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E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly recognized as one way to overcome the problem of education, both in the developed countries and in developing countries. The main vehicle in the development of human resources is education and training. But when watching the situation geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was not adequate anymore when only relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative strategies related to issues explored, studied and applied. In the global era, willingly or unwillingly, educations have to do with technology, especially information technology. Many research results indicate that the late master whom the information, it is too late also the gain opportunities to get ahead. Speed accompanied by demands could potentially contribute to the education and training sector. Positive potential that technology has not only increased efficiency and effectiveness and flexibility of the learning process, but also resulted in the development of materials, shifting the role of teachers/trainers and the development of learner autonomy. The purpose of writing a paper is to describe things related to learning-based e-learning include: (1) Model-Based Learning e-learning in Education, (2) Role of E-Learning in Educational Management Strategies, (3) Policy E - Higher learning in Educational Management Strategy, and (4) Conclusion.
Education, e-learning, management, policy, strategy
E-learning or electronic learning is now increasingly recognized as one way to overcome the problem of education, both in the developed countries and in developing countries. Many people use the term different with e-learning, but in principle e-learning is learning to use electronic services as a means of help.
E-learning is a learning technology is relatively new in Indonesia. To simplify the term, the electronic learning is shortened to e-learning. This word consists of two parts, ie 'e' is an abbreviation of 'electronica' and 'learning' which means 'learning'. So e-learning means learning by using electronic devices aid services. So in the implementation of e-learning use of audio, video or computer device or a combination of all three.
In the literature, e-learning is defined as follows: "E-learning is a generic term for all technologically supported learning using an array of teaching and learning tools as phone bridging, audio and videotapes, teleconferencing, satellite transmissions, and the more recognized web-based training or computer aided instruction also commonly referred to as online courses "(Soekartawi, Haryono and Librero, 2002). Thus, the e-learning is learning supported by the implementation of technology services such as telephone, audio, vidiotape, satellite transmission or computer.
Indonesia is located between 6 ° and 11 ° N latitude and 95 ° to 141 ° BT BT is the largest archipelagic country in the world that lies between two continents, Asia and Australia with the number of 17,000 islands that stretch more or less along the 3200 miles from east to west and 1100 miles of North to South. These geographical conditions more or less become an obstacle in the dissemination of education and training services using conventional methods (face to face) to all citizens.
The main vehicle in the development of human resources is education and training. But when watching the situation geography, socio-economic and cultural diversity of Indonesia, it is clear that it was not adequate anymore (not practical) when only relying on the ways of traditional solutions alone. Therefore, various alternative strategies relating to the problem needs to explored, studied and applied.
In the global era, as now, agree or not, willingly or unwillingly, have to do with technology, especially information technology. This is because these technologies have affected our lives everyday. Therefore, we should not 'stutter' technology. Many research results indicate that the late master whom the information, it is too late also the gain opportunities to get ahead.
Information is already a 'commodity' as like other economic goods. The role of information become increasingly large and visible in the modern world it is today. This is understandable because the public now to the era of information society (information age) or community knowledge (knowledge society). It is therefore not surprising that there are colleges that offer majors information or information technology, the college has developed into rapidly.
Speed accompanied by demands could potentially contribute to the education and training sector. Positive potential that technology has not only increased efficiency and effectiveness and flexibility of the learning process, but also resulted in the development of materials, shifting the role of teachers / trainers and the development of learner autonomy.
The purpose of writing a paper is to describe things related to learning-based e-learning include: (1) Model-Based Learning e-learning in Education, (2) Role of E-Learning in Educational Management Strategies, (3) Policy of E-Learning in Higher Educational Management Strategy, and (4) Conclusion.
e-learning Model-Based in Education
Education is also affected by the rapid growth of virtual worlds. Schools via the Internet into something possible. e-learning, an alternative educational medium that knows no time and space. Model schools via the Internet should be ideal for our country. Utilization of e-learning is not separated from the internet service. Because learning techniques that are available on the internet so complete, so this will affect the task of teachers in the learning process.
In the past, teaching and learning process is dominated by the role of teachers called "the era of teacher", while students only hear the explanation of teachers. Then, the process of learning and teaching is dominated by the role of teachers and books (the era of teacher and book) and the current teaching and learning process is dominated by the role of teachers, books and technology (the era of teacher, book and technology).
Internet technology is essentially a development of previous-generation communications technology. Media such as radio, television, video, multi media, and other media have been used and can help improve the quality of education. Moreover, the Internet media that has an interactive nature, could be a mass media and interpersonal, and sources of information from various parts of the world, it is possible to be a media education is superior to previous generations. Therefore Khoe Yao Tung (2000) says that after the presence of teachers in the truest sense, the Internet will be a supplement and complement the teachers' representatives made that represent an important source of learning in the world.
