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In this globalized world, education has been considered as different roles. According to UNICEF, education is a key for world peaceful building. Despite form this, education has been emphasized as the moral foundation, fundamental human right, economic, non-economic benefits and promotion political stability and security (Bloom, 2006).
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2009) demonstrated that to cope with rapidly changes of the world, most countries are concerning about the requirements of labor market and rapid economic growth. Responding to these concerns, large resources are invested in education of their citizens to raise competence and ability of their labor force in order to cope with the global changes. In addition, a good secondary education has been played an active role to provide future adults with skills and attitude. A line with this, lower secondary education is also important for shaping students in academic or entering to vocational schooling. It has been considered as the basic education in many countries. However, there have been many challenges in lower secondary education of most countries, especially developing countries.
Cambodia is also a developing country in ASEAN region where education has been seen as the major tool for country economic development (MoEYS as cited in NO & Hirakawa, 2012). Cambodia is facing some challenge issues for lower secondary education such as dropout school, lacking of good school environment, inadequate internal efficiency, accessibilities as well as quality of education and so on. Those issues become an obstacle for country development which needs to urgently improve and address adapted to the change.
The Royal Government of Cambodian stated that:
Every citizen has the right to access qualitative education of at least nine years in public schools with free of charge. The Ministry in charge of education shall gradually prepare the policy and strategic plans to ensure that all citizens obtain qualitative education as stipulated by this law. (Article 31 of education law, 2007, p. 11).
Recent years, there are some significant progresses in Cambodia lower secondary education. During 1998-2004, student enrollment in lower secondary school in Cambodia increased by 150% and after national election 1993; the access to education was quickly improved both primary and secondary. Moreover, the numbers of lower secondary school building and school facilities have been increasing and establishing both urban and rural, many policies and national strategic plan regarding to education have been increased and improved from year to year (ADB as cited in NO & Hirakawa, 2012).
However, in the past decade, Ministry of Education Youth and Sport (2007) revealed that across the country in the lower secondary school, repetition rate (2009-2010) was 2. % (Female 1.3), the dropout rates was 19. 6% ( Female 20.2) and completion rate only 44.4 %(Female 44.2), student flow rates (Grades 9-12) for both sex (2010-2011) in Kampong Cham Province where it will be chosen as sample site in this study , promotion rate was 71.6%, repletion rate was 2.0%, and dropout rate was 26.4%. These figures showed that there are some continuing challenges for lower secondary schools such as enrollment rates are still low and the dropout school rate remains high. Similarly, The Asia Development Bank (2006) also emphasized that in 2003, the access to primary education has improved but access to lower-secondary education was still limited. A part of this, USAID (2011) stated that dropout rates in Cambodia education mostly acute at the lower secondary level among male and female students with the average dropout rate about 20 percent compared with dropout rate of 9 percents in primary and 12 percents in upper. Besides, there have been many shortages including core textbooks, especially textbooks for new curricula, secondary education inspectors, classrooms, libraries, laboratory facilities and clean water in lower secondary education. According to The World Bank (2005), among many factors that caused student dropout school, lacking of school facilities is the major problem. MoEYS (2010) argued that MoEYS committed to increase the quality and efficiency of education services by offering school instruction materials, libraries and develop the curriculum, increase learning hours and providing scholarships to poor students, building capacity of teaching and management, strengthening code of conduct of teachers and improving school's environment. Additionally, MoEYS (2007) stated that expanding the availability of education, especially lower secondary provision, opportunity cost to access primary and secondary education and equitable resources to basic education service were the main priorities tasks needed to be taken in to action.
In 2003, the global MDGs were localized for Cambodia and it has been called as CMDG (The Ministry of Planning, 2007). Cambodia has achieved some goals and the other still need to improve such as the limited progress in achieving the goal of universal nine-year basic education. The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) published a Child Friendly School policy that recognizes and nurtures the achievement of children's basic rights. The objective of third dimension emphasized health, safety and protection of children. In order to achieve this objective, core activities have been put into action such as creating safe food, safe water, and hygienic conditions in school, health care for children, school environment, child protection and so on (MoEYS, 2007). However, some development stakeholders such as USAID (2010), The Asia Development Bank (2006), and KAPE (2008) shared that the practices of this policy have been limited.
