student's motivation to improve retention rates.

Parsad, B.& Lewis L. (2003). Remedial Education at Degree Granting Postsecondary

Institutions in Fall 2000. Statistical Analysis Report. Washington DC.: National Center for Education.

The authors examine use of computers as an instruction tool for on-campus remedial learning and provide statistics to show that two year institutions are more likely to provide remedial education than other types of institutions. They further show that public institutions provide a higher percentage of remedial courses than private institutions. The paper discusses approaches used by institutions of higher learning to select students for remedial learning. This article can be used to provide statistics on remedial learning based on type of institutions.

National Center for Education Statistics (1998). Remedial Education in Higher Education

Institutions [PDF research document].

The authors provide data on remedial education in higher learning institutions, indicating that remedial reading, writing and mathematics courses were widely offered in institutions with large minority student enrollment than those with low minority student's enrollment. This article can be used to provide statistics on remedial learning enrollment in relation to races and subjects.

Young, K. M. (2002). Retaining Underprepared Students Enrolled in Remedial Courses at the

Community College [PDF document].

The author discusses increasing rates of enrollment of underprepared students in community colleges and explores the practices as well as programs that increase retention of underprepared students in community colleges. The author maintains that community colleges are leading remedial course providers in education sector and are well equipped to provide remediation. The author discusses why remedial programs help unprepared students to persist longer towards their academic goals than non remediated students in community colleges, emphasizing on the fact that remediated students had higher chances of completing college level work in English and Mathematics within three years of enrolling as opposed to those who did not require remediation. The article embraces remedial writing and learning as the main factors that contribute to high student retention rates in community colleges. This article provides useful information on remedial writing and retention rates in community colleges.

Fine, K. K. and Lehnertz, M. J. (1990). Retention of Minnesota College Students: Reading,

Writing and Remedial Education. Working Paper No.2. [PDF document]. Education Research Paper.

The authors examine transition rates from high school to post secondary learning institutions, while giving statistics on college enrollment patterns, developmental and remedial studies as well as curriculum planning in Minnesota. Author emphasizes that high school graduation standards are incompetent in preparing students for enrollment in four year colleges and attributes college opportunities to type of secondary schools attended by the learners. The author gives statistics on students attending remedial and developmental courses, while emphasizing on the fact that most high school graduates are unprepared to enroll in four year colleges and are forced to take remedial courses for successful transition to second year. The author gives statics linking remedial writing and teaching courses to student retention rates. This article provides relevant information on remedial writing and retention rates, with specific focus on Minnesota.

Greece, J.P. (2000). The Cost of Remedial Education: How Much Michigan Pays When Students

Fail to Learn Basic Skills. Estimates of the Annual Counteract Employees' and Students' Lack of Basic Reading, Writing and Arithmetic Skills. Midland: Mackinac Center for Public Research.

The author provides annual financial costs incurred by Michigan institutions of higher learning to equip high school graduates with basic skills required to pursue college level education through remedial writing. The author argues that high schools should provide quality education and put pressure on students to perform well in exams before receiving high school diploma in order to control the problem of remedial writing and teaching courses in colleges. This article provides alternative measures for prevention and control of remedial writing and teaching programs in colleges to stop wastage of money and time.

Callahan, K.M. & Chumney, D. (2009). "Write like College": How Remedial Writing Courses at

a Community College and a Research University Position "At- Risk" Students in the Field of Higher Education. Teachers College Record 3(7):1619-1664.

The authors compare first year remedial writing courses in a research university to those of a community college and the impacts of remedial writing courses to experiences of first year college students. The author criticizes remedial writing courses in two year colleges arguing that they do not seem to add any value to students but embraces remedial writing courses in four year colleges because they seem to equip learners with relevant writing skills required for successful completion of their studies.

Rose, M. (1983) Remedial Writing Courses: A Critique and a Proposal. 45, 109-128. Retrieved

from http://jonsenglishsite.info/Pedagogy%20articles/Download%20PDF%20and%20Word/Mike_Rose.pdf

The author criticizes remedial writing courses arguing that they have little conceptual and practical connection to larger academic writing environment. The author argues that most remedial writing programs are learner unfriendly and only limit students' growth in writing. The author suggests ways in which remedial writing programs can be utilized to contribute positively to learner's academic growth and college retention.

Rochford, Regina (2004). Improving Academic Performance and Retention among Remedial

Students. Community College Enterprise. Retrieved May 23 2010 from


The author emphasizes on repeated failure for students enrolling for remedial writing courses and their subsequent dropout from colleges due to frustrations. The author proposes other methods that can be used to improve student's grades as well as retention rates in colleges, citing good learning styles and individual student's attention to take care of learner's preferences. This article provides useful information on other methods that could be used to increase student's retention rates in colleges because remedial writing courses only increase the rate of student dropout.

Meihua, Zhai. (2001). The Impact of Remedial English Course on Student College Level

Coursework and Persistence. West Chester: West Chester University. Retrieved from http://ocair.org/files/Presentations/Paper2001_02/RemedialEnglish.pdf

The author discusses the how remedial writing programs contribute to improved performance for students entering colleges, while noting that even after taking remedial writing courses, the remediated students performance in college remain much lower than their counterparts who do not require remedial courses. The article can be used to provide useful information on comparison in performance for remediated and non- remediated students.

Merisotis, J.P. and Phipps. R.A. (2000). Remedial Education in Colleges and Universities:

What's Really Going On? The Review of Higher Education. 24(1):67-85. http://www.tmcc.edu/president/downloads/documents/PRESRemedialEduColleges.pdf

The authors criticize remedial writing and teaching programs arguing that supporting such programs is equivalent to offering coursework below required college level in higher education.