Effectiveness Of The Usage Of The Powerpoint Education Essay

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Following on the discussions and other literature reviews, research hypotheses have been formulated to examine the effectiveness of the usage of the PowerPoint in a Saudi Arabia secondary girl's school. The hypotheses are given below:

H1: When PowerPoint presentations are used in the classrooms, the students will understand the lecture more and that will increase their attainment. Also, using the PowerPoint presentation in the class makes it easier for the student to recall the information observed from the lectures during an exam.

H2: The lectures with PowerPoint presentations are perceived by students, because it is more organised and conveying things in a systematic manner. It will make easier for the students to take notes in a more organised manner and they find classes more interesting.

H3: Students need few things to be presented in the PowerPoint presentations, such as colourful pictures, graphics, animation and decorative background. During the time of taking class notes properly and not to sleep in the classroom, students need lights to be switched on.

H4: When slides are too clumsy (lots of information), this makes the students boring. So the slides should not be too clumsy.

Study Methodology

In this study, Saudi Arabian girl's intermediate school of three classrooms was considered. Two subjects: mathematics and science are being taught during the normal school year. Each class room contains 30 girl students. In one classroom, the lectures were delivered through PowerPoint with the help of animations, pictures and graphics. And in the second classroom, PowerPoint with text only was used. In third class room, the traditional chalk and blackboard were used. The present study is performed in a normal school year, and the students in all classes are consistent in level and age. It is also part of the present study plan to choose the sample without introducing any changes in their regular school activities. For example, the lessons are drawn from the educational syllabus, and the same class teacher who teaches their subjects. Two teachers were selected (One mathematics and science teacher) in all three classes. Their aim is to ensure that the results are not influenced either by a change in syllabus, class teacher, or even in the distribution of students. This study took three weeks; every class contains about 30 students, aged 13 to 14 years old. The three classes were comparable, and their student academic levels were similar, given the criteria used to form classes based on consistency in level and age. The same subject syllabus for mathematics and science are provided to each class. However, the teachers are asked to deliver five lessons to all three classrooms. In the first classroom, the teacher delivered the lessons through PowerPoint with the help of animations, pictures and graphics. And in the second classroom PowerPoint with text only is used to teach the same lessons. In third class room, the traditional chalk and blackboard are used. At the end of the lessons, the knowledge of the students was assessed to examine the difference in results between the three class rooms. This would allow us to evaluate the use of PowerPoint effectively in improving learning and its influence on academic performance can also be evaluated. Student's preferences were collected from questionnaires. The questionnaires were supplied to the students, who involved in the assessment.

Questionnaire Design

In order to measure "how the students was feeling about the PowerPoint presentation compared to their traditional presentation", a set of fourteen-item questionnaires was prepared. Based on selected key elements which were observed in the literature review in learning beneficial aspects, the fourteen-item questionnaires were selected in this study. The key elements were selected on the basis of learning and absorbing the material, organization and delivery of the lectures, simulating the interest, quick recalling the information already have seen in the slide, motivation to attends the class, maintaining the student class note in a organized manner, understanding the slide material in an point by point. Remaining questionnaires were selected to know the student preferences about the PowerPoint slides. The replies from the questionnaires will be effectively used in designing the future PowerPoint lectures. The prepared questionnaires were given to the students, who already have attended the minimum of five classes through PowerPoint software. The multiple choices for a given questions were prepared based on the statistical analyses. Through this analysis, a certain value has been given for each response. Such as

(strongly agree); the value of 5 was given for this;

(agree) the value of 4 was given for this;

(do not know) the value of 3 was given for this;

(disagree) the value of 2 was given for this;

(strongly disagree) the value of 1 was given for this;

All possible responses for a given questions was provided in the closed type questionnaires. Latter responses for the questionnaires have been statistically analysed using SPSS, and results were also recorded

TYPES of presentations

In the present study, three types of presentations were introduced to perform this analysis. They are "lectures without PowerPoint, lectures with basic PowerPoint, and lectures with expanded PowerPoint". Traditional (white board with chalk) way of delivering the lectures were involved in the lectures without PowerPoint. Text information's were presented in the lectures with basic PowerPoint. In addition to text, pictures, sounds with animation were included in the lectures with advanced PowerPoint. In the advanced PowerPoint, pictures and tables were also included that were directly related to the lecture, but the sound effects not related to the lectures.

