Effectiveness Of Faculty Development Programmes

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The research reported in this thesis was on "An impact assessment of the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes in the Private University sector of Pakistan". The purpose of research was to study the socio-economic impact of inappropriate disposal of hospital wastes on the health of the employees and to suggest measures to accomplish it on better lines. The secondary data was collected by consultation of literature in the libraries and Internet and also from the material printd by different hospitals of Lahore. The primary data was gathered by floating questionnaires and conducting interviews. SPSS software was applied to analyze data for frequencies regression parameters and cross tabulation the results were interpreted by usual principles of statistics. The findings suggested that the improper disposal of hospital wastes have a significant impact on the health of employees associated with disposal business. They get infected from different diseases caused by hospital waste . Thus, the social cost of avoiding these diseases was also determined. These were quiet high and could not be borne by the poor health employees.

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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Education widens up the horizons of mind for a person. Training programs focus on improving the existing skills. The concept of training the teachers helps not only them but also their students. Faculty Development is used for terms such as faculty training, instructional development, career development of the faculty and organizational development of the institution. Faculty Development plays an integral role in higher education strategy. According to Nelson 1983 "Faculty Development refers to any endeavor designed to improve faculty performance in all aspects of their professional lives - as scholars, advisers, academic leader, and contributors to institutional decisions".

The main element of Faculty Development is considered to be the training of the teachers as it results in organizational development and instructional development. Teacher training practices were first initiated in Germany and France. Initially teacher training programs were started for the elementary teachers. The first training college was established in 1798. With the evolution of time the concept of education improved and need for training the teachers emerged. It became necessary for a teacher to understand human behavior, use different teaching methods, knowledge of science and art. Such concepts were trained the most to the teachers in the initial years of teacher training. Teacher education changed the overall perception about teaching. Napoleon was known as the first person who uniformed professional training.

Lancastarian teaching method of teacher training was introduced by in early 19th century Joseph Lancaster and Andrew. In this method monitorial method of teaching was used in which senior students used to teach juniors. The senior students used to act as teachers and used to be monitored by their tutors. In Germany, the concept of training the teachers not only on the subjective matter but also to improve their teaching methods changed the trends in the teacher education system. In British professionalism of the teacher became an important component. Professionalism required two year study in teaching and on the campus practice of the teacher before officially teaching in that institute.

Gradually the trend of teacher education emerged in Pakistan. In the 1990's there were 87 elementary teacher training institutes. These institutes used to award Primary Teaching Certificates. The major components of these training programs were child psychology and teaching methods. The training of secondary level teachers required attending any university department of teacher training. Training of the teacher at the university level was neglected in Pakistan for a long time until Higher Education Commission of Pakistan took the responsibility. National Academy for Higher Education (NAHE) was established in 1983 and it was designed to improve staff development in Pakistan of the university faculty members. The first step taken by NAHE was conducting a pre service training program focusing on the skills required by a teacher for participating in the academic functions of universities. NAHE conducted many seminars and workshops aiming overall human development. The methods of teaching and subjective knowledge was enhanced though the seminars and workshops. Moreover, the purpose of the seminars and workshop was to provide a platform for different instructors to communicate with each other and to exchange their point of views. Curriculum Development was done by HEC in order to standardize the level of knowledge of all the teachers. Bachelors and masters degree of the teachers was revised to unifoam the degree holders.

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Dr Shahid Saddiqui 2010 stated "A teacher education programme should strive to strike a balance between theory and practice." Therefore, it is important for training programmes to focus on both. Enhancing the theory and subjective knowledge of teacher will not help if the teacher is not able to convey his/her knowledge confidently. Practice teaching includes 'on the campus' and 'off the campus' training of the teachers. On the campus practice provides an opportunity to the teacher to understand the environment and normal trends of the attitude of the students of that particular institute. Whereas off the campus practice enables a teacher to know about the working environments other than the institute where he/she is teaching and can follow its effective trends.

The effectiveness of the Faculty Development program depends on a number of factors. HEC tried to incorporate the maximum by conducting meeting with the Vice Chancellors of different universities. The training targets decided by the Direct Training HEC (NAHE) lies emphasis on the duration of the training. The committee perceives that ideal duration for training is one month. The committee feels the need for the instructors to be trained in educational psychology, measurement and evaluation, teaching strategies and personal management skills.