Whilst there are many factors that cause students grade nine to dropout school and encourage them to complete lower secondary school in achieving basic education as stated in education law, article 31, the school physical and emotional environment as well as problems in administrative management, teachers' and students' perception have been identified as one the important factors which need to be considered (UNICEF, 2007).
This research will only focus on the strengths and weaknesses of the school physical environment include classroom facilities, the library, playground, textbook, class size, curriculum, school policies and school emotional environment describes about bullying, sexual harassment, teachers' and students' behavior as well as quality of teaching and learning. This research will also explore how problems in the school physical, emotional environment can be addressed.
Mayer (2007) stated that as many schools are concerning with and attempt to improve technologies schooling, there are some ignorant of school safe and school environment. By the same token, USAID (2011) indicated that a poor school environment can cause many problems including high dropout rates, low enrollment rates, high repetition rates and obstacle of achieving EFA. Furthermore, these will be a negative impact on students' learning and it will build barriers for Cambodia's development due to the limitation of human resources.
In contrast, good school environments in the lower secondary school including physical and emotional environment will provide more equitable assess and good quality of lower secondary education. In addition, students will achieve their goal and become productive and potential human resources to develop their society. A part of this, when the good result of students will be shown, school principals and teachers will be satisfied with their jobs and keep commitment and contribution for long lasting educational development.
This study will be conducted in one lower secondary school in Kampong Cham province. It will explore and answer to the following questions.
What do grade nine students, teachers and the school principal at a lower secondary school Kampong Cham province identify as being the strengths and weaknesses in the school environment for grade 9 students?
What are grade nine students', teachers' and the school principals' beliefs about how problems in the school environment can be addressed?
Signification of Study
This research will provide benefits to educators and the school principals to identify the strengths and weaknesses of their school environment. It will also help address problems such as grade nine students attrition if they will apply the things that they have learned. More than these, the study will help other researchers conduct their research related to lower secondary education, particularly grade nine students as it will add to the small body of research done on the school environment in Cambodia.
The results of this study are expected to provide some contribution to a lower secondary school, educators, and school principle as well as grade nine students. The study will be valuable to provide information that will be used to support grade nine students to continue their studies. More than these, the research findings and recommendations will also offer grade nine students more opportunities to attain higher levels of education thereby improving their life opportunity. Finally, from the research findings with features identified recommendations can be made to create change to positively assist the other researchers who will intend to conduct similar educational contexts.
Literature is needed in all researches as it will benefit in giving visible view related to whole topic area. The literature review will be shown both international and Cambodia context. To write this chapter, I went through a few steps as following:
Firstly, I have accessed and searched several websites such as googlescholar, google, jcu.edu.eu. Also, I searched in well known website of the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports, the Ministry of Planning, ADB, UNESCO, UNICEF, USAID and KAPE and The World Bank. Keywords have been used for identifying relevant literatures were divided into two categories including the physical school environment which describes about classroom facilities, the library and playground, noise, air pollution, school health and the impact of physical environment in schooling. Another key is emotional environment includes bullying, sexual harassment, teacher behavior, quality of teaching, and so on.
Secondly, I have read some journal articles which I got from my professor in Royal University of Phnom Penh at the previous terms, some e-books and hard-books from other professors in the same university. The useful resources used for the literature review were also found in The Hun Sen Library of the Royal University of Phnom Penh.
The years covered by the publications used in the literature review were from 1999 to and onwards in order to provide up-to-date findings. Earlier publications were not used because their findings may have been out of date and be no longer applicable.
There are three elements of a school's environment: physical, social and emotional environment. But this study will cover only school physical and emotional environment because the purpose of this study is to find out only internal school environment.
This chapter will only present about school physical and emotional environment by dividing into three sections. The first section will explore school physical environment. The second section will review on school emotional environment. The final section will present about role of teachers and students and school principals in school environment.
Through reviewing many literature review, I can conclude that the physical environment referred to school facilities such as buildings and classrooms, playgrounds, learning institution surrounding environment like bus stops and noise, air pollution, , school policies, a long distance from school to students 'house are also described in this section. Additionally, emotional environment is something which affects the students' feeling positively and negatively including punishment, bullying, harassment and violence.
In some of the literature mentioned as the following section focus on the specific literature dealing with school environment.
International Literature Review on School Environment
School physical environment characteristics.
