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Emotions are reactions that engage the mind and the body. Emotions are the result of a logical appraisal of the probability that a situation will effect a positive or negative change to our physical or psychological well being. Emotional Intelligence is defined as an awareness of and ability to manage emotions and create motivation. Some of the emotional intelligence management competencies are self-confidence, understanding others, Leadership, conflict management, self-control,etc. The optimal process for developing emotional intelligence in organizations involve four steps viz., Preparation, Training, Transfer & Evaluation.

The initial phase, which is crucial for effective social and emotional learning, involves preparation for change. This preparation occurs at both the organisational & individual levels. The second Phase, training includes the processes that help people change the way in which they view the world and deal with its social and emotional demands. The third phase, transfer and maintenance, addresses what happens following the formal training experience. The final phase involves evaluation, which helps to know the effectiveness of existing program.

Using emotional intelligence, individuals can understand the other person emotions and put themselves into their shoes, so they can persuade and tell his view point in a way that he gets it and accepts it. To conclude, Emotional Intelligence is a very important ability that everyone should develop to achieve their goals and have more happy relationships. It is foremost vital for the entrepreneur who wants to be successful.



Emotions are reactions that engage the mind and the body. Emotions are the result of a logical appraisal of the probability that a situation will effect a positive or negative change to our physical or psychological well being. There are consequently positive and negative emotions, depending upon the predicated change.

Emotions have physical and psychological affects on our bodily systems. In general, positive emotions stimulate thought, flexibility and creativity, offering optimism, risk-taking and confidence. Negative emotions promote more rigidity of thoughts, increase muscular tension, and can promote a pessimistic outlook.


Intelligence is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with one's environment. This general ability consists of a number of specific abilities, which include these specific abilities:

Adaptability to a new environment or to changes in the current environment

Capacity for knowledge and the ability to acquire it

Capacity for reason and abstract thought

Ability to comprehend relationships

Ability to evaluate and judge

Capacity for original and productive thought


Emotional Intelligence is defined as an awareness of and ability to manage emotions and create motivation. Emotional Intelligence usually known as EI, is the ability of a person to control, perceive and influence your emotions and the emotions of other people around you.


In 1985 Wayne Leon Payne, then a graduate student at an alternative liberal arts college in the USA, wrote a doctoral dissertation which included the term "emotional intelligence" in the title. This seems to be the first academic use of the term "emotional intelligence." Then in 1990 the work of two American university professors, John Mayer and Peter Salovey, were trying to develop a way of scientifically measuring the difference between people's ability in the area of emotions. They found that some people were better than others at things like identifying their own feelings, identifying the feelings of others, and solving problems involving emotional issues. The title of one of these papers was titled "Emotional Intelligence".

Since 1990 these professors have developed two tests to attempt to measure what they are calling our "emotional intelligence." Because nearly all of their writing has been done in the academic community, their names and their actual research findings are not widely known.Instead, the person most commonly associated with the term emotional intelligence is actually a New York writer and consultant named Daniel Goleman. In the early 1990's Goleman had been writing articles for the magazine Popular Psychology and then later for the New York Times newspaper. In 1992 he was doing research for a book about emotions and emotional literacy when he discovered the 1990 article by Salovey and Mayer.

According to the article by Annie Paul, Goleman asked them permission to use the term "emotional intelligence" in his book and that permission was granted providing he told people where he heard the term. Before then it seems his book was planning to focus on "emotional literacy".

In 1995 Goleman's book came out under the title "Emotional Intelligence." The book made it to the cover of Time Magazine in the USA and Goleman began appearing on American television shows such as Oprah Winfrey and Phil Donahue. He also began a speaking tour to promote the book and the book became an international best seller. It remained on the New York Times best-seller list for approximately one year. In the book he collected, and often dramatized, a lot of information on the brain, emotions, and behavior. In 1998 Goleman published a book called "Working with Emotional Intelligence". In that book he widened the definition of emotional intelligence even farther, saying that it consists of 25 "skills, abilities and competencies".


Self-awareness and accurate self-assessment:

Without self-awareness and accurate self-assessment, executives and managers will be too quick to get irritated with others, will create problems in their work relationships and in their personal relationships, will come across as abrasive, won't be able to admit mistakes or accept useful, realistic criticism, and won't have a realistic awareness of their strengths or limitations.


Executives and managers who are rather low in initiative ill be responding to events, rather than being proactive, thereby finding themselves in continual crisis mode. Plus when leaders aren't utilizing initiative, they may fail to seize strategic opportunities, either because they haven't started their analysis and planning process early enough or because they may resist taking even well calculated risks.

Sound decision-making:

If a manager or executive is low in their ability to make sound decisions this will only be accentuated in a period of great uncertainty and turbulence. Executives low in this area may spend more time than they can afford to in analysis, may not demonstrate the courage to make choices, may avoid taking responsibility, and may lack the commitment to execute a decision fully.


When managers and executives don't demonstrate enough empathy in times of uncertainty or crisis, they will likely be seen as indifferent, uncaring and in-authentic - all of which will make employees be less cooperative and less communicative. The manager may be left feeling misunderstood, and will have difficulty "reading" their employees.