Owned facilities, the Internet according to Onno W. Purbo (1998) at least, there are three things a positive impact in the educational use of the Internet are:
a) Learners can easily take courses anywhere in the world without borders or boundaries of institutions.
b) Learners can easily sit on the experts in the field of interest.
c) Lectures / study can easily be taken in various parts of the world without relying on the university / school where the students learn. In addition, the current library also present a more dynamic Internet and can be used in the entire universe.
This opinion is almost matched by Budi Rahardjo (2002). According to him, the benefits of the Internet for education is to be access to the source of information, access to a resource, and as media cooperation. Access to sources of information as an on-line library, literature sources, access research results, and access to lecture material. Access to the resource person communication can be done without having to meet physically. While the Internet as a medium of cooperation can be a medium to conduct joint research or make some paper together.
Research in the United States about the use of information and communication technology for educational purposes known to have a positive impact (Pavlik, 2006). Other studies conducted by the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST), "that the use of the Internet as a medium of education showed a positive effect on learning outcomes participants".
Although there are still many barriers, especially in Indonesia, the education quality gap between such areas can be bridged by at least school model via the Internet, yaitu e-learning. Requirement is to change the paradigm of teaching to learning. Learning is different from teaching. Many definition, redefinition, or a quote about learning. In essence, learning is about the change of self, change behavior, conduct discovery (uncovering what had been closed). In short, learn to change a person to become educated, not just smart. "Smart" and "intelligent" described by different: "Smart people know from repetition of others. Intelligent people can figure it out by themselves ".
Profile of e-Learning participant is someone who (1) has a self-learning motivation high and has a commitment to study seriously for learning responsibility entirely on self-learning participants themselves (Loftus, 2001), (2) love to learn and conduct studies, like reading for self development continuously, and who enjoys freedom, (3) have failed in certain subjects at school and need a replacement to conventional, or who require specific subject matter that is not served by local conventional schools and who want to accelerate their graduation, so take a few other subjects through e-Learning, and that can not be forced to leave home because of various considerations (Tucker, 2000).
While in the teaching of teachers or instructors to give time, energy, and effort to prepare students or students in accordance with instructional objectives. Teacher, students receive. However, those who were taught by teachers or through the computer is not necessarily to learn, because the study requires an amendment to the self.
Development-based learning e-learning needs to be carefully designed according to the desired destination. If we agree that e-learning in it, too, including Internet-based learning, the opinions Haughey (1998) should be considered in the development of e-learning. He thinks there are three possibilities in the development of Internet-based learning system, which is "web courses, web centric courses and web enhanced course".
"Web course" is the use of the Internet for educational purposes, in which students and teachers is completely separate and do not need any face to face. All the teaching materials, discussion, consultation, assignment, training, exams, and other learning activities delivered entirely over the Internet. In other words, this model uses a remote system.
"Web centric course" is a unique blend of Internet use between learning without face to face (long distance) and face to face (conventional). Some materials delivered via the Internet, and partly through face to face. Complementary functions. In this model teachers can provide clues to the students to learn the lesson material through the web that have been made. Students are also given referrals to find other sources of sites that are relevant. In face-to-face, students and teachers more discussion about the findings of material has been learned through the internet.
The results of testing the use of learning technologies for students (with access to websites that refer to the powerpoint view notes and preparation for exams) and learning methods that are relatively more traditional (read the textbook and class notes from the book), and the influence of learning strategies on test scores and their presence in the classroom, showing students that ranked high on the use of technology and traditional learning methods and perform a higher attendance than students who are classified as low in the use of two learning methods that use technology and traditional learning methods. (Kathleen Debevec, 2006).
Model "web enhanced course" is to use the Internet to support learning quality improvement done in the classroom. Internet function is to provide enrichment and communication between students with teachers, fellow students, members of the group, or students with another resource. Therefore the role of teachers in this case are required to master the technique of searching for information on the Internet, guiding students to seek and find sites relevant to learning materials, presenting the material through the web an attractive and desirable, guidance and communication service via the internet, and other skills required.
Development of e-learning is not merely presenting lesson material on-line only, but must be communicative and interesting. The material is designed as a lesson learned in front of students teachers through a computer screen that is connected through the Internet. To be able to produce e-learning an attractive and desirable, Onno W. Purbo (2002) requires three things that must be fulfilled in designing e-learning, which is "simple, personal, and quick". A simple system will allow students to utilize technology and the existing menu, with the convenience provided to the panel, will reduce the introduction of e-learning system itself, so that participants can study time diefisienkan to the learning process itself and not on learning to use the system e -learning it.
Conditions personal means teachers can interact as well as a teacher communicate with students in front of the class. With the approach and a more personal interaction, learners' progress note, and helped so many problems it faces. This will make students feel at home for long in front of his computer screen.
Then this service is supported with speed, quick response to complaints and needs of other learners. Thus the improvement of learning can be done as soon as possible by a teacher or manager.