Low enrollment in secondary education in East Africa caused some problematic areas such as lacking supply of school facilities, a long distance from school, schooling costs, transportation and quality of education (Raja & Burnett as cited in Nelson O (2011). Similarly, World Health Organization (2002) indicated that school location should be located within daily travel distances for the majority of school age children. In addition, physical school environment is about school health promotion by educating children, family and community to stop using chemical which threaded in or near school and providing basic necessities such as security drinking water and food, light, air, sanitation facility and emergency medical care. A little bit different, after conducted some researches in different regions of the world, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009), claimed that the important role affected to student's achievement were both internal environment including classroom's physical environment and external followed by social system, atmosphere, norm and value.
According to Nelson O (2011) who conducted a case study in term of school environment illustrated that China and some countries in Africa are facing some challenges of physical school environment. For distance, low enrolment in secondary education in East Africa caused by lack of facilities supply in schools and a long distance from school as most student spend much time for traveling with lacking of sufficient means. In China, the problem that boarding school where much support provision provided by government to help particularly group, students are facing including low quality of food, lack of water supply, the noise from class or neighboring classes, lack of good lighting system and problem made by non human activities such as mosquitoes, lacking of running water. Similarly, boarding schools in Kenya are facing inadequate supply of clean water. In Africa, most schools have not clean toilets, violation and abuses still becomes the obstacle to create welcoming school environment for students.
According to Higgins et al., (2005) conducted their research about the impact of school environments on American students' learning by showing that school buildings should be equipped and organized fire safety and security, temperature, air quality, lighting, colors, playground which directly and indirectly affected to student's learning outcome. Furthermore, they stated that some keys that contribute to better physical environment are teaching style and methodology of teacher. Teaching should be flexible in changing teaching method adapted to the new changing in the global. Also, teaching and learning can be successful in accordance to the school policy. This policy should be involved from relevant stakeholders by starting from bottom up teachers, students, school principal, community in sharing or raising their concerns rather than using the top down approach for policy making.
Schneider (2002) rose similar phase, but the most concern with physical environment was school building age and quality, school size and class size which are the main facility that affect to teaching and learning environment. Difference from these, school should be set cleaning schedule and regularly follow it. For better schooling environment, schools should be a place with air quality and non-smoking area by putting warning sign or smoking bans on school property.
School Emotional environment.
According to the World Health Organization (1999), attractive friendly school emotional environment help make well-being and promote cooperation communication rather than competition. Learning has not only focused on knowledge, but also behavior or attitude. To create warm emotional environment, schools need to develop a policy aimed to prevent physical punishment, bullying, harassment and violence by using democratic procedures to promote non-violent interaction, rights of boy and girl students both inside and outside classroom. To reduce violation and abuse cases, schools should work effectively with school personnel together with students and community to design violence prevention strategy in order to provide positive educational environments to students as it is necessary which strongly influenced to student outcomes (American School Health Association as cited in Patrick & Head, 2011).
Different from this, Patrick and Ryan (2003) concluded that there are four dimensions to enhance classroom environment such as teacher support, promoting mutual respect of student task and promoting perform goals. Additionally, Dianda (2008) demonstrated that to prevent students dropout, schools should take care of nature of teachers and students interaction by using some tools such as student survey, focus group and face to face interview to know about the warning sign of perception and the root causes negative interaction among teachers and peers.
By the same token, Plan International (2008) revealed that children have a right to a safe school and learning without fear or threats of violence environment. To improve the emotional environment, schools need to work effectively to address corporal punishment. Corporal punishment occurs when physical forces were used by someone in apposition of authority against someone by making them pain or discomfort. Plan also stated that vulnerable children are struggling with disability, poverty, caste, class, ethnicity or sexuality are more likely to suffer corporal punishment than their peers. Gautam and Punia (2012) argued that growing children abuse cases might be caused by poor emotional development in and outside school. Mayer (2007) focused on abusive behavior of school staffs and principals, conflict among teacher and teacher, among peer can create possible children violence and abuse which become negative impact to student's achievement and lead to dropout.
National Literature Review on School Environment
School physical environment.