STUDY Procedure

This present study was carried out over three weeks in the normal school days of Saudi Arabian girl's intermediate school. In that school, usually all the classrooms were not occupied with PowerPoint presentation facilities. There was only one room equipped with PowerPoint presentation facility. For taking the class lecture with PowerPoint, students were taken to that particular room for PowerPoint presentations.

The teachers planned to teach one unit in this study for mathematics and one unit for science. Every lesson in both mathematics and science units were taught in three methods one by blackboard and chalk without PowerPoint, one basic PowerPoint, and the third by advanced PowerPoint. There were three classes. In each class, two different methods had adopted to teach mathematics and science (see table 1). For example, in the first group were taught mathematics lessons with expanded PowerPoint as shown in Figure 3. And they were taught science lessons by basic PowerPoint, which is shown in Figure 2. The second class group of students were taught the same mathematics lessons but with traditional tool, and they were taught science by traditional tool (blackboard and chalk). The third class group of students were taught the same mathematics lessons but with basic PowerPoint, as shown in Figure 4. And they taught science by expanded PowerPoint, which is shown in Figure 1. Two regular subjects (mathematics and science) were considered in this study to examine the effectiveness of using PowerPoint and subsequently student's performance were also examined. For doing this, three different types of lectures (Expanded PowerPoint-EPP, Traditional-T, and Basic PowerPoint-BPP) were introduced to compare the student performance level between the two different lectures in the same class. The details are shown in the Table 1.

Table1: Distribution of three different methods of teaching on the three classes in math and science

Figure : Example slide that included images, animation (Expanded PP)

Figure : Example slide using text without images (Basic PP)

Figure : Example slide for mathematics class using images and animation (Expanded PP)

Figure : Example slide presenting points only, without any images or sound (Basic PP)

At the end of all the lectures, students were asked to give a test to calculate the difference in the marks of the three classes. The marks allotted to the test were helpful to reveal the students performance in terms of understanding level. The effects of usage of the PowerPoint for improving the academic performance were also analysed compared to the traditional way of delivering the lectures. In addition to that, the difference between the basic PowerPoint and advanced PowerPoint presentations were analysed and compared. Five sections were provided in the evaluation tests. Two marks were allotted for each section. The questions were objective type with multiple choices, right or wrong answers and fill up the blanks patterns.These types of questions were prepared in such a way that the opinion or theory about the parameters of PowerPoint should not affect the grades of the students. The correctly answered questions were recorded. During the class, teachers used PowerPoint for discussion purpose. At that time, lights were switched off to see the images clearly in the PowerPoint slides remaining time, lights were switched on.

Methods of Statistical Analysis

Several appropriate statistical methods were used to achieve the aims and analyse the data collected. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was effectively used for coding and data entry. Likert scale has been given for the multiple choices of questions. The difference between the minimum and maximum limits was found (5-1=4), latter, it was divided by the numbers of choices in the analyses, i.e. (4/5= 0.80). This value was added to the least value in the scale. The added values are shown below.

From 1 to 1.80 indicates (strongly disagree), in all statements regardless of the aspect being measured.

From 1.81 to 2.60 indicates (disagree), in all statements regardless of the aspect being measured.

From 2.61 to 3.40 indicates (do not know), in all statements regardless of the aspect being measured.

From 3.41 to 4.20 indicates (agree), in all statements regardless of the aspect being measured.

From 4.21 to 5.00 indicates (strongly agree), in all statements regardless of the aspect being measured.