Managers and executives will be hampered to an extraordinary degree if they don't use adequate communication skills during turbulent times. By not communicating well enough managers will tend to avoid getting into dialogue about important issues, will often only communicate good news and will tend to try to hide bad news - hurting trust, and will have great difficulty in managing complicated issues. In addition, they will appear unavailable and uncaring to others, which will hurt teamwork and cooperation.


When executives and managers are low in the management competency of influence they will fail to leave the right impression, will tend to alienate others rather than getting support, may end up working too independently and even against the group, and will have difficulty motivating the group quickly enough to address the eminent challenge.


Without ramping up the ability to be more adaptable in a time of turbulence and uncertainty many executives and managers will tend to respond negatively to new, changing situations. In addition, they may show emotional strain to others when they have to shift priorities; tend to express, or simmer with, frustration with change - even if it is for a positive purpose; will have difficulty adapting their responses and tactics to fit the emerging circumstances; and ultimately will often be hesitant in taking on new challenges.


When managers or executives have low self-management they tend to react impulsively in stressful situations, possibly get overly stressed, angry or upset when facing rapidly changing situations or conflict at work; and sometimes respond to problems in a no constructive manner - which often causes unwanted consequences.


Some of the social skills are

Change catalyst:

Initiating or managing change. People with this competence:

Recognize the need for change and remove barriers

Challenge the status quo to acknowledge the need for change

Champion the change and enlist others in its pursuit

Conflict management:

Negotiating and resolving disagreements. People with this competence:

Handle difficult people and tense situations with diplomacy and tact

Encourage debate and open discussion

Orchestrate win-win solutions

Collaboration and cooperation:

Working with others toward shared goals. People with this competence:

Balance a focus on task with attention to relationships

Collaborate, sharing plans, information, and resources

Promote a friendly, cooperative climate

Spot and nurture opportunities for collaboration

Optimal process for developing emotional intelligence in organizations

There are four basic phases to the training process. The first occurs even before the individual begins formal training. This initial phase, which is crucial for effective social and emotional learning, involves preparation for change. This preparation occurs at both the organizational and individual levels. The second phase, training, covers the change process itself. It includes the processes that help people change the way in which they view the world and deal with its social and emotional demands. The third phase, transfer and maintenance, addresses what happens following the formal training experience. The final phase involves evaluation. Given the current state of knowledge about social and emotional learning, the complexity of programs designed to promote such learning and the great unevenness in the effectiveness of existing programs, evaluation always should be part of the process.

Phase One: Preparation for Change

1. Assess the Organization's Needs. Good training begins with a needs assessment. For social and emotional training, there are two particular challenges that must be addressed at this point in the process. First, many people in the organization will be skeptical about the link between emotional intelligence and the bottom line. A systematic and rigorous study can help show that such a link exists.The second challenge in applying this guideline to social and emotional training efforts is to identify all of the particular competencies that are important for success.

2. Assess Personal Strengths and Limits. Two challenges confront those who wish to assess the social and emotional competence of individuals. First, people usually are less aware of skill weaknesses in the social and emotional domains. Second, these competencies are manifested primarily in social interaction. Therefore, the best approach usually involves ratings by those who interact with the person. However, the beliefs, motives, and feelings of the rater influence ratings of social and emotional competence."Three-sixty feedback" now is used regularly in industry for a variety of purposes, and organizations vary in how well they use this tool. When not managed well, it can create resistance rather than readiness. In the most effective development programs, the participants are helped to review these ratings and then use them to identify the competencies that should be the focus of training efforts. Ultimately, however, the motivating power of an assessment is affected by how credible it is to the learners. The trainees need to have faith in the assessment method.

3. Provide Feedback with Care. Motivation for change can be enhanced when people are given feedback on the assessment results. However, there are many pitfalls in giving people feedback on their social competence. These competencies are closely linked to a person's identity and self-esteem. People are more likely to respond positively to feedback when they trust and respect the person who gives it. People also are more likely to be motivated to change when they believe that the feedback is constructive and accurate and they are helped to identify the specific steps they can take to improve. People also need sufficient time to think about the information and its implications. And in social and emotional development efforts, it is especially important that the feedback occur in an atmosphere of safety.

4. Maximize Learner Choice. People generally are more motivated to change when they freely choose to do so. In social and emotional training, however, choice is particularly important. Because these competencies are so close to the essence of what makes us the people we are, it is better if we are free to choose whether or not to engage in such training.

5. Encourage Participation. Because social and emotional learning is viewed as "soft" and thus somewhat suspect, employees will tend not to choose to participate in it unless they believe that the organization's management strongly endorses it. Trainees are more willing to participate in development activity if their supervisors indicate that they support it.

6. Link Learning Goals to Personal Values. People will be most motivated to learn and change if they believe that doing so will help them achieve goals that they value.

Phase Two: Training

7. Foster a Positive Relationship Between the Trainer and Learner. In social and emotional learning, the relationship between the trainer and learner is critically important. Several studies have suggested that trainers who are empathic, warm, and genuine - which are, of course, attributes of emotional intelligence - develop more positive relationships with participants in behavior change programs, and they are more likely to be successful.