KAPE (2008) conducted a research about students dropout and retention in Kampong Cham province, Cambodia and found that the factor that students intend to stay at schools when they feel comfortable with schools cleanliness and easily access to water supply and basic water sanitation. Despite from this, Benveniste, Marshall, and Araujo (2008) wrote their research to provide an understanding of the Cambodia educational situation with the statistics of school infrastructure for the years 2003 and 2004. The statistics of the research showed that in 2003 and 2004, the main building material used in the construction of classrooms, the first were concrete; especially in urban area, the second was wooden and the third was bamboo; mostly used in the remote area. They also concluded that in both rural and urban area, primary and secondary, the school facilities were better equipped and established than. Therefore, children satisfied and enjoyed their learning within this infrastructure and school building. This finding should be the evident to show that physical school environment is the main factor that keeps students in school. With a different finding related to school environment, Herbert (2000) showed the important of quantity and quality of teaching services. In this case, Herbert indicated that class sizes in Cambodian schools are high, about 40 to 50 students in each class. This makes it difficult for teachers to manage and motivate the whole class to get positive learning. Similar statement,the World Bank (2005) demonstrated that the availability of health facilities such as drinking water, latrines and learning facilities like libraries as well as school policies are also important to attract students in learning. Moreover, schools needed to take care of building, playground, school materials, school equipment such as school latrines, school water and sanitation, clean and tidy that attract student to learn and they will feel fresh and comfortable at any time when they go to school. Additionally, MoEYS (2010) also stated that whenever it has better physical school environment teachers and staffs will also feel energy to complete their task. Furthermore, if students are allowed to share their input to decorate and manage their classrooms, then they will feel ownership for taking care of their classroom environment. Likewise, in order to ensure equitable opportunity, MoEYS keep providing school buildings and school facilities in Cambodia, particularly in rural and remote areas.
The other literature review indicated that school environment refers school health promotion (The World Health Organization, 2002). In this context, schools need to provide orientation to students and all relevant stakeholders to promote healthy eating and food safety. These need involving from all stakeholders such as school personnel, families and community members to work together to improve school health services to deal and prevent school health problems.
According to USAID (2010) indicated that the main factor that help create better school physical environment is to apply with Child Friendly School Policy made by Ministry of Education Youth and Sports. This policy aim to improve learning and teaching environment by using cooperative learning principles and stake holder engagement in which student together work, learn and each other as good team work. Teachers should use appropriate classroom material in child friendly teaching methodologies. As part of this, Mayer (2004) stated that school need to orientate students and parents on the ways they can make better school environment for students. He suggested that this should happen early in the school year and repeat it throughout the year. It is very important that a school instructs the parents and the students at the beginning of each school year on how they can help make the school a safe and welcoming place.
The Emotional School Environment.
According to Price (2007) the emotional environment is something which affects students' feeling of positive and negative emotion; the area focuses on the activities and assignments that make students embarrassed or fear. On the other hand, Blum (2005) added that school environment was influenced by some factors such as disciplinary policies, students and teachers' morality. The school environment was not only about school facilities such as buildings, toilets, libraries, ICTs and so on, but it included school health services and provides sufficient orientation about safe food as well as nutrition programs.
The Ministry of Education Youth and Sport (2007) developed its Child Friendly School policy which aims to provide not only physical, but also emotional such as mental health of students, equity, balance, freedom, solidarity, and non-violence. MoEYS hope that these can lead to the development of knowledge, skill, values, morals so that children can live together in a harmonious way. The Child Friendly School policy works well when stakeholders including parents, and guardians of students and value the many kinds of contributions they can make in encouraging all children to go to school and help develop a learning environment for children and effective learning quality according to the children's current and future need.
According to UNICEF (2007) Cambodia government also committed to a time set of specific goals, strategies and take actions in four priority areas such as promoting healthy lives; providing quality education; protecting against abuse, exploitation and violence; and combating HIV and in order to AIDS achieve CMDG. These priority obligations are contributing to improve better school environment at all level including lower secondary school, especially grade nine students if those task will well established.
Role of Students, Teachers and School Principals in School Environment.
According to UNICEF, to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) requires not just getting all children into school, but making sure that all schools work in the best interest of the children entrusted to them. This means providing safe and protective schools that are adequately staffed with trained teachers, equipped with adequate resources and graced with appropriate conditions for learning (UNICEF, 2007). A good education system not only requires all children to enter school, but make sure that all schools work in the best interest of the children entrusted to them. This means providing safe environment and protective schools that are adequately staffed with trained teachers, equipped with adequate resources and with appropriate conditions for learning.