Recently in Pakistan efforts are also being made to increase the efficiency of Faculty Development Programmes at the provisional level. In the province of Punjab, The University of Punjab developed Human Resources Department which offered courses for teachers. Unfortunately after some time Punjab University had to stop such activities due to administrative problems. In Peshawar University from NWFP 45 teachers were trained in the one year training program and refresher courses offered by the university. In Sindh and Balochistan no progress has been made on Faculty Development.

The goal of the Faculty Development Programmes is to provide an opportunity to the teachers to improve their level of education and skills at the individual level. Corporative skills of the teachers also are being developed to train them to handle conflicts. The participants of the training programs should be awards with rewards and benefits. Rewards include increments in salary, valuable access to technology, promotion and transportation facilities.

Moreover, the faculty members are given a platform to express their views and define their needs form the organization which can enable them to educate the students in a better way. They can raise their voice against or in favor of the organization and can request for any change they want in the organization and education system.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The literature review will enlighten the research and conclusions made by other authors on the Faculty Development Programmes. The relationship between Faculty development programmes and factors effecting such programmes will be assessed. Moreover, the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes on the participating teachers and on the overall organization will be reviewed to comprehend the subject area. The significance of the factors effecting the most or least will be analyzed according to different statistical methods used by the authors.

Lanthan D.Camblin Jr and Joseph A.Steger (2000) worked on "Rethinking Faculty Development". The research was carried out to discover how faculty development programmes influence the institution. The authors insisted to allocate specific funds for professional development in the university. Survey questionnaire was sent to members of the university to indicate the difference made after the university distributed funds for faculty development. The questionnaire asked the members to indicate the activities that made the members engage in activities of faculty development. The analysis was made on the frequency of response of a specific answer which concluded that members desired for selective guidelines and better distribution of information. The article concluded that faculty development plays a significant role and it should be in the strategic vision of the institution. Furthermore, the authors conclude on the note that contributions towards faculty development activities increase if universities allocate specific funds for the purpose. However, the major limitation of the article was that it stressed more on the utilization of the funds generated for faculty development rather that focusing on the impact of such programmes on the institution.

Nikos J. Mourtos and Emily L. Allen (2003) worked on assessing the effectiveness of faculty instructional development program based on teaching and learning styles. The article stressed that faculty members should understand the learning style of the students. The model used in the article is Felder-Silverman and according to this model five dimensions to learning and learners are classified as perception, input modality, organization, processing and understanding. Engineering students were asked that which approach helped them better understand the topic. Numerical score is assigned to the answers given by students based on the five dimensions of the model. The answers for each dimension are rated from -11 to +11 on an axis. Score between -3 to +3 indicate the students who are fairly balanced. The data depicted that majority of the students were fairly balanced but a large percentage prefer active, sensing and visual learning. Workshops for teachers were conducted focusing not only on learning styles but also providing experience in developing instructional methods to tackle various learning styles. The article also focuses on conversations among teachers about teaching as it helps the teacher to know about the instructional methods used by others. A survey was conducted from teachers regarding their teaching styles. The article concluded that teaching workshops should promote proven teaching methods that tackle the needs of various learning styles of students.

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Jarrred Keengwe, Terry Kidd and Lydia Kyei-Blankson (2008) in their study on "Facutly and Technology: Implications for Faculty Training and Technology Leadership" emphasized on the use of information and communication technology in higher education. A snowball sampling technique (Lincoln and Guba 1985) was used to choose 25 respondents belonging to various academic and technology leadership positions. The data collected from the respondents was analyzed through qualitative research methods of content and narrative analysis. The aim of this survey was to know about the hardships faculty members face while adopting the technological process for instruction. The respondents indicated organizational support, training and development, leadership and resources. The study concluded that institutions should include workshops for teachers to adopt information and communication technology. Emphasis were made that use of technology will revolutionize the teaching practices and will contribute towards active learning.

Omera Qayyum, Kamran Azam and Anwar Khan Marwat (2009) in worked on the relationship of training effectiveness and faculty behavior. It is affirmed in the article that most effective training programs change the behavior of the participants. Training makes an individual more productive and efficient but only when its effect is perpetual. The data is collected by conducting interviews to examine the change in behavior from participants after they have attented teacher training program. The key indicators of the research are knowledge, skills, objective of training and behavior change. Likert scale is used to analyze the response of the questions and it is concluded that training programs should focus on lecture delivery, paper designing, taking quizzes and enhancing the relation with the students. Furthermore, authors stress to know the starting point and feedback of the trainees in order to know how the program effected them. The limitation of the article is that its sample size was 27 which is not enough to make a generalized conclusion of the study.