To predict the individual and descriptive characteristics of the sample, the frequency of responses and percentages were calculated. In the whole study survey, this analysis was helpful in determining the responses regarding the statements of the main dimensions. The statistical quantities of mean and standard deviation and Independent samples T-test were calculated accordingly. For each and every subject (mathematics and science), the independent sample T -tests were carried out to compare each type of lecture with one another. These tests were also performed to find out any significant differences between the three different methods teaching three groups in level of academic performance achievement. This T- test would be helpful to analyse the effectiveness of the teaching method in terms of raising the academic achievement for intermediate school students in the subject of mathematics and science using PowerPoint.

Result analysis

A detailed procedure has been discussed for the results obtained in the present study. The interpretation of these results and the research questions and objectives were also highlighted. In raising academic performance, the effectiveness of the teaching approach using PowerPoint has been determined. Separate assessment test for entire study groups were performed. The knowledge was evaluated based on the evaluation test. The questions were set based on the lessons taught in mathematics and science. Using the independent sample T-test, the results of the each group were compared and tabulated in Tables and graphs listed below.

Table 2 Independent Samples T-test

The exam result for mathematics subject based on three different methods

Type

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

t

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Marks

EPP (A)

33

8.5833

1.19678

.20833

2.425

0.020*

0.86667

T (B)

30

7.7167

1.62514

.29671

2.391

EPP(A)

33

8.5833

1.19678

.20833

2.568

0.016*

1.05833

BPP( C)

30

7.5250

2.00790

.36659

2.510

T (B)

30

7.7167

1.62514

.29671

0.406

0.6860

.19167

BPP( C)

30

7.5250

2.00790

.36659

0.406

*Statistically significant P < 0.05

Table 1 gives the results of comparison of lectures ratings supported by expanded PowerPoint, traditional tool (black board and chalk) and basic PowerPoint for mathematics subject. The average score of the student scores in mathematics for three different groups based on three different method of teaching are given below:

Expanded PowerPoint: 8.5833

Traditional (chalkboard): 7.7167

Basic PowerPoint: 7.2500

The average score for expanded PowerPoint is significantly greater than the other two teaching methods (P < 0.05). Whereas insignificant difference was observed between traditional and basic PowerPoint (P > 0.05) (P = 0.686). The average score for the lecture based on traditional method is 0.19167 higher than basic PowerPoint.

Table 2 presents the results of comparison of lectures ratings supported by expanded PowerPoint, traditional tool (black board and chalk) and basic PowerPoint for science subject. The average marks are below:

Expanded PowerPoint: 8.1417

Traditional PowerPoint: 6.8750

Basic PowerPoint: 6.9259

The average for the expanded PowerPoint is significantly greater than other two teaching methods (P < 0.05). Insignificant differences were observed between traditional and basic PowerPoint (P > 0.05) (P = 0.938). The average score of the traditional PowerPoint is 0.05093 less than traditional method means is less than basic PowerPoint. It is observed that the results of science and mathematics subjects are similar. Only differences were observed between expanded PowerPoint and other methods. And the best student performance was observed in the expanded PowerPoint method.

Table 3 Independent Samples T-test

The exam result for science subject based on three different methods

Type

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

t

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Marks

EPP(B)

30

8.1417

1.93280

0.35288

2.256

0.029*

1.26667

T( C)

28

6.8750

2.33680

0.44161

2.241

EPP(B)

30

8.1417

1.93280

0.35288

2.077

0.046*

1.21574

BPP(A)

27

6.9259

2.47567

0.47644

2.051

T( C)

28

6.8750

2.33680

0.44161

-0.078

0.938

-0.05093

BPP(A)

27

6.9259

2.47567

0.47644

-0.078

*Statistically significant P < 0.05

Based on this study, it was found that the expanded PowerPoint lectures slides shows benefit than other methods. This may be due to change of classroom, which was carried out to enable the PowerPoint presentation. Because of this, student factor of interest might have increased when changed from their normal class settings. Such class environmental changes were forced by the school. The main reason is that the PowerPoint presentation facilities are only available in that particular room; this is the case in majority of the Saudi Arabian schools. This cannot be acceptable, because they have changed the place while taking the lecture with basic PowerPoint to enable PowerPoint presentation. In this one should expect better student performance. But, there is no improvement in their performance test. The number of students, who attended the exams based on expanded PowerPoint (Group A in Math, Group B in Science) was more than the number of students who attended the exams based on traditional and basic PowerPoint (see Table 1 and 2). It symbolic indicates that the advanced PowerPoint method encourage the students to attend the classes and subsequently exams also.

