EFFECTS OF COMPUTER BASED TRAINING ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

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The importance of technologic tools which are fruits and results of knowledge of thousand years is increasing in almost each part of life day to day. It can be said that accepting entrance of these magical tools in each part of life, however do not accepting integration of these into education and instruction fields, main source of invention and spreading of the tools, cannot be thought. Especially in science education, the most useful and important tool, computers, will be used. On the other hand, then a dilemma occurs between traditional teaching methods and this new technology and computer based methods. Also some of experienced educators and instructors do not want to give up from their old habits. However, Gilberts (1996), states that teachers should not be opposed to integration of information and technology into instructional levels, if they want a better qualified instruction for students. Moreover based on their researches, Kesecioglu and his friends (2005) states that "Computer Based Instruction is better than traditional method in terms of success criterions". Furthermore, Collete & Collete claims that usage of computers increased motivation and desired to courses and laboratory in the steps of instructioning.

In such a case to decide which method is more effective for education for a whole aspect and from different perspectives, a wide research is required. Moreover, these researches should not only be from one perspective, but also they should measure other aspects of education, such as effects of these new methods on motivation of students, their success and their interest towards computers.

The aim of this research is collecting a wide related review literature about effects of computer based education on science education in terms of motivation, success and increasing interest of students towards computers.

2- IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH

The main difference of this study from the others, that have been conducted until now about same field, is that this research provides a comprehensive data and related literature review not only in one aspect of effects of computer based education on students, but also this supplies a whole contamination of other aspects from more than 20 research results. Thus, this will be very important research for who look to effects of all other aspects of the new instruction methods on students in one study.

Especially, in science education it should be thought twice before decision of applying a new technique. Because there are difficult topics to teach without using simulations or showing something related to these topics or without experiments. Also when applying one of these it should be taken account that "What are the effects of these methods on motivation, success and interests towards this new techniques on students?" As this research includes complete answers to the application of the computer based education technique for the previous question it can be said that research is unique and very important under light of this information.

3- ASSUMPTIONS AND LIMITATIONS

A- ASSUMPTIONS

It is assumed that the results of the used reference researches are valid and reliable: also they are statistically meaningful.

Moreover; it is accepted that the sample of the selected reference researches is a small mirror that is enough to reflect the image of the whole researches related this issue.

B- LIMITATIONS

First of all, due to limited time I could not realize my own applying step of the research in a school to see effects of the CBL (Computer Based Education) on science education. Thus in this research I'm going to collect the results the previous researches that have been conducted until now. Thus we are limited by the result of the researches. However, these are from valid and reliable sources.

4- METHOD

As it is mentioned in previous subtopic that we could not a realized our own experiment step, we are going to use the results of the reference studies. Thus we are supposed to use their method that they used in their studies. As a result; this study will be rich in methods because of having indications of the several applied different methods' results.

There are lots of studies that reflect effects of the computer based instruction on students for all aspects.

Firstly, we are going to deal about effects of CBL on motivation of the students towards science courses.

In the light of research results of the Varank (2006) that was conducted by the 323 students in mid-west of Turkey, in Aydin. Computer Based Training (CBT) increasing motivation of the student s toward science lectures much more than Instructor Based Training (IBT). They had yield this results by using the method of the composing of two groups; one was control group under normal class circumstances, the other one was experiment group in computer laboratory.

Moreover Dr. Ms. Yenice (2003) stated in her essay that according to her research results the motivation of the group who trained by Computer Based Education positive attitudes to Science lectures. She indicated that Computer supported education increased students motivations in terms of science. On the other hand; she claimed that there were no changes about motivation of the control group about science. To analyze her results she used SPSS 9.0 statistic program and she applied these tests to 66 students (n=33 control group who had trained by traditional method and n=33 students who had trained by CBT)

Barnea and Dori (1999) after their researches concluded that students who were trained by a computer based modeling simulation performed better willing to science course than students who were trained by a traditional approach in perception of scientific models. They used the experiment research method to yield such a result. Students were from chemistry courses and divided to two groups.

There lots of other study and research results that confirm the previous results, but these are enough to accept that after researches researchers are on the same line about that in terms of increasing the motivation of the students towards science lectures better than traditional methods.

Secondly, I'm going to reflect the research results of the effects of the computer based instruction in terms of the achievements of the students in science courses.

To begin with, in study conducted by Desai, Richards, and Eddy (2000) t was discovered that the importance of the computer based instruction was proofed once more. According to their study after one-month training program with two groups- one of them were trained by CBT and the other was trained by IBT- two test applied to the students of the both groups, an overall and end-of-training tests. The results statistically showed that students who were trained by CBT were statistically significant better that who were trained by IBT.

