Educational Sector In Pakistan Education Essay

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This report aims to present the progress that the CARE Foundation has been able to make in educational sector in Pakistan. The report helps to evaluate the performance of the management and compares it with the Government schools which are in direct competition with CARE. The reports helps to study in detail the CARE model of imparting education and finds the possible problems and provides recommendations to align the efforts of the management with their objectives in order to achieve efficiency in usage of scarce resources.

The research was conducted by holding in-depth interview with the CARE management and Government personnel in the School Education Department. The focus groups were held with students, teachers and principals of both CARE and Government schools in order to obtain information on what issues are important to the direct stakeholders. The study helped to diagnose that the efficacy of CARE model is questioned by some stakeholders and also there is a controversy about which party is responsible for the positive results in the CARE model.

The research compares the performance of the CARE adopted schools with the independent Government schools. The research has also identified all the areas that require improvement in CARE. The findings of the research suggest that CARE has made considerable improvement in its adopted schools, especially in the areas of quality of education, library functioning and students' performance in board exams.

Firm Review:

Cooperation for Advancement, Rehabilitation and Education (CARE) foundation is a charitable trust working for imparting education to under privileged children of Pakistan. It was established in 1988. The major goal of the firm is to provide education and rehabilitation up to 12th grade in Pakistani system of education. CARE is basically a chain of NGO (Non-Governmental Organization) schools. CARE strives to maintain their standard of education at the highest given the scarce resources. Given the appalling conditions of the Government schools in Pakistan, CARE took up the task of adopting the Government schools and revamping them under their own administration and providing quality education to the masses. It provides basic facilities, trained teachers and a current curriculum to its students. CARE relies on donations and charities for its functioning.

The major objective of CARE is to empower children and make them productive members of society, and future leaders of Pakistan. CARE currently provides quality education to over 145,000 children in over 200 schools.


CARE's philosophy revolves around the idea that education alone can change the future of our country and can help improve lives of the under privileged.

CARE provides a marketable, quality education to build a base for a civilized society, with the welfare of the child being at the core. CARE understands that quality education holds the key to a better tomorrow and is the most powerful tool available to break the vicious cycle of poverty. CARE understands that the ability to read and write is not enough. Education should enlighten the mind to enable it to distinguish between what it hears and reads. (CARE Brochure)


CARE's mission is to empower youth and nation building by providing quality education under privileged children of Pakistan.

CARE believes that the provision of a quality, marketable education is the most effective means of empowering Pakistani children to make them better, more productive members of society. CARE hopes that one day these children will help build a more prosperous Pakistan. (CARE Brochure)

CARE's Objectives

Ms. Seema Aziz, the founder of CARE started this venture to negate the idea that the lower socio economic classes of our country do not wish to send their children to schools and instead wish to engage them in child labor. She says that it is the right of every individual to have access to quality education and it is the duty of every well to do person in the society to help the under privileged get this fundamental right. With this mind set she started this venture and is committed to impart education to as many children as possible. Her objective is to evince that quality education attracts students and nothing else can better inspire our youth than the fruits of quality education.

CARE Foundation also has the objective of increasing the English language proficiency of its students. It can help the students successfully compete in the job market.

CARE's objective is also to correct the flaws in Government schools. It ensures that all the basic facilities are available in the schools. This includes the basic infrastructure, large playgrounds, chairs, desks, stationary, boards, toilets, hygienic drinking water, electricity and ceiling fans, etc.

CARE's objective is also to provide the best learning environment to the students, which is conducive to their mental and moral growth. Its objective is to educate the students about their basic rights so that they can aptly defend themselves from the exploitation and suppresson they suffer from in governmental schools. The examples of such exploitation are students cleaning teachers' homes and physical and verbal abuse from the teachers.

CARE focuses on character building, confidence building and inculcating positive behaviors in students.

CARE's objective is also to bring efficiency in their operations and hence improve the resource utilization at CARE.

Organizational Structure

CARE has a highly centralized organizational structure. All the operations were initially managed by the CEO and founder, Ms. Seema Aziz, herself and all the decisions were also taken by her. However over the period of time as the network of schools has expanded she has resigned herself to strategic matters and has delegated the management of daily activities to her managers.

Source: CARE manual

The Academics and Training Manager is responsible for devising and implementing all External Coordinators serve as liaison between CARE management and the schools. They get updates on progress and concerns of the schools'administration.


CARE gets funding from its own network of donors and supporters. It does not take donations from Government and foreign agencies. It persuades local donors to fulfill CARE's growth and subsistence needs. Friends of CARE is a network of volunteers and is responsible for collecting funds. It was formed by Ms. Seema Aziz and includes her acquaintances and other concerned citizens.

CARE Foundation arranges several awareness campaigns and fund-raising events in Pakistan and abroad to attract donors. Some of the campaigns are mentioned below:

Buy A Brick Campaign

Sponsor A Student Campaign (US$ 5/month)

Sponsor A Class Campaign (US$ 85/month)

Equip A Library Campaign (US$ 1,200)

Set-Up A Laboratory Campaign (US$ 1,000)

Build A Classroom Campaign (US$ 2,400)

Donations contribute to over 90% of CARE's annual income.

CARE also has an Enterprise Development Department. This department is responsible for producing crafts, such as, envelopes, cushions bags, mobile pouches, hand made greeting cards and other accessories. These are prepared by home base women workers are purchased by CARE. This helps generate income for these skilled women and are then sold to public to generate funds for CARE schools.

Public-Private Partnership

In 1998, in order to improve the standard of education in Government schools, the Government of Punjab launched the Adopt a School scheme. Under this scheme the government urged NGOs to adopt government schools. The government schools at that time were facing financial constraints, and problems such as teacher absenteeism, high student-teacher ratios, poor infrastructure and very high student dropout rates.