Figure 5: Frequency of students marks in Mathematics (1 = A, 2 = B, 3 = C)

Figure 6: Frequency of students marks in science (1 = B, 2 = C, 3 = A)

In group A, mathematics students exposed to expanded PowerPoint got good marks in the exams. Their marks were lying between 7 and 10. One student got 5, which is the lowest in group A. Seven students got 10 out of 10 (full mark) and six students got 9 out of 10, which is shown in Figure 5. In group A students who exposed to science subject based on basic PowerPoint method less number of students got highest mark. i.e. five students got 10 out of 10 and three students got 9 and five students got 5 out of 10 respectively. This trend is clearly shown in figure 6. Based on this result, it is possible that few poorly performing students gained significant knowledge through expanded PowerPoint presentation. Thus, the expanded PowerPoint lecture significantly helped the poorly performing students to increase their knowledge and for the rest of students little effect has been observed.

Student achievement in subject through basic PowerPoint was worse than their achievement in mathematics exam through expanded PowerPoint. This condition supports hypothesis no: 1. i.e. expanded PowerPoint presentation makes the students to understand the lecture and makes the student to remember the information's seen in the slides. Besides, it also indicates that the results achievement based on expanded PowerPoint result is not due to the level of differences between academic and learning performance favor to the group exposed to expanded PowerPoint. In group B who had undergone the expanded PowerPoint for science subject got good marks in the exam result. Similarly mathematics subject using traditional method (blackboard and chalk) got mark lower than the average mark, when compared to other group who had undergone lecture through expanded PowerPoint.

Through expanded PowerPoint presentation method, more achievement is observed in science subject than mathematics subject. For example, In mathematics subject, the average difference between the expanded PowerPoint method and traditional method is 0.86667. At the same time, in science subject the average difference between the expanded PowerPoint method and traditional method is 1.26667. This clearly signifies the importance of PowerPoint presentation lectures in science subject.

Based on student's preferences, and what type of presentation method needed about PowerPoint, a set of questionnaires were prepared. The student's responses for the questionnaires frequency, percentages, statistical mean and standard deviations were analysed in statistical manner. The results are shown in Table 2.

It was observed from the table 2 that the mean of the student responses is 3.68 out of 5, which falls in the category of fourth bin of the five-point scale (i.e. in the range 3.41 to 4.20). Based on this bin points, it was also confirmed that the student preferred lecture using PowerPoint. It was also noted that there were some students preferred certain ways of presenting the PowerPoint lecture than others. Some of the student's responses were strongly agreeing to PowerPoint preferences, whereas other's responses were not agreeing to that preference. The mean of the method of delivering lecture using PowerPoint were ranging from 3.40 to 4.13. The lowest preferences were also found from the student's response, mean of that preference was 2.37. It was the lowest mean and far from other preferences. It was occupying between the third and fifth bins of the five-point scale. i.e. don't know/ agree on this survey. The analyses of the questionnaires were given below.

1. It was found that the Question. No: 6, 9, 5 and 2 got highest mean in the student responses. The corresponding values were ranging from 3.93 to 4.13, which clearly indicated that the students were supporting those particular statements. These statements were about "using sounds to accompany the images or concepts, enjoying the lessons when teacher uses the PowerPoint presentation, preferring PowerPoint slides with pictures and tables, graphs compared to plain slides and the lectures delivered through PowerPoint are organised". It is also the fact if the teacher uses sounds to accompany the images, concepts and displaying related pictures, graphs, tables leads to more attracting and interesting class lectures. Also using PowerPoint leads to organised way of delivering the lecture which obviously provides greater degree of interest to the students.