Mine Celikoz (2009) conducted a study on the empathic tendencies of prospective clothing teachers in terms of the variables of age, gender and class. The study highlighted the need of understanding the emotions of the students and therefore teachers need to have emphatic communication skills. General survey model is used and "Empathic Tendency Scale" developed by Dokmen (1996) to evaluate individual's ability to establish empathy was used as data collection tool. The data collected from 5 level Likert scale was analyzed on SPSS program using t-test and variance analysis. The data was collected to determine the emphatic tendencies of different teachers at different levels. Mine Celikoz concluded that empathic tendency helps a teacher to communicate effectively not only with the students but with other teachers as well and it should be enhanced through training.

Ludovic Morge, Marie Christine Toczek and Nadia Chakrom (2009) conducted a study on teaching and teacher education. It focused on managing class interactions, its impact on teachers' practices and on their pupil's achievement. Training should impact teacher practices in order to impact pupils' leaning. The hypothesis of the study is set as socio-constructivist approach has positive effect on the learning of students and training in such approach enables teachers to change their practices. The lectures of the teachers are recorded and analyzed qualitatively. To test hypothesis pupil learning is evaluated in relation to the training given to the teachers. The training program was composed of three sessions which taught teachers to tackle general and de-contextualized interaction, particulate model session and how to manage pupil-teacher interactions in a session. Primary data was collected through questionnaires and variance analysis was carried out and recording of teachers' lectures was analyzed. The statistical results reveal that the effect is same for all the students which show that change in pupil learning cannot be considered the result for the training program. The results of recordings show difference in the management and the teachers start taking into account the production of all pupils and do not ignore any student. Therefore their study concluded that training programs alter teachers' practices and improve their management and class handling skills.

Wouter Schelfhout, Filip Dochy, Steven Janssens, Katrien Struyven, Sarah Gielen and Eline Sierens (2006) conducted a study on learning focused teaching in teacher training and the need to link learning content with practice experiences within an inductive approach. The authors stressed that inert knowledge which is only memorized by the students can be applied in practical situations if teachers create powerful learning environments. Analytical field research is used in which a limited number of hypotheses are tested. Data is collected by qualitative research using document analysis of different courses, interviews with teacher trainers and questionnaires for the students. A Likert scale from 1 to 6 was established and scores were developed. Observation and in depth understanding of different situations was conducted. The results indicated that coaching should be made on the learning experiences and the quality of teaching practice should be improved. Additionally, attention should be made on learning focused aspects like developing active and self-regulative learning environment.

Shafqat Hussain, Muhammad Sarwar and Muhammad Naeemullah Khan (2010) conducted a study on faculty development program for university teachers and trainees perceptions of success. The authors stressed on the point that the terms such as staff development are similar to human resource development and for that reason teachers play an important role in improving the quality of higher education and to meet the cultural and development needs of the society. Five point Likert scale was used to analyze the questionnaire. The objective of the finding were improvement in skills, modules effectiveness, participants point of view about training, resource person's evaluation, coordination, duration of training, incentives for participants and institutional support. The results show that training program can only be effective if it is fulfilling the needs and inadequacies of the teachers. More than half of the participants were of the point the positive incentives will contribute to the effectiveness of the training program as then the participant will be encouraged and motivated to join. The limitation of the study was that it was restricted to a specific locality and general results were concluded based on their responses.

Teresa Gauasch, Ibis Alvares and Anna Espasa (2009) conducted an analysis of a teacher training experience and competencies in a virtual teaching environment. According to the article a teacher plays certain functions including planning function, social function, instructive function, technological domain and management domain. Training workshop was conducted keeping in view the background information of all the students. The development and results of the training action were evaluated. The development was evaluated on three dimensions which enabled the authors to determine whether teachers can obtain knowledge about virtual collaborative learning or knowledge about technological support. Assessment was made based on the personal and group contribution made by the teachers in order to determine their competencies. In the end a questionnaire was given to the participants of the workshops to know about their feedback and opinions.