CARE agreed with the government to create public-private partnership model as it was one of the NGOs which were approached by the City District Government of Lahore (CDGL) for adopting government schools in Lahore. The agreement was that CARE adopted the Government schools and the building and infrastructure were already in place to a large extent and thus resulted in cost savings for CARE.

CARE adopted 10 underperforming Government schools with substandard infrastructure facilities, and below par academic results with the aim to turn them around and make significant improvements.

CARE adoption method has the following strategy:

Emphasis is placed on the physical infrastructure of the schools and CARE maintains a certain standard of infrastructure in its own schools. CARE makes sure that a school has all the necessary facilities such as proper building, library, science laboratory, computer laboratory, toilets, clean drinking water etc. Then systems and procedures are implemented in the schools for their efficient functioning. CARE management places its own teachers so as to meet the student-teacher ratio as per requirement as well as trains Government teachers to make sure quality is not compromised.

CARE is following two models currently

CARE owned schools

These are the schools that have been constructed by CARE itself and CARE is managing their operations as well. All the expenses in these schools are borne by CARE.

CARE adopted schools (public-private partnership)

These are the schools adopted by CARE from Government over years. These schools were running under Government's management before the adoption. CARE now takes CARE of the management of these schools. The principal and majority of the teachers of these schools are Government employees and draw their salaries from the Government. Government bears most of the expenses incurred in these schools such as the salaries of the staff, utility bills etc. CARE provides some teachers (on CARE's payroll) to schools where it feels there is a deficiency of teachers.

CARE currently has 225 schools. 17 are CARE-owned while the rest are CARE-adopted [1] . Our project focuses on CARE-adopted schools only.

CARE, having adopted a considerable number of schools till date, claims to have turned around these schools in terms of annual results and student development. The approach of this study is to verify these claims by CARE and to compare CARE-adopted and Government-managed schools, operating in the same geographical regions and under same demographics. This would help us understand the extent to which CARE has delivered under the same externalities.

Research Objectives:

The objective of this research is to evaluate CARE's education model and to evaluate its effectiveness. The research provides insights on the current workings of CARE and was followed up with recommendations to allow CARE to expand to serve an even larger community base. The objectives can be broken down as follows:

To analyze if CARE Foundation has achieved its defined objectives

To perform an analysis on CARE's model by comparing/contrasting with Government schools

To analyze the effectiveness (cost vs. benefits) of the model

To provide recommendations for improvements in CARE operations and outreach.

Research Scope

The project scope is divided into two parts

Geographical Scope

The geographical scope of the research is Lahore city. Research includes visits to CARE adopted Government Schools and those run by the Government itself. This helped to get a similar sample of students from almost the same socio-economic classes. The Government schools would then act as the control group and CARE adopted schools would be the tested sample.

Functional Scope

The Functional scope of this project was limited to the tasks presented below

Reviewing CARE's internal documents including mission statement, operational strategy and policy and rule book etc.

Assessing strengths and weaknesses of CARE through detailed interviews of policy-makers and stakeholders such as:

Managers at CARE Foundation

Donors contributing to the CARE Foundation

Principals at CARE-managed schools

Government officials of the Punjab Education department

Focus group of students and teachers were conducted

The outcome of this research with teachers and students gave us insights towards the effectiveness of the schools. The effectiveness could not be measured in a before-after manner due to the unavailability of reliable data of the Government schools before CARE adopted them as well as for a large part thereafter as well.

The focus of the research has been on studying the following dimension of Effectiveness:


Did CARE achieve their expected objectives for schools?

Were the results different from what would have been if the schools were Government-run?

Research Hypotheses:

Null Hypothesis (H0):

CARE Foundation has not achieved its objectives for improving school performance.

Alternate Hypothesis (H1):

CARE Foundation has achieved its objectives for improving school performance.

First the objectives of the CARE Foundation will be identified in detail. In the following pages an objectives map has been formed. Then the results will be measured and conclusions will be drawn.

Research Methodology

The primary research was divided in the following two phases

In-Depth Interviews -

In-depth interviews were conducted with the following Stakeholders

Managers at CARE Foundation

Manager responsible for CARE-managed Schools ƒ  2 interviews

Manager responsible for CARE-adopted Schools ƒ  2 interviews

Donors contributing to the CARE Foundation ƒ  2 interviews

Teachers at CARE-managed schools ƒ  3 interviews

Teachers at Government run schools ƒ  3 interviews

Principals at CARE-managed schools ƒ  1 interview

Principals at Government run schools ƒ  1 interview

CARE employees working in the academics department ƒ  2 interviews

Government officials of the Punjab Education department ƒ  1 interview

Other foundations with similar models as CARE ƒ  1 interview

Focus Groups -

Focus groups were conducted of students and teachers to understand their point of view in

CARE managed schools ƒ  3 Focus groups

Government run schools ƒ  2 Focus groups

List of key personnel interviewed



Ms. Seema Aziz

Founder and Chairperson, CARE Foundation

Mr. Rana Abdul Qayum

Deputy Director (Schools) Education Department,

Government of Punjab

Mr. Ausaf Ali

Former Principal Government Central Model Boys High School and Governor House Boys High School (CARE-adopted)

Mr. Ainee Nasir

Head of Academics (CARE Foundation)

Ms. Hina Younis

Academic Manager, CARE-owned Schools

Ms. Neelum Mumtaz

Academic Manager, CARE Adopted Schools

Ms. Saeeda

Area Manager, CARE-adopted Schools

Mr. Ahsan Rana

Director, Tareen Education Foundation

Mrs. Shahrukh

Director, Allied School System

Quantitative Surveys

Questionnaires were developed according to the insights gained from the qualitative research findings. Surveys were conducted at different CARE Foundation managed schools. Surveys of the following stakeholders were conducted

Students ƒ 570 obtained [330 proposed]

Students in CARE-adopted Schools ƒ 278 obtained [200 proposed]

Students in Government Schools ƒ 292 obtained[130 proposed]

Teachers ƒ 078 obtained [66 proposed]

Principals ƒ 022 obtained [22 proposed]

A total of 670 questionnaires were filled.