According to Kapuchean Action for Primary Education (KAPE) (2008) conducted a research aiming to provide the factors that affect to student dropout and retention in Kampong Cham province and found that the causes were low attendance of students and teacher absence coupled with distance from school. The barriers that student could not come to school due to they needed to completed some particularly housework. This affected girls more than boys. By the same token, The Center for Mental Health in Schools (2007) illustrated that schools alone cannot create a safe and good environment place for students 'learning, it requires good cooperation from many relevant parties such as school committees, parents, students, teachers, school board members, law enforcers, government officers, educators who take active roles and initiative and local residents. Unless all the people committed to work together, school cannot be a safe environment for students. Particularly, it needs energy of school principal to work on this for creating a safe and welcoming school for the students. Conversely, to create a better school environment, peer conflict management needs to be solved and some useful training such as in problem- solving and preventive strategy, communication skills and so on should be provided to teachers, and the school management and the school principal. This will also address some issues related to emotional environment.
To be educators, need to be responsible for all students to help them trust and feel confident in their schooling. Hence, the Ministry of Education Youth and Sport plans needs to continue to train qualified teachers in adequate numbers and effectively implement its teacher deployment policy. It will provide them with the opportunity to study at bachelor as well as post-graduate levels and will thus increase their basic salaries. Then teachers will be satisfied in their careers and they will commit to create warm school environments for students, finally student will got better performance (MoEYS, 2009). According to The World Bank (2005), experiences and qualities teacher play very important role to attract students into school and reduce dropout rate.
In all of this as Kathleen (2003), states, the role of the school also contributed to create emotional school environment by sharing the following statement:
From the earliest research to the present day, school environment has been identified as the most fundamental element of effectiveness. Effective principals bring about this kind of environment by exhibiting personal warmth and accessibility, ensuring that there is broad-based agreement about standards for student behavior, communicating high behavioral standards to students, seeking input from students about behavior policies, applying rules consistently from day to day and from student to student, delegating disciplinary authority to teachers, and providing in-school suspension accompanied by support for seriously disruptive students.(p.8)
The Wallace Foundation (2009) revealed that effective principals ensure that their schools allow both adults and children to put learning at the center of their daily activities. According to USAID (2010), teaching quality mainly affects to student's learning. Student like their teachers because the ways that teachers teach is easy to understand, the classroom environment is good, the teachers know how to teach, such as using games in class, and they know how to encourage students. Teacher who had been trained in active learning pedagogies can contribute to create better teaching and learning environment than teacher that had not been trains as they seem to be less responsible for their tasks. In contrast, The World Bank (2005) revealed that quality of pre-service training is still low which need to improve and the opportunities for professional development of teachers are also limited and the recent teacher education programs have less relevance to classroom practice and teacher trainers are inadequately prepared in Cambodia.
This chapter will cover four sections. The first section will present overall research design. The second will show about the sampling method. The third will describe about data collection methods. According to Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2007), mixed method by combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies is an important key for the data collection as it will be more reliable data. Questionnaires and interview tools will be used to collect the data and this respective tool has individual strength and limitation. Finally, the fourth section will be emphasized about ethical consideration of research.
Acccording to Lodico, Dean T, Spaulding, Katherine H and Voegtle (2006), mixed-methods research for data collects both quantitative and qualitative are appropriate tool because the results and a more complete understanding and accuracy of educational problems. Therefore, the mixed-methods method will be sued in this study.
This research study will be in the form of a case study. The self-administrator questionnaires will be used by the researcher to find out the strengths and weaknesses in the school environment for grade 9 students identifying by school principals and teachers.
Also, the researcher will use interview method for secondary data collection as it will be important for researcher to be truthful and straight forward about the study objective.
School principal, grade nine teachers and students of the lower secondary school will be the sample of this research. I will select a school principal, five grade nine teachers and seventy
grade nine students who will be motivated and interested in this study. The sample method will be used in the study call purposive sampling.
Purposive sampling has been used for specific purpose. Participants preselected criteria relevant to a particular research question. Sample sizes depend on the resources and time available, as well as the study's objectives. This method, researcher will achieve their research objective as participant provided clearly information responded to the research questions (Family Health International, 2005).
Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2007) emphasized that limitation of the sampling method is the small size of the sample which the finding could not generalized to the wider population. Therefore, limitation of this sampling method is that the small number of participants, the finding could not be generalized to all lower secondary schools in Kampong Cham Province.