Pamela Grossman (2004) in her study on district policy and beginning teachers and teacher learning tried to explore the ways policy environments play in the professional development of teachers. The authors followed 10 teachers from the last year of their teacher education from their first three years of teaching. The teachers were interviews individually and in groups and they were observed during teaching. The interviews were about what they are learning in teacher education and observation was conducted to know their perceptions of the lessons and resources of the ideas. The interviews and observation of the teachers was transcript into written form and extensive cross-case analysis was done on the teachers and the contribution of the district policy in the professional development of the particular teacher. Various district documents were collected to analyze policies concerning curriculum and mentoring. The article concluded that districts can act as teacher educator as they give the opportunities to the teachers in their early part of career. Moreover, the environment that the teachers work in their early part of life set their attitude and opinion towards their work. The conversations among other members of the institute contribute in setting professional or non-professional attitude of a teacher.

Margaret Reynolds (1999) worked on standards and professional practice, initial teacher training. She stressed on making practice teaching important component of teacher training programs. The study examined management standards of training programs to determine effective management and to facilitate assessment. Practicing teaching effect the process and product and it produce good quality. The study is concluded that teaching is not considered a complex activity and importance of practice is not realized. The limitation of the study is that it does not include any statistical tool to analyze the importance of practice teaching. Moreover, observational tool or qualitative tool was neither used to make comparison about of the teachers who have practices teaching in their career.

P.Karen Murphy, Lee Ann M.Delli and Maeghan N.Edwards (2004) conducted a study on good teacher and good teaching. Tuckman 1995 measure was chosen as it uses commonly understood terms to describe teacher behavior and it was filled by the students. The form consisted of teacher characteristics and students had to mark the ones present in their teacher. ANOVA was conducted to analyze the characteristics of a good teacher which concluded that patience, caring and polite were rated the most by the students. The limitation of the study was that it was based on the responses of the students which can be biased and unauthentic.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

Research Type

Qualitative research will be conducted to find the quality of the teacher training or Faculty Development Programmes and the impact of that training on the participants.

Data type

Primary data will be used to conduct the research. It will be first hand data and unvarnished information will be collected to analyze the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes.

Sources of data

Data will be collected by floating the questionnaires in different educational institutes in Pakistan. Likert-scale will be used and questionnaire will include close ended questions with multiple options relating to the decomposition of each variable. The answers selected by the sample population will be analyzed to judge the relationship of the variable.

Theoretical framework and variables under consideration

Variables and operational definitions

Effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes (Dependent variable) :

It is defined as the degree to which the Faculty Development Programmes can change or influence the teaching practices taking place in an institution. It can also be referred as the impact Faculty Development programmes have on the overall efficiency of an institution.

Qayyum. O and K. A. (n.d.). Relationship of training Effectiveness and Faulty Behavior.

Allen, N. J. (2003). Assessing the effectiveness of a faculty instructional development program Part2: teaching and learning styles.

Practice Teaching (independent variable) :

It is the process of gaining practical knowledge and improving teaching skills before coming to the class. Practice teaching can be on or off the campus.

Siddiqui, S. (2010). Rethinking Education in Pakistan.

Schelfhouta.W, F. D. (2006). Educating for learning-focused teaching in teacher training: The need to link learning content with practice experiences. pgs 874-897.

Ahuja, A. Teacher Education. Pgs 69-12, 170-182

Educational Psychology (independent variable) :

It is the knowledge of behavior and observation. Educational psychology also refers to the understanding of student development and motivation.

Hegland, T. A. (Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990). Educational Psychology and the Reform of Teacher education.

Seifert, K. (2009). Educational Psychology Second Edition. Jacobs Foundation, Zurich, Switzerland.

Englander, M. E. (Vol. 57, No. 7 (Mar., 1976). Educational Psychology and Teacher Education. 440-442.

Ahuja, A. Teacher Education. Pgs 69-12, 170-182

General Education & beliefs (moderating variable) :

It is referred as the general concepts and notions of individuals about education and teaching.

Siddiqui, S. (2010). Rethinking Education in Pakistan.

Ahuja, A. Teacher Education. Pgs 69-12, 170-182

Community Understanding (independent variable) :

It refers to the understanding of social and cultural norms and values.