Secondary Research -

Internal documents of CARE Foundation including mission statement, operational strategy and policy and rule book etc.;

Internet search on performance evaluation of NGOs, websites of local schools (if available), best practices of NGO/Government-run schools;

Government reports on evaluation of schools from Education department;

Practices of education NGOs globally;

Studies by USAID, DFID, CIDA, UNICEF, World Bank, etc. on education in Pakistan;

Data Analysis -

Analysis of data obtained from interviews and focus groups were carried out for strategy formulation and recommendations.

Strategy Formulation -

Detailed strategy for increasing the scale of the operations

Secondary Research - Literature Review

Secondary research was conducted to learn about practices undertaken by different organizations and educational bodies around the world for evaluation of schools and to develop a list of parameters on which to base the evaluation of schools. The secondary research conducted helped in the exploratory research. It helped to develop the interview guides for in-depth interviews and focus groups. It also helped in the development of the questionnaires for the primary research.

The findings of the literature review are as under:

USAID - Performance Management Tool for Education (PMT) [2] 

Following are some of the performance indicators that the Government of Pakistan has developed together with USAID

Gross Intake Rate (GIR) in Primary Education

Net Intake Rate (NIR) in Primary Education

Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) in Primary Education and Secondary Education

Net Enrolment Rate (NER) in Primary Education and Secondary Education

Repetition Rates (RR) by Grade in Primary Education

Survival Rate to Grade 5

Transition rate (TR) to Secondary Education

Drop Out Rate

Percentage of Trained Teachers at Primary Education

Pupil‐Teacher Ratio at Primary Education

Public Expenditure on Primary Education as a Percent of Total Public Expenditure on Education

Gender Parity Index for GER and NER in Primary and Secondary Education.

Promotion rate by grade in Primary and Secondary

Gender Parity Index for Survival Rate to Grade 5

Gender Parity Index for Transition rate (TR) to Secondary Education

Percentage of FEMALE enrolment in Primary and Secondary Education

Percentage of FEMALE teachers in Primary and Secondary Education

Repetition Rates (RR) of girls and boys in Primary and Secondary Education

Data on these performance indicators is collected annually for schools in all the provinces of Pakistan by the respective departments of Provincial Governments.


The items that the organization checks to gauge the school's infrastructure condition are as follows

Principal's Office

Staff Room

Boundary Wall


Science laboratory

Computer Lab



Play Ground

Hand Pump

Electric Motor


Clean Drinking Water

Main Gate

Tube lights


These facilities are checked if they are available and are gauged on a two-level scale, i.e. if the facility is available, it is checked whether the condition is satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

In addition to the above stated facility check, the quantity and quality of furniture present in the school is also checked which includes tables, chairs, cupboards, almirahs and lab furniture etc.

STAR's 5 components and 15 indicators [3] 

(The School Performance Review Rubric, A Facilitator's Guide)

The STAR classroom observation study is a research based instrument designed to assess classroom study patterns and for its evaluation. It is based on 5 different components and 15 indicators which are discussed below

Knowledge Indicators: Indicators under this component judge the ability of the teacher to make the focus of the learning clear to the students. The indicators see if the students are able to construct knowledge and assess the information based on their previous knowledge. These indicators judge whether the students are actually developing conceptual understanding or are merely relying on recall and memory.

Thinking Indicators: This component of indicators focuses on the teacher's ability to engage the students to think about the concepts, to relate the new information provided with examples that the students can easily understand, and the key role of development of students' problem solving skills etc.

Skills indicators: The indicators judge whether students are encouraged to develop reading, writing, presentation and communication skills etc, whether students display use of acquired skills, methods to acquire new skills or to communicate, express, display the information they harness.

Application indicators: These indicators judge whether teachers effectively related lessons from a subject to other subjects/areas of information. These indicators also judge if the students can relate the taught concepts to other concepts and their ability to extract the real life implications of the taught lessons.

Relationships indicators: These indicators are inclined towards the social aspects of education and classroom activities. These indicators judge the teachers co-operation levels with the students, how teachers interact with the students, how students interact with teachers and their own classmates/peers, how they communicate with others etc.

OFSTED - The new Framework for the inspection of independent schools [4] 

OFSTED assesses schools on the following domains

Quality of Education

Quality of Curriculum

Quality of teaching

Provision of pupil's spiritual, moral, social and cultural development

Welfare, health and safety of pupils

Suitability of staff and proprietors

Premises and accommodation

Provision of information

Manner in which complaints are handled

WSE - A Guide to Whole School Evaluation in Post Primary Schools [5] 

The Whole School evaluation system is based on evaluation of a school on the following 5 areas of inquiry

Quality of School Management

Characteristic spirit of the school The WSE evaluation system guides to check the spirit of the school and its wide awareness and acceptance in the school community. It guides to check the way how the characteristic spirit of the school is reflected in the school's principles, rules and activities etc.

In-School management: It guides to check the duties of the principal, administration staff and the teachers etc, how responsibilities are divided and monitored. It guides to check how different classes are assigned to different teachers, the workload attached to a specific teacher etc.