8. Maximize Self-Directed Change. People are more likely to develop emotional competence when they decide which competencies to work on and set their own goals. Training for emotional competence also benefits when the trainer adapts the training to match the person's needs, goals, and learning style preferences.

9. Set Clear Goals. Social and emotional learning benefits from specific, clear goals. pecific and challenging goals help support social and emotional learning because they maximize self-efficacy, mastery, and motivation. The most effective trainers are able to help the learners set clear and challenging goals without infringing on the learners' sense of ownership for the goals.

10. Break Goals into Manageable Steps. For many people, trying to bring about even modest improvements in emotional competence can be frustrating. Although challenging goals are more motivating than simple ones, it also helps if the goals are attainable. When people reach a goal, their self-efficacy increases, which leads to the setting of new, more challenging goals.

11. Maximize Opportunities to Practice. The relationship between practice and learning is one of the oldest and best-established principles in psychology. In social and emotional learning, there often must be more practice than in other types of learning because old, ineffective neural connections need to be weakened and new, more effective ones established. Such a process requires repetition over a prolonged period of time. And learners need to practice on the job, not just in the training situation, for transfer to occur.

12.Provide Frequent Feedback on Practice. Feedback is important during the change process as a way of indicating whether the learner is on track. Feedback is especially useful in social and emotional learning because the learners often have trouble recognizing how their social and emotional behavior manifests itself.

13. Rely on Experiential Methods. More active, concrete, experiential methods, such as role plays, group discussions, and simulations, usually work better than lecturing or assigned reading for social and emotional learning.

14. Build in Support. Change is enhanced through ongoing support from individuals and small groups. Such support is especially valuable for people who are trying to improve their social and emotional competence. Coaches and mentors, as well as individuals who are going through the same change process, can help sustain a person's hope and motivation. Social and emotional training programs usually are more effective when they encourage the formation of groups where people give each other support throughout the change effort.

15. Prevent Relapse. The essence of relapse prevention is to prepare people mentally to encounter slips, to recognize at the outset that setbacks are a normal part of the change process. Relapse prevention is especially important in social and emotional learning because participants attempting to develop these competencies are likely to encounter many setbacks as they attempt to apply new behaviors on the job.

Phase Three: Transfer and Maintenance

16. Encourage Use of Skills on the Job. There are many different ways that supervisors, peers, subordinates, and others in the work environment can encourage learners to apply what they have learned. The best methods involve either reminding people to use the skills or reinforcing them when they do so.

17. Provide an Organizational Culture that Supports Learning. Transfer and maintenance of specific skills seems to be affected by the extent to which the organization values learning and development in general. Challenging jobs, social support, reward and development systems, and an emphasis on innovation and competition influence these perceptions and expectations.

Phase Four: Evaluating Change

18. Conduct on-going evaluation research. Evaluation is essential for promoting effective training. Research suggests that many training programs do not fulfill their promise. When an evaluation suggests that a program falls short in achieving its goals, it should not be used to punish an individual or group. Rather, it should be used as a guide for improving the training that is offered. Evaluation should be linked to learning and the continual pursuit of quality.


In jobs of medium complexity (sales clerks, mechanics), a top performer is 12 times more productive than those at the bottom and 85 percent more productive than an average performer. In the most complex jobs (insurance salespeople, account managers), a top performer is 127 percent more productive than an average performer (Hunter, Schmidt, & Judiesch, 1990). Competency research in over 200 companies and organizations worldwide suggests that about one-third of this difference is due to technical skill and cognitive ability while two-thirds is due to emotional competence (Goleman, 1998). (In top leadership positions, over four-fifths of the difference is due to emotional competence.)

In a national insurance company, insurance sales agents who were weak in emotional competencies such as self-confidence, initiative, and empathy sold policies with an average premium of $54,000. Those who were very strong in at least 5 of 8 key emotional competencies sold policies worth $114,000 (Hay/McBer Research and Innovation Group, 1997).

The most successful debt collectors in a large collection agency had an average goal attainment of 163 percent over a three-month period. They were compared with a group of collectors who achieved an average of only 80 percent over the same time period. The most successful collectors scored significantly higher in the emotional intelligence competencies of self-actualization, independence, and optimism. (Self-actualization refers to a well-developed, inner knowledge of one's own goals and a sense of pride in one's work.) (Bachman et al., 2000).


To compete with the competitors and to retain the talented workers and the customers, Emotional Intelligence is vital for the business as well as the individuals. In business we have to deal with pressure and conflicts constantly, if we lack of self awareness we are going to get angry, react and take improper decisions, but if we can deal with pressure and look inside us and understand the different opinions that your team is sharing and what are their emotions, you will control the flow and take the right decisions without falling in to conflict. To conclude, Emotional Intelligence is a very important ability that everyone should develop to achieve their goals and have more happy relationships. It is foremost vital for the entrepreneur who wants to be successful

Contact details


 Lecturer, MBA department,

 Tagore Institute of Engineering and Technology,


 Attur(TK), Salem(DT).


 Mble: 9789110591

Mail id : [email protected]