Ahuja, A. Teacher Education. Pgs 69-12, 170-182

Organizational Support (independent variable) :

The funds provided by the organization in terms of hardware and software technology.

Keengwe, J. (2008). Faculty and Technology: Implications for Faculty Training and Teaching Leadership

A.Steger, L. D. (2000). Rethinking Faculty Development. pgs 1-18.

Co-ordination of training programmes (intervening variable) :

The management of training programmes in terms of duration, flexible timings, content.

Allen, N. J. (2003). Assessing the effectiveness of a faculty instructional development program Part2: teaching and learning styles.

Qayyum. O and K. A. (n.d.). Relationship of training Effectiveness and Faulty Behavior.

Hussain, M. (2010). Faculty Development Program for University Teachers: Trainee's Perceptions of Success.

Incentives for Participants (independent variable) :

The future benefits of the training programmes act as incentives for the participants. They enhance the level of interest of the participant.

Harvel, C. (August, 2008). Faculty training in developing an e-portfolio system.

Positive Reinforcement (intervening variable) :

Incentives effect positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement includes encouragement and appraisal of the work of the participant.

Hussain, M. (2010). Faculty Development Program for University Teachers: Trainee's Perceptions of Success.

Personality Development (independent variable) :

Personality Development refers to the enhancement in the personality of an individual including interpersonal skills, appearance, integrity and values.

Sarsani, M. R. (2006). Quality improvements in teacher education

Managerial Expertise (independent variable):

It refers as the managerial skills of handling a situation including planning, organizing, leading and controlling.

Sima, G. F.-L. (1999). Supporting effective English communication within the context of teaching and reasearch in a tertiary institute: developing a genre model for consiousness raising. pgs 87-822.

Method of teaching (independent variable):

The different styles of teaching including lecture delivery, use of multimedia and other such tools.

Allen, N. J. (2003). Assessing the effectiveness of a faculty instructional development program Part2: teaching and learning styles

Theoretical Framework

Population, Working population and planned sample

The population of the research will be the public and private sector universities in Pakistan. The working population will include the teachers and participants of training programs in private and public sector universities. Survey will be conducted in universities including Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Lahore School of Economics (LSE), Foundation for Advancement and Technology (FAST), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) and Beaconhouse National University (BNU). The planned sample size is 50 and I will be floating 10 questionnaires in each university.

Research hypothesis

Managerial Expertise

Managerial Expertise effect the Faculty development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Practice Teaching

Practice Teaching effect Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Educational Psychology

Educational psychology effect the Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Positively

H1 = Not positively

Incentives for Participants

Incentives for participants effect the Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Community Understanding

Community understanding of the participants effects the Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Method of teaching

Method of teaching effects the Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Personality Development

Personality Development of the participants effect the Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Organizational Support

Organizational support effect the Faculty Development Programmes.

Ho = Not positively

H1 = Positively

Techniques

After gathering primary data based on the Likert-scale questionnaire, regression analysis technique will be used to interpret the data. Chi-square test will be run on the hypothesis of the study and the results will be used to analyze the relationship of the independent variable on the dependent variable.

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Results

The questionnaires on Faculty Development Programmes were floated among the university teachers in the private sector. Questionnaires were floated in Lahore School of Economics (LSE), Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Foundation Association of Sciences and Technology (FAST) and Beaconhouse National University (BNU). The responses of the teachers highlight the factors which effect the training programmes the most and which should be considered a part of the training program. Multiple regression was ran on all the variables in consideration with the dependent variable. The statistics used to interpret the results include the p-value, R squared, co-efficient and t-statistic.

The R-squared value explains how the independent variables are effecting the dependence of the dependent variable. The R-Squared statistic indicates that the model as fitted explains 85.8119% of the variability in Y. This shows that the five independent variables of the study i.e practice teaching, methods of teaching, incentives for participants, educational psychology and managerial expertise contribute to 85% in the effectiveness of faculty development programmes. Other than these five variables 15% contribution is made by other factors contributing to the effectiveness of the Faculty Development Programmes.

The p-value of the Anova table is 0.00 as it is less than 0.01, therefore there is statistically significant relationship between the variables at the 99% confidence level.