The management of resources: The system guides to check the management of resources by the management and the effectiveness of the management in the allocation of resources for the school operations. It guides to check the optimal utilization of the human resource available to the school and the evaluation of access of resources to both the teachers and the students.

Quality of School Planning: It guides to check the school plan and the planning process. It also includes the processes the school has to review and monitor the planning process itself.

Quality of Curriculum Provisioning

Curriculum planning and organization WSE guides to check the curriculum planning process, how the school designs the curriculum and the timetable for different grades in the school, the process of assigning classes to the teachers etc

Co-curricular and extracurricular provision To check how the co-curricular activities are incorporated in the school's curriculum, how much time is devoted to students' development through co-curricular and extracurricular activities involvement. It also guides to check how students are encouraged to participate in these activities, how often these activities are conducted in a year etc.

Quality of Learning and Teaching

Planning and preparation: WSE guides to check the level of preparation and planning of teachers to teach a lesson, the methodology to prepare lessons. It also guides to see if the teachers collaborate among themselves for better teaching.

Quality of learning: To check the teacher's ability to explain her/him, to properly deliver and explain concepts using illustrations and examples etc. It guides to evaluate on classroom management, classroom environment, interaction with students etc

Student assessment: WSE guides to see the assessment modes, methods, and the frequency of student assessments in the school. This also includes checking the record-keeping method of the school, the notification of a student's results to the student and steps taken to help the student to perform better.

Quality of Support for Pupils WSE guides to check the support the school provides to its pupils, how a school guides its students to perform better, to check if the school provides any counselling to its students etc.

Hong Kong Schools' Performance Indicators (Quality Assurance Division, Education Bureau) [6] 

The Hong Kong schools assessment system focuses on the following domains having multiple areas within each domain which further have performance indicators to evaluate a school on.

Management and Organization

School management




Professional Leadership

Leadership and Monitoring

Collaboration and Support

Professional Development

Learning and Teaching

Curriculum and Assessment

Curriculum Organization

Curriculum Implementation

Performance Assessment

Curriculum Evaluation

Student learning and Teaching

Learning Process

Learning Performance

Teaching Organization

Teaching Process

Feedback and Follow up

Student Support

Support for Student Development

School Climate

Student Performance

Attitude and Behavior

Affective Development and Attitude

Social Development

Participation and Achievement

Academic Performance

Non-Academic Performance

In addition to providing performance indicators Secondary data also helped to formulate questionnaires for students, teachers, and principal. Multiple questionnaires were studied that are used in research studies for evaluation of schools across the globe and modified them to fit Pakistan's context, such as removing allusions to co-education environments.

Secondary Research - Analysis

CARE adopted schools

Total Adopted Schools


Monthly Expenditure for adopted Schools (Rupees)


Donations from Sponsored Schools (Rupees)


Percentage of sponsored donations %


Total CARE Teachers working in adopted schools


Average CARE teachers per adopted school


Total Custodial Staff working in adopted schools


Total Staff provided (Teachers + Custodial)


Cost per staff provided


CARE foundation has adopted two hundred Government schools; the last school being adopted in the year 2003. CARE foundation provides teachers, custodial staff, furniture, books, furniture, other equipment etc as required by the adopted school (keeping in view the different needs of respective schools). CARE's expenditures on these schools are sustained by donations from different donors including friends and families of the founder, i.e. Ms. Seema Aziz.

Expenses of the "sponsored schools" are borne by sponsors who are responsible for paying for the monthly expenses of particular schools. These donations from sponsors sponsoring a particular school range from Rupees 2,200 to 187,000 per school per month with an average of Rupees 35,000 per school per month. These costs include salaries of CARE provided staff and administrative costs of the school. The total expenses of adopted schools are around Rupees 9.2 Million per month. The average cost to run an adopted school is around Rupees 47,000 per month. Of the 9.2 Million Rupees in expenses, CARE foundation recovers around Rupees 1.45 Million from its sponsors sponsoring a particular school. This amounts to 15% of the total expenses CARE foundation bears every month on the adopted schools.

CARE has provided more than 1,200 teachers in different numbers at these adopted schools (according to the specific needs of particular schools) with an average of 6 teachers per adopted school.

CARE teachers were needed at these schools due to the following reasons

Delay from the Government to fill up a specific vacancy created due to resignation or posting of a teacher etc.

Government takes a lot of time to fill up a vacancy at a school. Several teachers and principals at schools have indicated and talked about vacancies vacant for months due to long and time taking procedures of Government to assign human resource for the vacancy. CARE fills up these vacancies so that education at schools is not hampered in any way.

A need foreseen by CARE foundation due to additional shifts run at schools keeping in view the enrolment at school

In some cases, CARE runs dual shifts at schools due to excessive enrolment which the school could not handle in a single shift. In case of a dual shift at a school, CARE teachers teach students of second shift as Government does not provide teachers for second shifts at schools.

In addition to teachers provided at different schools, CARE has also provided custodial staffs including gate keepers and peons etc. A total of 134 custodial staff has been provided by CARE foundation for these 200 adopted schools. Total staffs of 1420 (including teaching as well as custodial staff) have been provided by CARE to these adopted schools. The average cost for a single staff member provided by CARE foundation is around Rupees 6,500 per month.

Primary Research - Qualitative

Interview Findings from CARE Foundation personnel

Ms. Seema Aziz (Founder, CARE Foundation)

Ms. Neelum Mumtaz (Academic Manager, CARE Adopted Schools)

CARE's management team was interviewed to know about CARE's stance on Government schools CARE has adopted. Following are the major findings:


According to CARE team, the physical infrastructure of the schools it adopted from Government, in some cases was not of good standard. Buildings sometimes were not in satisfactory condition, proving to be dangerous in some situations. There were no boundary walls in certain instances. Security was also an issue in these schools. Security guards/gatekeepers were unavailable at some schools.