Data Collection Method
Gay, Mills and Airasian( 2009) stated that "Observation, interviews ,questionnaires, phone calls personal and official documents, photographs, recording, drawings, journal, email messages and responses, and informal conversations are all sources of qualitative data"(p.16). Therefore, two techniques will be used to collect data for this study will be questionnaires and face to face interviews will be used as data collection methods.
The questionnaire is one of the most appropriate and useful tool for collecting the data because it can be process without the presence of researcher and it straight forward to analyses the data (Wilson & Mclean as cited in Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007). In addition, if questionnaires has been well designed, the data will more reliable and reasonably and it will save cost and time for data collection (Anderson, 2005).
The questionnaire in English will be translated into Khmer by the researcher. To ensure the accuracy of the content, Khmer version will be back translated into English by a professional translator. Checking verification of the original English version and translated Khmer version and then back translated into English will be done to ensure the content validity of the questionnaires.
Questionnaires will be sent a manageable amount of time collecting data. A well-structured and designed questionnaire will cover all the important points to respond to the research questions.
However, the limitation is A good questionnaire is difficult to construct, and to do the job well it will probably take 10 to 50 hours, including pilot-testing, revision and formatting. I will not ask for clarification to any unclear answers from the participants. For example, sometimes the participants answer the questionnaire without paying much attention or deeply consider each question. Also, I cannot help all participants when they are not clear with the questions.
Face to Face Interview.
According to Lodico, Spaulding,Voegtle (2006), the interview can be a major data collection tool of the study or it will be used to validate or verify observations. Interviewing is depended on specific purposive conversation with one to one person or a group of persons which go beyond conversation. There will be some strengths and limitations in this tool. Anderson (1998) demonstrated that the advantage of interview method is people are more available, easily to participate, respond in an interviews that completing a questionnaire. It provides more detail and clearly information than written from. Third, interviewing enables researcher to control, analysis facial expressions, tones of voice and interviewer can be flexible to use comprenhsive and motivated questions. Face to Face Interview will be used to collect the data because it will show value placed on individuals, allows for in-depth analysis and pursuit of details geared to each respondent, few respondents refuse to be interviewed, leading to 100 per cent response and good validity for the sample interviewed. A limitation of this method is personal nature may lead to people saying things to please, rather than truthfully , requires careful planning of questions, training if multiple inter viewers used and validity relies on skilled interviewers. This tool involves: personal interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee; a dynamic process in which the interviewer asks questions, normally according to a guide or protocol; a mechanical or electronic process through which the interviewer records answers.
Many people think of informed consent primarily as a form, that is, a piece of paper that describes in detail what the research is about, including the risks and benefits. This form generally goes through ethics committee approval procedures, includes legalistic language, and is signed by the participant, the researcher, and possibly a witness. Such informed consent forms are appropriate for biomedical and other research - including qualitative - when the risks faced by participants may be substantial. They may also be necessary for minimal risk research when the foundation for trust between researchers and participants is weak (Family Health International, 2005).
Also, the data of data collection will also inform to teachers who participate in interview and those data will keep as confidential. To collect the data, ethic were considered when developing the sample. This study aimed to collect data from samples. The process will be used are the following:
Permission letter will be sent to targeted lower secondary school to inform school principal to seek approvals.
Information will be clearly given to participants about what the study is and how they could help to participate in the study. The questionnaire will clearly stated that I am Sim Pengleap, a Master's of education candidate, cohort six at Royal University of Phnom Penh will aim to research on "Grade nine students', teachers' and school principals 'views concerning the physical and emotional school environment at a Lower Secondary School in Kampong Cham province" for my thesis, the partial fulfillment of Master's of education. Participants will not be identified because the survey is anonymous. The finding of this study will not be involved to public evolution and publicity.
Verbal explanation will be used to explain the participants about the study is, and how they will help to participate in the study.
Opportunity to ask for questions which relate to the research study
Also, the data of data collection will also inform to teachers who participate in interview and those data will keep as confidential.
The researcher will consider about participants 'age, sex and experiences of teaching in order to make good a representation of the study.
Acknowledge will sent and approved by the questionnaire developer.
The study's research objectives and the characteristics of the study population determine which and how many people to select.