2. From the student's response, it was found that 73% of the students believed that the taking lecture through PowerPoint is one of the best ways for learning and absorbing material in class. And 68% of the student's responded to the preferences of PowerPoint slides rather than white chalk board. It can be argued that introducing new method of teaching (PowerPoint) gives more attention to the students than traditional lecture. All these results lead to increase in student's performance.

3. The main objective of this study is to make the student to get benefit from the electronic lecturing in education. In this regard, 71.7% of the students agreed that the use of PowerPoint in the class help them to recall the information during exam. And 65% of the student responded that the listening the lecture through PowerPoint help them to understand more.

4. The lowest mean of 2.37 was observed for the Question No: 12. It was about "switching the light on while taking the lectures through PowerPoint". It indicated that the students need light to be switched off to visual the pictures and text very clearly.

Table 4 Results of student's responses for the questionnaires statement

Sl.

No

Questionnaire's Statement

Frequency

Extent of agreement

Mean

Std. Deviation

%

Strongly agree

Agree

Don't know

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Q1

PowerPoint is good for learning and absorbing material in class

Freq

9

35

5

7

4

3.63

1.09

%

15.0

58.3

8.3

11.7

6.7

Q2

Usually the Lectures delivered through PowerPoint are well organized

Freq

21

22

10

6

1

3.93

1.04

%

35.0

36.7

16.7

10.0

1.7

Q3

When classes are taught using PowerPoint, I find it helpful for recalling the information in the exam

Freq

15

28

6

5

6

3.68

1.23

%

25

46.7

10

8.3

10

Q4

Generally, I prefer PowerPoint slides rather than white chalk board

Freq

21

20

9

9

1

3.85

1.12

%

35

33

15

15

1.7

Q5

I prefer PowerPoint slides contain pictures, tables, and graphs, compared to plain slides

Freq

26

21

5

6

2

4.05

1.11

%

43.3

35

8.3

10

3.3

Q6

I like it when the teacher uses sound to accompany the images or concepts

Freq

23

30

1

4

2

4.13

0.98

%

38.3

50

1.7

6.7

3.3

Q7

I prefer PowerPoint slides with good attractive backgrounds

Freq

23

17

9

8

3

3.82

1.23

%

38.3

28.3

15

13.3

5

Q8

I find it better if the teacher uses a PowerPoint slides as discussion points during the

Freq

11

36

7

3

3

3.82

0.97

%

18.3

60

11.7

5

5

Q9

I enjoy the lesson more if the teacher uses PowerPoint

Freq

24

24

4

8

0

4.07

1.01

%

40

40

6.7

13.3

0

Q10

The lecture is easy to understand if the teacher uses PowerPoint

Freq

17

22

6

8

7

3.57

1.35

%

28.3

36.7

10

13.3

11.7

Q11

The use of PowerPoint in the lecture motivate me to attend the class

Freq

16

20

9

10

5

3.53

1.28

%

26.7

33.3

15

16.7

8.3

Q12

While taking lectures using PowerPoint, I prefer lights to be switched on

Freq

2

15

5

19

19

2.37

1.26

%

3.3

25

8.3

31.7

31.7

Q13

I prefer to have slides with full text related to the topics, rather than bullet points

Freq

9

26

11

8

6

3.40

1.20

%

15

43

18.3

13.3

10

Q14

I make more organized notes in class, when teacher uses the PowerPoint in the classroom

Freq

17

21

7

12

3

3.62

1.24

%

28.3

35

11.7

20

5

Total Mean

3.68

-

Discussion and conclusion

Discussion:

In this study, the effects of PowerPoint presentation were examined for secondary school students. Students who had undergone expanded PowerPoint presentation class performed better than students who had basic PowerPoint and traditional presentations. This indicates that the expanded PowerPoint helped the students to understand the lecture and recall the information. This argument can also be extended that the attractive expanded PowerPoint presentation gives interest to the students. These results showed good agreement with the previous researcher results (Kask, 2000; Lowry, 1999; Mantei, 2000; Susskind, 2005; Szabo & Hastings, 2000). Through basic PowerPoint the student performance were not increased. It gives the statement that the effect of PowerPoint in learning not only depends on the style of the PowerPoint but also depends on the way of presenting and delivering the slides. Carlos et al. (2008) mentioned that "the effect of PowerPoint depends on how it is used". In this study, it was observed that the use of PowerPoint is increasing the learning attitudes, when the presentation slides contain images, sounds effects and animations. The presenter should have good lecture delivering skills. Then only, the relevant information on the slides can be reached to the students. And the course content should be prepared in such a way that it must be able to motivate and gives interest to the students without overloading those (Dudley et al. 2006). In our questionnaires, students preferred PowerPoint lectures rather than traditional tool (blackboard and chalk). Because students believed that the PowerPoint presentations motivate them to attend the class and help them to understand the lecture and recall the information during exams. Moreover, they also believed that if the lecture were given through PowerPoint, their class notes are inherently maintained in an organized manner.

Students indicated that the instructors should use key phrase outlines revealed line by line on the PowerPoint slides. Instructor should elaborate the discussion, by adding examples. This way of delivering the lecture creates the students interaction and also increases the student's involvement in the learning process rather than copying the information from the slides (Appearson et al, 2006). Also student preferred sound congruent with the slide contents. This sound congruent could serve as a cues for problem solving and learning (Holzl, 1997). Students indicated that the light should be dimmed while giving lecture with PowerPoint. New lighting facilities can be expected to control the particular light to be turned on and off for avoiding the problem of excessive light. Sufficient and necessary lighting should be provided in the classroom for the students to see one another, to see their notes properly and to facilitate the student-instructor discussions (Appearson et al, 2006). Finally, students are more interested to have their slides with pictures, spreadsheet, tables and graphs, and decorative background. This type of presentation converge the student's attentions towards the slides. This student's preferences supported the previous studies of Apperson, Laws, & Scepansky, 2006; Atkins-Sayre, Hopkins, Mohundro, & Sayre, 1998; Beets & Lobingier, 2001; Mantei, 2000; Szabo & Hastings, 2000.

Conclusion:

PowerPoint is one of the most popular software's of the Microsoft packages. It is representation of information that allows one to communicate the information effectively to the audience. It also allows one to show the information through various colored text, graphics, sounds, videos and animations. Though, PowerPoint is extensively used in many sectors, but it is not much effectively propagated to academic sectors especially for the intermediate schools in Saudi Arabia. This is mainly due to the requirement of hardware for the technology, which is currently not exists in most of the classrooms of the secondary Saudi Arabian school. Through this study, extensive survey has been carried out in one of the girl's intermediate Saudi Arabian school to examine how PowerPoint presentation can effectively enhance the student's performance in the learning process. More information has been evolved concerning what type of PowerPoint presentation will enhance the student learning attitudes in the classroom. This information would be useful to the presenter to make the presentation based on student's requirement. Nowadays, it is mandatory to deliver the lessons through Power Point presentations in most of the schools. Moreover students are accustomed with most dominant format chalk and black board lectures.

This study investigated three types of lectures presentation (expanded Power Point presentation (EPP), Power Point with text only (PPT) and traditional chalk with black board approach (T)) whether there is any difference in learning by using PowerPoint software technology. Most of the students preferred lectures to be taught through Power Point presentation (EPP) than other methods and gave more favorable support to the PowerPoint. This was also reflected in the evaluation test. Students preferred PowerPoint presentation, because it facilitated their learning process, which are consistent with other research investigations (Atkins-Sayre et al., 1998; Beets & Lobingier, 2001; Mantei; 2000; Rankin & Hoaas, 2001: Szabo & Hastings, 2000). Through this survey, it was observed that there is an existence of strong positive correlation between evaluation test result and questionnaire. In both process, it was suggested that the use of PowerPoint presentation enhanced learning process. PowerPoint presentation could be definitely helpful in better illustration of the key concept through pictures, graphs and tables. It was also suggested from the results that PowerPoint technology improves the student's cognitive, and improve the recalling power of the student's during exams. Certain important points are also evolved from the student's results about the PowerPoint. They are as follows;

Well organized and constructed PowerPoint presentations are preferred.