CARE got the buildings repaired where there was a need. In some cases, where classes were conducted in open, due to lack of class rooms or bad condition, CARE either got them repaired or built new class rooms at the adopted school to facilitate the students to be seated in actual class rooms.


Some schools did not have basic educational facilities that a school must have. Schools lacked laboratories, libraries, blackboards etc. In many cases, where present they were not in good shape. CARE provided laboratory equipment, provided books for libraries and materials like chalks etc for schools.

Facilities- Basic

In addition to educational facilities, schools also lagged in basic facilities such as availability of clean drinking water, toilets, playgrounds, canteens and furniture etc. CARE team said that in most cases, schools which provided these facilities did not maintain them properly.

Teacher absenteeism

Teacher absenteeism was a major concern in the adopted schools. Teachers did not show interest in teaching, skipped periods. Sometimes teachers would not even show up at schools. In addition, teachers exploited students for their personal work such as payment of bills, tickets etc. and were also notorious for giving physical punishments to students.

Poor management of schools

According to CARE team, Government schools were poorly managed. They did not have the motivation to run schools effectively. There were no SOPs in place. There were no measures to assess the performance of teachers.

Interview Findings - Mr. Rana Abdul Qayyum (Deputy Director - Schools Education Department, Government of Punjab)

Mr. Rana is the head of Government school operations in Punjab. He was interviewed to ask about the way the Government manages its operations of schools.

Government responsible for improvements made in schools

Mr. Rana said that the Government was responsible for the improvement of all Government-owned schools. He said that even those schools that are CARE-adopted fell under the responsibility of the Government. The Government has provided all the facilities to these schools, it has borne all the major expenses of these schools. The Government has provided all the infrastructure and resources in these schools to make them operative. He also mentioned that the Government has provided all the standard operating procedures (SOP) and systems in these schools to make them efficient and to ensure smooth operations.

Teacher Performance Evaluated

The Government has also defined clear guidelines for teacher performance evaluation. The teachers are strictly and regularly monitored for their attendance and attitude towards child-development. Most of the teachers in Government-owned schools are highly qualified for teaching in primary and secondary schools. Most of these teachers have Master's degrees, in their areas of interest.

School Operations

Mr. Rana also mentioned of strict guidelines for school operations. Teachers and principals are responsible for preparing, displaying and following subject plans and timetables. Teachers are prohibited to punish students physically. As part of teacher's evaluation, the result, of the subjects each teacher teaches, is monitored regularly. Each school is given an annual target after reviewing Matriculation results. The targets are kept in an achievable range so as to motivate the teachers to work hard to improve their results. The principal overall is kept responsible to achieve the targets.

CARE foundation demoralized Teachers and Principals

On CARE, Mr. Rana mentioned that the presence of CARE in Government schools has left a negative impression on the teachers and principals of Government schools. He believes that Government teachers feel demoralized and left out in the presence of CARE managers. CARE managers do not involve Government teachers in decision-making and day-to-day operations of the schools. Government teachers are unnecessarily asked to do certain things in school, such as wearing gowns in every class. He believes the teachers should be given freedom in teaching.

Interview Findings - Mr. Ausaf Ali (Former Principal, Govt. Model Boys High school)

Mr. Ausaf was a principal at the Government-run Government Central Model Boys High School. He was later a principal at CARE-adopted Government Boys High School Governor House.

CARE just "re-inventing the wheel"

According to Mr. Ausaf, he has not witnessed much difference in the standard of education and the standard of school management after CARE adopted the school. He says that the improvements portrayed by CARE, after adopting schools, are overstated. CARE does not play an active and influential role in improving the standard of education at these Government schools. The standard operating procedures (SOP) and systems at these schools were already there when the school commenced classes. Mr. Ausaf believes that CARE did not set up any new policies or systems, and it wrongly prides itself in it. The SOPs that are in place in most Government schools have always been there, and are part of the Government's standard way of working. CARE is just 're-inventing the wheel' in most of these schools.

CARE effectively uses tools and procedures though

He, however, said that the Government rarely used these systems and tools for operations or performance evaluation. CARE has managed to use these tools and procedures effectively in operating these schools.

No clear difference in urban schools after adoption by CARE

Mr. Ausaf also mentioned that the performance and improvements in CARE-adopted schools is not so pronounced in schools located in urban areas. For his school, he said that there wasn't much improvement, since most of the schools in urban areas are already running well. He believes that the problem of level of education and streamlined operations was in rural areas only. In these areas, the amount of resource per school is very limited. Teachers are not interested in teaching in those schools, and there is no one monitoring their performance. The Government inspectors are usually inspecting schools located in urban areas to keep their jobs simple. The schools located in rural Punjab are either under-staffed or with poor infrastructure.

CARE has improved performance of schools located in rural areas

Therefore, the schools, located in rural areas, which have been adopted by CARE, have shown strong signs of improvement. These schools have now received proper procedures and systems for normal operations. They have received the necessary resources, in terms of staffing and infrastructure, required for smooth running. CARE has managed to invest in these schools to build the basic facilities that were required for their improvement and operations.

Friction between CARE management and Government Teachers

Mr. Ausaf also believes that, while CARE has managed to properly run and maintain the Government schools, especially in rural areas, it has caused extreme friction between teachers and the management. The teachers are not satisfied with how CARE has taken management away from them and how they are treated. The teachers have complained about tensed relationships with CARE managers. Teachers have also complained on the way CARE is managing these schools and have had reservations against CARE's way of working.