Moreover, a different study that has been conducted in 2006 by Akcay, Durmaz and Tuysuz about effects of CBT on student's achievements in Science education, especially chemistry topics with three groups- two groups were experimental and the last group was control group trained by traditional methods, method C. Also two experimental groups are trained by different methods of CBT. One of them by method A, a software program called as HEHAsit and the other one by method B, a program prepared by Microsoft Excel. The results said us that both experimental groups' students were more successful than the control group students who educated by IBT or method C. The results of the both experimental groups were significantly higher than the third one.

Furthermore, according results of another important study realized by Taylor and Renshaw (2000), it was found that training of the students via CBT is not only increasing the achievements of students in terms of lectures marks, but also this method let them learning the science with its logic instead of learning by memorizing only. This provides a long-term learning. However, in traditional methods achievements of students are not as effective in long-term as it in CBT.

Lastly, the study to show importance of CBT in terms of achievements in science lecture was conducted by Cekbas, Yakar and Savran (2003). Not only achievements of students were increased by using of the CBT programs and simulations, but also teaching of these scientific topics are easier by CBT and 3D simulations, especially in subjects that are difficult to teach and during teaching of them by IBT and by 2D images lots of problem and misconception occurs.

Like the same thing previous researches, also a huge percentage of the other studies. Which are not stated in here, claim same results that usage of the CBT methods is more effective about increasing of achievements of the students and their long-term learning's when comparing with IBT?

Thirdly, I am going to state the results of the some researches that are about effects of the CBT on increasing interest of the students towards the computer using.

According to Ardac & Akaygun (2004), computer based training increases students interests towards computers and applying its useful features in their life by its learning activities, utilizing the dynamic, interactive and multimodal capabilities of the computers. Having these abilities makes computer magical tools and learning sources. However, students who have trained by only classical models cannot be aware of the functions of the computers. For them computers stay only a game provider and a communication tool, not thing else or more.

Schwarz and White (2005) based on their studies on seventh grade students in the Model-Enhanced Thinker Tools ( METT) claim that students who had trained by CBT can compose their own models on computers about chemical topics as they are more willing to study about these when comparing to students who did not trained by CBT. Also the demand of the first group is higher than from second group.

Chang (2002) in his research indicated these point students who have educated by Computer Based Training have not only a high demand to use computer, but also as they put information into their brain both graphical and symbolic thus they are more successful to direct their knowledge and save it as 2Dimensional. This provides a high interest of learning by computer and long term learning realizes. However; in their other control group students who had developed by traditional methods are not too much friendly to use computers and learning long-term.

Under reflections of the last three researches and other studies that could not located here, it is certain that teaching science with using computers, by CBT, interest of students towards computer increases more. Also they learn long-term by this new teaching magical technique when comparing to the traditional ones.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The age of these magical technologic tools, being far away from usage of these tools, especially in Science Education Field, will make a country behind of the other countries whether students of this country are more clever and hard-working. Because students of the other countries that use CBT instead of the traditional methods, has much more powerful guns and equipments to overcome from their challengers like computers.

Based on states of the claimed research results in previous pages; this technique increases motivation of the students towards science and increase their learning abilities to longer time periods and also increase their achievements in scientific courses and lastly this method also increases students demand to use computer with their magical tools not only use it as a game provider and communication tool to waste time and effort like students who trained by traditional methods and use computers.

However, a big percentage of the studies that we read and collect data state positive results about CBT, on the other hand, a small percentage of researchers state some negative outcomes also. For example, students may gain a habit of computer using for many hours per day. Because after school students cannot be totally controlled. Thus this teaching method should be provided with logical reasons to the student that will persuade them to keep themselves under control.

Also students who are trained by CBT are much more motivated toward science courses than the students who have trained by traditional methods.

Furthermore, CBT increases interest of the students towards computers and its magical and useful characteristics, not only to be time waster features. Thus computers are used more effective by students who have trained by CT than students who have trained by IBT.

Furthermore, students who have instructed by CBT are more successful and learn in long term instead of memorizing.

To conclude, if we want to reach to the level of the high developed countries we have to increase the usage of the computer based instructioning and provide solutions to the problems and barriers about the CBT such as providing if enough computers and writing of the required software programs that will teach scientific topics in our language.

To realize these goals CBT should be taken in to the science curriculum and in short-term goals of the governors. Otherwise in this age it will be very difficult to reach to the level of the other countries and realizes our goals.

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