Good attractive backgrounds PowerPoint slides are preferred.

Use of good sound for representing the images and concepts could them as cue for learning (Holzl, 1997).

Use of PowerPoint not only tool for efficient learning but also makes the learning more entertain.

Use of PowerPoint presentation enhances student efficacy, attitudes and academic achievement.

Student's suggested guidelines and strategies that need to be considered while preparing PowerPoint presentation for satisfying their needs. Thus, the replacement of black board teaching with PowerPoint presentation acts as an efficient auxiliary medium for the student's performance. Therefore, the use of PowerPoint facilities in the classroom makes worth for the student educational life. Appropriate training should be provided for the concern staffs or teachers to implement the students need in the PowerPoint presentation.

Recommendations for Further Research:

This present study used only one girl's intermediate school with limited number of students (90 students) to examine the scenario in limited times (two weeks for one unit of two subject's mathematics and science). To explore the effect of PowerPoint for each and every subject, this present study should cover more than two subjects rather than two. The effect of understanding and recalling the information from the PowerPoint a short memory and long memory evaluation test should be conducted. This short memory test can be done by conducting quiz for each unit. And long memory evaluation test should be carried out for the exam during semester. By doing this short and long memory test can be evolved for the whole year performance test. To compare the effectiveness of the PowerPoint for the same group of students for a single class, the PowerPoint should be used in the first semester and in the second semester classes should be taken without PowerPoint. Based on that, the group performance will be evolved with and without PowerPoint presentation. Moreover, in the present study girls' intermediate school was used to examine the scenario. It would be more advantageous to determine the effectiveness of the PowerPoint for boys and girls intermediate school separately. And also, in this study most of the student's preferences were examined through questionnaires with limited answers and there was no option to predict their rations for their responses. Further research can also be carried out to conduct the interviewees the students about their preferences and rationalise their responses, and this information can be supplied for the researchers for detailed analyses. Further studies can be extended to examine the students learning and attitudes by providing two different types of PowerPoint presentation lectures (poorly-designed vs. well-designed). More strong research work is required to claim the effect of PowerPoint on memory, presenter and presentation effects. Further extensive work can be carried out in both intermediate and secondary schools for more than two subjects.

Project Evaluation:

Strength:

In this study, the following points are considered as strength to examine the effectiveness of the PowerPoint presentation.

In this study, a set of 14 questionnaires were considered and large number of responses were found. All the responses were useful to examine the strength of PowerPoint presentation in the classroom.

The outcomes of the study, have met and coherent with the objectives of the present work.

In order to satisfy all study hypotheses, clear and comprehensive questions were asked to the students.

The two subjects were selected. One is mathematics and other one is science. In mathematics majority of the lesson are dealing with text and in science subject most of the lessons are dealing with texts with pictures. These two inherent features are effectively useful to compare the three teaching lectures methods in very short time.

Through statistical approach, the mean, frequencies and standard deviations were estimated for the student's responses for the questionnaires. And student T test with SPSS program were used to compare the student's grades with three different teaching methods.

Using t-test with SPSS program to compare the students' grads with the three methods. As well as calculated the means and frequencies of student answers about their preferences.

Weakness:

The following points are considered as weakness in the present study.

For a limited time period, each and every class only two lecture methods were used. It would be one of the advantages of this study, if all the three types of lecture methods were used in comparison purpose.

The individual student score were not used to compare the three lecture methods. Only total score of the students were compared. It would be better, if individual student score were compared over the three different methods (EPP, BPP, and T). This would definitely give an accurate prediction.