CARE is good in maintenance of resources and facilities

Mr. Ausaf believes that, for a school to be successful, it must have all the necessary infrastructure and facilities in place. Furthermore, there should be assigned resources and an active effort in maintaining these infrastructure and facilities. Mr. Ausaf says that, while the Government has been successful in providing this infrastructure and facilities, it has not been able to maintain them. This is where CARE has been successful. It has successfully renewed the facilities and made them usable for students and teachers.

Government focuses on academics only, not on character building

Mr. Ausaf also believes that Government schools are only focused on academics. They do not spend time and resources on character-building, which is an important part of child-development. CARE should focus more on building soft-skills for students, since these would eventually help a student in the future, apart from academics. He also mentions recognition of students performing well in character-building activities. There should be human-excellence awards for these students who have shown considerable improvements in building their soft-side and character.

He also mentions that, while student progress is monitored and evaluated, the progress and performance of teachers should also be monitored regularly. There should be on-spot assessment by principal and regular feedback from students. Teachers should prepare regular planners and schedules, which should be evaluated and checked by coordinators or principal. Teachers should also be monitored for maintaining discipline and encouraging students to take part in extra-curricular activities.

Focus Group Findings - Teachers

2 groups of 3 teachers each from Government schools were gathered for focus group discussions to get their feedback on the operations of Government schools and their role in its administration.

The key findings from these focus groups are outlined below

Teachers not overburdened, allotted reasonable number of classes per day

According to the teachers, the teachers are given ample time every day to rest, prepare for their classes and work on other activities. They are not over-burdened by teaching classes and are allotted an average of six out of a total of eight 45-minute periods per day.

Schools adequately staffed

The schools are adequately staffed. There is no shortage of teachers and, therefore, the teachers have ample time in the day between classes.

Teachers can always participate in contributing towards the development of school

These teachers also believe that they are given respect by the administration of the school. Most of the teachers were not interested in the operations of the schools. Those who were, however, were given a chance to contribute to the development of the school by the principal.

Teachers given training

The Government often holds trainings for teachers. These teachers are given an opportunity to improve their knowledge and gain experience on various teaching methods and tools. The administration, however, has no role in determining the career or training path of these teachers. The teacher's training path is determined the Government only.

No check on teachers' performance by the school administration

They believe that the administration does not keep a check on their performance. Therefore, they are not motivated to improve themselves. The administration is not keen on developing the knowledge and expertise of the teachers and, hence, the teachers are not keen on improving themselves and in helping the students. The main role of the administration is to run the school. Apart from running the school, any other activity is not managed by the administration.

Focus Group Findings - Students

Groups of students from Government schools were gathered for focus group discussions to get their feedback on the teachers and how they teach in classes.

Teachers not punctual

Students suggested that teachers are not punctual and often fail to come to school. This attitude adversely influences the students who are already behind the syllabus employed by private institutes. The academic level remains stagnant because of this behavior or the part of the teachers and remains unmonitored by the administrations.

Failure to implement teaching plans in class

Teachers fail to implement plans in class and students face the problem of disorganized thoughts in their work. Planning is an integral part of any academic institution especially at school level. Students are fast learners at this stage and if they learn a wrong concept in a wrong way due to lack of planning, they are the ones who will suffer in the future.

Homework not taken seriously

With regard to homework, teachers also fail to keep track of the assignments students are given to complete from home. If this record is not kept, then students will not know how they are progressing. Also, it might be the case that some students may never do the homework because the teachers never check.

Students punished physically some times

Teachers do not respect the students and punish them physically in some cases. Physical punishment is merely a guilt-releasing act on the teachers' part who knows they have not been fulfilling their duties. This has an adverse effect on the students. Students are used by the teachers for doing their personal errand. This task becomes a means of passing an exam or promotion to next grade. If they do not work for the teachers they may even treat them harshly. This is another act that goes against the ethics of academic institutions especially the Government schools where strictness and educational policies must be observed with honestly and professionalism.

Punjabi and Urdu used to conduct classes

The language of communication remains Punjabi and Urdu in class. This hampers the language learning skills of students who would prefer spoken English during English sessions. Language plays an essential role in schools. English and other foreign languages like Arabic are taught to help students advance in their professional careers. Without a proper language instructor, students are unable to have proper command over any one language.

Findings of exploratory interviews from CARE personnel

Role of Government

CARE management disclosed that CARE having taken on the initiative of adopting schools, faced a lot of hindrance from the Government sector. The Government's bureaucratic system has always been a de-motivating factor, right from acquiring a school, to managing its administration or allocation of funds. Corruption and lack of responsibility on part of Government institutions and officials is the main hurdle in the progressive efforts of NGOs such as CARE.

Status quo at schools

After having taken on a schools administration, the next stumbling block is the status quo present at the Government school. Lack of accountability and mismanagement has helped foster a culture of shirking and irresponsibility. The only interest of school administration in most cases is to get timely salaries and promotions and has no concern in improving the schools performance and academic system. So an alien body like CARE that strives to bring in new systems and processes or improve the existing ones, have to face resistance.

Pessimistic stance of underprivileged class

One of CARE's objectives was to bring quality education within reach of the underprivileged class. So the difference CARE could make was tied up to the willingness and interest people show in sending their children to school. With limited financial resources, the underprivileged class is of the opinion that spending money on educating their children adds no value to their socio-economic condition. They would rather have their children be "additional earning hands" (child labor) than send them to schools. So in order to impress upon them the importance of education, the quality and credibility of school administration need major improvements.