The regression equation is Effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes = -0.57739 + 0.474016*practice teaching - 0.0379078*methods of teaching + 0.210461*incentives for participants + 0.051856*educational psychology+ 0.613048*managerial expertise

Practice Teaching

It has 0.47 co-efficient and has positive relation with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. It is the highest co-efficient and thus it shows that it is the most important variable effecting the Faculty Development Programmes. The teachers believe that practice teaching should be a part of the Faculty Development Programmes. Majority of the respondents think that practice teaching should be taken place on the same campus where the instructor is teaching as they thought that it will increase their level of confidence and experience of teaching at the same place. Whereas some of the respondents also believe that it should be carried in another institution.

The average responses of the teachers were above the neutral point. The histogram shows that majority of the responses were in favor of the practice teaching module. The participants want that teachers should be provided with an opportunity to practice teaching in the Faculty Development Programmes. The P-value of practice teaching is 0. This proves that H1 is true and it will be accepted. Thus practice teaching effects the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes.

Methods of teaching

Methods of teaching including training on use of multimedia, enhancing subjective knowledge, weightage of the class participation has moderate relationship with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. The beta coefficient of the model shows negative relation with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. The P-value of methods of teaching is 0.298 and thus it does not have direct relationship with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. The value is not statistically significant at 90% confidence interval. Therefore, H1 is rejected and it is concluded that methods of teaching has no relationship with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes.

Whereas the histogram of the independent variable i.e. Methods of teaching show the responses from 3 to 5. The respondents believe that training programs should aim at improving the subjective knowledge of the participants. The participants of the training programs need to be judged on their existing knowledge of the subject and it should be enhanced by offering courses and workshops in the same subject.

Incentives for Participants

Incentives for participants including promotion, increments in salary, transportation facilities have strong relationship with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. It has positive beta co-efficient with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes that shows incentives for participants play an important role in the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. The p-value of the incentives for participants is 0. It is interpreted that it is statistically significant at 90% or higher confidence interval. Therefore, H1 is accepted and concluded that incentives for participants play an important role in the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes.

The histogram of the independent variable i.e. incentives for participants have values ranging form 2 to 5. It shows that respondents vary in their opinion. Majority of the respondents believe that it is important to mention the incentives before offering the Faculty Development Programmes. Whereas some of the respondents believe that it is not important to mention the incentives before offering the Faculty Development Programmes to the participants. Therefore, the opinion vary among the respondents.

Educational Psychology

It has positive relation with the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes. The concepts of educational psychology i.e. observing the class behavior and level of understanding of the students from their face expressions are important tools for a teacher to better understand the class. According to the respondents of the questionnaire it is important for a teacher to know these concepts. It has p-value of 0.11 which is just above 0.1 of the p-value. Therefore, it is a moderate variable and does not effect the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes on the participants. Therefore, H1 is accepted and concluded that it moderately effect the Faculty Development Programmes. The histogram of the independent variable i.e. Educational Psychology show the responses ranging form 2 to 5. Majority of the respondents believe that it is important for a teacher to be trained in the concepts of educational psychology.

Managerial Expertise

It has positive beta co-efficient with the Faculty Development Programmes. It shows that it has strong positive relationship with the training programs. It shows that 0.613048 in the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes is made by managerial expertise. The concepts in managerial expertise include training on planning, organizing, leading and controlling the class. Therefore, H1 is accepted and concluded that managerial expertise the effectiveness of Faculty Development Programmes.

The histogram shows that majority of the respondents believe that training programs should include workshop on disturbance handling. The opinions of the respondents vary from 3 to 4.5. It shows that the opinion vary among individuals.

Conclusion

It is concluded that Faculty development programmes are playing and important role in overall creating value for the students, teachers and the institution on the whole. It is most important to include the concepts of managerial expertise in the training programs. The teachers should be trained manage the disturbances in the class and to control the overall environment of the class.

Moreover, it is also important provide the teacher with the opportunity of practicing teaching both on and off the campus. Practicing teaching gives an opportunity to the teachers to know the behavior of the class and overcome the short comings by gaining confidence. Incentives for participants act as an encouraging factor and increase their level of interest in the whole program. The incentives like increments in salary, promotion and transport facilities should be provided to the participants. Educational psychology moderately effects the Faculty Development programmes and it should only be included for the participants who consider it important.

However, training on methods of teaching and use of multi-media does not play an important role in the effectiveness of the Faculty Development Programmes. Teachers feel that they do not require training on such aspects and like to teach the way in which they are comfortable.