Short memory test was only carried out for the students to examine the effect of understanding and recalling the information what student's have observed from the presentation. For a short duration, this memory test result can be useful. For long duration at the semester end or during the semester exam, this short memory test result may not be appropriate to predict the accurate result. Hence, it might be better if the comparison were performed based on conducting more exams for students during semester and at the end of semesters. This would have done to investigate the effect of PowerPoint on deep learning process of the students.

This study was carried out in a girl's intermediate school at Saudi Arabia. The study result cannot be extended for the boy's intermediate school. Because boys are having different thinking capability and interest when compared to girls. Separate study would have performed on boy's intermediate school to examine the PowerPoint technology.

This study outcome was based on the evaluation test only. Interaction between teachers and PowerPoint presentation and students with teachers was not evaluated.

Through induction process, the student's preferences were evaluated. There were no reasons for their preferences.

All these weakness will be considered as separate future work to predict the results more accurately.

.

Appendix 1: Student questionnaire in English

Student Questionnaires

1. PowerPoint is good for learning and absorbing material in class

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

2. Usually the Lectures delivered through PowerPoint are well organized

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

3. When classes are taught using PowerPoint, I find it helpful for recalling the information in the exam

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

4. Generally, I prefer PowerPoint slides rather than white chalk board

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

5. I prefer PowerPoint slides contain pictures, tables, and graphs, compared to plain slides

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

6. I like it when the teacher uses sound to accompany the images or concepts

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

7. I prefer PowerPoint slides with good attractive backgrounds

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

8. I find it better if the teacher uses a PowerPoint slides as discussion points during the lesson

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

9. I enjoy the lesson more if the teacher uses PowerPoint

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

10. The lecture is easy to understand if the teacher uses PowerPoint

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

11. The use of PowerPoint in the lecture motivate me to attend the class

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

12. While taking lectures using PowerPoint, I prefer lights to be switched on

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

13. I prefer to have slides with full text related to the topics, rather than bullet points

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

14. I make more organized notes in class, when teacher uses the PowerPoint in the classroom

1- Strongly disagree 2- Disagree 3-Don't know 4- Agree 5- Strongly agree

Appendix 2: Student questionnaire (translated) in ARABIC

للاجابة عن هذه الاستبانة اختر احد الاجابات الخمسة حسب ما تراه مناسبا

استخدام الباوربوينت مفيد لتعلم واستيعاب الدرس

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

عادةً المحاضراة الملقاة عن طريق الباور بوينت منظمة جيدا

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

عندما نستخدم الباوربوينت في الدرس اجده مساعد في تذكر المعلومات في الاختبار

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

عموماً انا افضل شرائح الباوربوينت عن السبورة والطباشير

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

5-- أنا أفضل شرائح العرض التي تحتوي على صور وجداول او رسوم بيانية أو خرائط

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

6-- يعجبني عندما يستخدم المدرس صوتيات مصاحبة للصور أو المفاهيم المعروضة.

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

7- أنا أفضل شرائح الباوربوينت ذات الخلفيات الجذابة

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

8- اجده مفيد اذا استخدم المدرس شرائح " البوربوينت " كنقاط للنقاش خلال الدرس

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

9- انااستمتع بالدرس أكثر أذا كان يستخدم فيه البوربوينت

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

10- فهم الدرس اسهل اذا استخدم الباوربوينت

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

11-استخدام الباوربوينت يحفزني لحضور الدروس

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

12- خلال الدروس بواسطة " البوربوينت " ، أفضل أن تكون الإضاءة مشتعلة

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

13- أنا أفضل شرائح العرض التي تقدم نص المحاضرة كاملاً،عن المحتوية على نقاط بسيطة

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

14-اكتب الدرس وألخصه في الدفتر بترتيب اكثر اذا استخدم المعلم الباوربوينت

1- لااوافق بشده 2- لا اوافق 3- لا اعلم 4- اوافق 5- اوافق بشده

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