Exit strategy

Ever since the establishment of CARE's private-public partnership, it has been adopting Government schools and playing its role in improving them and the aim has been to make the existing system better and self-sustaining and then hand the management back to Government administration. So far no exit strategy has been devised as the Government has not shown any intent in institutionalizing the corrective measures introduced by CARE and taking back the control of the CARE adopted schools. So it would be difficult to expand the scale and scope of current model.

Increased teachers' motivation

Having CARE appointed teachers has had incremental improvements in the motivation of the teachers as well. Since CARE appointed teachers are expected to conform to strict guidelines, their increased efforts show in the form of results and student improvements. As a side effect, by having two types of teachers, an environment of competition sets up which results in an overall increase in efforts put in by all the teachers.

Findings of exploratory interviews from Government personnel

Alienation of school administration

Government appointed principals at CARE adopted schools disclosed that school administration is usually alienated from the key decisions, such as appointment of teachers and other staff, utilization of funds, teacher training, leave approval, academic changes etc. This is the cause of obvious resentment towards CARE.

Additional stress on school budget

During the research certain instances were shared that signify CARE administration instead of efficiently utilizing or inducting any additional funds into school's budget, is in fact putting additional stress on the current budget allotted by Government. For example one of the headmasters from the CARE adopted schools mentioned that for the regular subject tests that are conducted by CARE administration the test papers are printed without approval of school administration and the expensed from the school budget without proper documentation.

Religious and cultural differences

In CARE adopted schools, there have been incidents of very serious nature where the CARE administration and teaching staff has been accused of alienating students from the religious and cultural practices usually conducted at conventional school. A principal shared an incident where she had a very severe conflict with CARE administration who was trying to stop the regular Qirat and morning prayer in school assembly and CARE appointed teachers trying to inculcated a westernized version of Sub-continent history clouded by colonial mindset and inconsistent with the subject matter traditionally taught. In Government schools there is a considerable group of people that believe that academic practices and processes brought by CARE administration go against the cultural values of our society.

Qualification of CARE staff

There is a serious concern about acceptability of teaching staff inducted by CARE in the ongoing school system, in terms of them being not of the same academic qualification as the Government appointed teachers are, who come through scrutiny and a proper selection procedure. As observed that CARE appointed teachers are of either bachelors or of lower qualifications. So this practice is believed to have not added any value towards the betterment of human and intellectual capital of the present system.

Conflict of control

In almost all the CARE adopted schools, there is a clear conflict of control between CARE and school administration. The roles and responsibilities given to CARE representatives bring them at par with the schools' heads and in cases supersede them. This plan of action creates a "Two-boss scenario" that instigates insecurities and reservations on part of school headmasters and senior staff. According to some personnel, this causes confusion and unnecessary delays in implementations of policies.

Over-riding school decision making

As mentioned by some school principals, CARE administrations over-rides the day-to-day decisions taken by school administration which is in order to negate the, positive efforts of the current management and highlight CARE's performance and corrective measures. This practice is seen as a nonproductive intervention in the school's processes and at times even detrimental to school's performance. For example, a principal states that the funds that he got approved from the ministry for the necessary repairs of the school building after a lot of effort, were objected by CARE's management for the sake of maligning the attempts and justifying their presence. This action was proven erroneous when in the following year; school building and equipment was damaged due to excessive rainfall and lack of drainage system resulting in disruption in the academic schedule of students.

Friction between the staff members

During interaction with school staff, friction between Government staff and CARE appointed staff was observed. There seems to be a parallel management running in such schools, this vivid divide has brought to surface issues like lack of cooperation, lobbying and politicization among the workforce and bypassing of conventional management hierarchy, passing on false information related to Government staff to CARE's higher management etc. This political power is misused by CARE administration to affect transfers using political linkages of the CARE management with the relevant authorities, alleges one Government appointed teacher.

Increased pressure on teachers

The teachers under the CARE adopted schools feel more pressurized under the CARE administration. This feeling is due to the fact that they are expected to meet the standards set by not only the principal but also the Area Manager of CARE. The pressure is not just organizational (due to the two-boss structure mentioned above) but also stems from the political influence CARE exercises, according to some teachers. Teachers also complain of public humiliation by CARE's personnel, often who are far junior in age and qualifications.

Low compensation/salaries for CARE teachers

One of the most highlighted issues with CARE foundation was the fact that CARE foundation gives very low pays to its teachers. As some of the CARE foundation's teachers pointed out, the pays given to them are not enough to support even their expenditures on food. CARE's teachers say that they will be more motivated to teach if they get higher pays from CARE foundation. They are not satisfied by the compensation they get for serving for the noble cause that CARE foundation has set forth.

Students disrespectful to teachers at some instances

In most of the adopted schools visited, teachers and principals were of the point that the students at their schools have become disrespectful to teachers after the adoption of school by CARE foundation. They say that students do not behave well, are disrespectful to teachers, do not fear the teachers anymore. The reasons stated were that CARE foundation has set strict policy against punishment and students' right to complaint against teachers. Students now misbehave with teachers and do not give respect to teachers because they can always file a complaint against a teacher (in case the teacher scolds them or gets angry at them).

Difficult for teachers to attend trainings conducted by CARE foundation

The newly recruited staff has shown a valid concern that training are usually conducted at the head office of CARE and it is mandatory for CARE's teachers hired from any part of the city to attend those. No additional monetary compensation or facility such as pick and drop service is provided so it is usually difficult for teachers hired at low salaries to regularly attend these trainings.

Poor foundation building skills at primary level by CARE teachers

According to some experienced Government school teachers, the staff members hired by CARE for teaching primary classes lack the required qualification and skill to build a good foundation for the primary students. The students instead of comprehending the content properly, find cramming an easier alternative. The same practice if carried on to higher classes would hamper their prospects of developing into sharp and intelligent students.


From the focus groups and in-depth interviews held with CARE management, the top objectives that CARE intended to achieve were identified. These objectives and the sub objectives which should be achieved in order to achieve the major objectives were also identified.

Then the performance of CARE was tested on these objectives and means utilized. Following are the results of these

Physical infrastructure

Basic facilities at schools

The project also evaluated the quality of the physical infrastructure available at the schools and after comparing the results, it was found that in most of the metrics, the Government-run schools were marginally better than their CARE managed counterparts. Significant differences were seen in the quality of boundary walls and overall building conditions in the two types, with the government run schools faring much better. One reason could be the lack of Government funding after CARE adopting the schools. It is prudent to realize that the amount of funds that the Government can generate is much larger than what an NGO like CARE can come up with. On the flip side, we saw a marked difference in the quality of the library facilities inside schools. CARE's attention towards improving libraries was evident in the visual inspection data as well.

Library made operational

Initiating and increasing library usage was one of the key objectives of CARE after adopting schools. Teachers agree that one of the major improvements made by CARE is to help get the Libraries and other facilities of schools in operation. Teachers have recognized that Library facilities were not operational before CARE stepped in and they have continued to run it.

From the student surveys it was found out that there is a significant difference between CARE adopted and Government schools from the point of view of usage of library. In Government schools, 65% of the students have never been to school library. The reason for this is that either the school has no library or the students are not allowed to use them. Of those who use the library, 80% of the students are not allowed to borrow books from the library. This is in contrast to CARE adopted schools where 60% of the students go to library and 54% of the students responded that they are allowed to issue books to study at home.

Quality of teaching

Teaching staff shortage resolved

By appointing its teachers in Government schools, CARE has tried to bring in the student-to-teacher ratio [7] (STR) at or below 30. Teachers, both the Government appointed and CARE appointed; agree that CARE's adoption of schools has helped alleviate the shortage of teaching staff that many schools faced. This undoubtedly has had a positive effect on the teaching staff as a whole by reducing work load and helped to maintain the proper running of all the classes.

In the CARE adopted schools visited, 75% of the Government teacher vacancies were filled and 25% of the positions for teachers were vacant. On the other hand, of the visited Government schools, 95% of the vacancies for teachers were filled. In the CARE adopted schools visited, 33% of the teachers serving in a particular school were provided by CARE foundation. Similarly, 12% of the custodial staff at CARE adopted schools has been provided by CARE foundation.

CARE adopted schools

Of the 12 CARE adopted schools visited, 11 of the schools had STRs ranging from 22 to 35 with only one of the schools having an STR of 41 which could be considered an outlier. CARE foundation has an aim to keep the STR at schools till a maximum range of 30-35. It has provided teachers to schools to reduce the STR of adopted schools to bring the STR value in the desired range.

Government Schools

The student to teacher ratio (STR) at Government schools visited is around 39 with the maximum STR of a school going up to 88 and a minimum STR of around 28. Of the 10 Government schools visited, 3 schools had STR above 40. It can be seen that there is no consistency for the STR at different schools with STRs ranging from low values of 28 till 88 in one case.

Teaching discipline improved

A common impression about Government schools is that teachers are not punctual. However surveys showed that this is not the case. Surveys indicated that teachers are punctual in both the schools. In both Government as well as CARE adopted schools, 90% of students claimed that the teachers are punctual. Hence the charge against Government that its management of teachers is poor and that Government teachers are not sincere about their job is nullified, at least in Lahore.

Recent changes in the monitoring and control systems in the School Education Department could also have been the reason for an improved discipline inside schools. In addition, since Lahore is the provincial capital, the monitoring system is strongest as compared to smaller cities. The data seems to suggest that if improvements were made by CARE in discipline, it no longer has a discernable advantage over Government managed schools in large cities like Lahore.

Teachers' motivation

Teacher surveys revealed that CARE has improved the motivation for teachers in their profession. Only 13% of principals in CARE adopted schools disagreed with the statement that CARE had increased teacher motivation. Recognition of teachers for their good work also encourages teachers to work harder and keeps them motivated. Survey revealed that Government does not recognize the efforts put in by teachers fully. Only 60 % of teachers said that Government commends their good work. CARE management on the other hand has done better. 72% of teachers in CARE adopted schools said that their efforts are being commended and they feel motivated to do better.

Response from teachers

Response from principals

Student development

Increasing the capability of students in English language

CARE has laid deep emphasis on use of English language as medium of instruction in its schools and the principal's feedback on medium of instruction reflects these efforts. 56% of CARE adopted school principals reported that classes were conducted in English as compared to 20% in Government run schools. Similarly, 80% CARE adopted school principals also agreed that English increases student confidence, while only 40% of Government run school Principals felt the same way.

Response from students

Response from principals


With regard to improving the comprehension of subjects, CARE wanted to improve the homework culture in Government schools. Previously, teachers failed to keep track of the homework assignments given to students. If this habit is not kept, then students would not know how they were progressing. Some students may never do their homework because the teachers never checked it.

According to students, homework was given regularly to both Government and CARE adopted school students with 82% and 86% students respectively responding in affirmative. However, there was significant difference in the attitude of teachers towards checking of homework. In Government schools, although given regularly, teachers did not check it, thus showing lack of commitment from teacher towards homework. Only 60% of students claimed that the homework given to them was checked regularly. On the other hand we found out that in CARE adopted schools 76% of the students claimed that the homework given to them was also checked.

This indicates that commitment of teachers regarding homework is greater in CARE adopted schools than in Government run and thus depictive of management's attitude. From teachers' perspective, it is found that students in