In summary, e-learning should be created as if the students learn in the conventional manner, only moved into the digital system over the Internet. Therefore e-learning needs to adapt elements of common practice in conventional learning systems. For instance starting from the formulation of operational objectives and measurable, there is a perception or a pre test, motivational, communicative use of language, a clear description of the material, concrete examples, problem solving, question and answer, discussion, post test, to assignments and activities follow-up. Therefore, designing e-learning should involve stakeholders, including: teachers, materials specialists, communications specialists, programmers, artists, and so on.
The role of E-Learning in Educational Management Strategies
Observation of the experts, as has been noted above suggests that in the future of education tend to be multidisciplinary, integrated network, related to productivity on time, pluralistic, more dialogical / synchronous, more open and accessible and more competitive in nature. In 1989, Bishop G. has predicted that in the future of education tend to be flexible, open, diverse, accessible by anyone who wants to learn without knowing age, gender, previous learning experience, and so on.
With the advancement of new communications technologies, delivery models through a lot of multimedia-based line continues to grow as a very powerful tool. The ability to combine text, diagrams, and pictures with video and voice transmitting capability is very supportive of meaningful information and technology development that is virtual (virtual), can increase the effectiveness of these approaches, even more than that. Many students, even though they do not fully understand computers expect to ease with the material.
Internet has tremendous potential for infrastructure along the existing phone system with reliable equipment that has been available, which has encouraged people to realize and has been trained to use. If this is seen as a comprehensive answer to the problems of mass education, the fact that there is such a frequently ignored. But will be very meaningful when viewed as a system diterpkan gradual and cumulative, where infrastructure is already available is used for the needs of a clear and specific.
Rosenberg (2008) stresses that e-learning refers to the use of Internet technology to deliver a series of solutions that can improve the knowledge and skills. Even Onno W. Purbo (2002) explains that the term "e" or an abbreviation of electronic e-learning is used as a term for any technology used to support the efforts of teaching through the Internet electronic technology.
In more detail Rosenberg (2008) categorizes three basic criteria contained in e-learning, namely:
a) E-learning is a network, which allows him to improve quickly, save or bring back, distributing, and sharing of learning and information. This requirement is essential in e-learning, so that Rosenberg called it an absolute requirement.
b) E-learning is delivered to users through a computer using standard Internet technology. CD ROM, Web TV, Web Cell Phones, Pagers, and aids other personal digital although learning can prepare messages but can not be classified as e-learning.
c) E-learning is focused on the views of the most extensive learning, learning solutions menggungguli traditional paradigm in training.
The discussion above shows that as the basis of e-learning is the use of Internet technology. e-learning is a conventional form of learning which poured in digital format via the internet technology. Therefore e-learning can be used in distance education systems and conventional education systems. In conventional education e-learning function is not to replace, but rather reinforce conventional learning models. In this case Cisco (2007) explains the philosophical e-learning as follows:
a) E-learning is the delivery of information, communication, education, training of on-line.
b) E-learning provides a set of tools that can enrich the value of learning in the conventional (conventional learning models, the study of text books, CD-ROMs, and computer-based training) in order to answer the challenges of globalization development.
c) E-learning is not meant to replace conventional learning models in the classroom, but to strengthen the model of learning through content enrichment and development of educational technology.
The capacity of students vary greatly depending on the form and content delivery. The better alignment between the transmitter device conten and learning style, it would be better student capacity, which in turn will give better results.
Teachers or instructors can assign students to work in groups to develop and present assignments. Students who worked on the task of this group can work together through the homepage or web facilities. In addition, students themselves can contribute to each other individually or through group discussions using e-mail (Website kudos, 2002).
Concord Consortium (2006) (http://www.govhs.org/) suggests that the experience of learning through electronic media enriched when students may feel that they each are part of a community of learners, who are in a shared environment . By developing a community and live in it, students become no longer feel isolated in the electronic media. In fact, they worked together shoulder to shoulder to support each other for the success of the group.
Further stated that in the e-learning activities, teachers and participants learn to express that they are just more familiar with each other. The study participants themselves admit that they are more familiar with the teachers who nurture their learning through e-Learning activities. In addition, the teachers e-Learning is also active in the conversation (communication) with parents of learners via phone and email because these parents are partners in e-Learning activities. Similarly, communication among the participants of e-Learning.
Basically the way of delivery or the way the provision (delivery system) of e-learning, can be classified into two, namely:
1. One way communication; and
2. Two way communication.
Communication or interaction between teachers and students are better two-way through the system. In the e-learning, two-way system can also be classified into two, namely:
1. Implemented through the direct (synchronous). This means that when the instructor gives lessons, students can directly listen; and
2. Conducted indirectly (a-synchronous). For example a message from the instructor recorded before use.
Future paradigms in the overall trend (Roll, R. 1997) is a multimedia market forces. Strong impact of the birth of globalization will result in a change in management strategy of education and training. For that requires knowledge of education and learning methods are new. The structure of vocational skills and knowledge to support changing lifelong learning and continuous learning that serves to prepare workers to meet the demands or industry interests.
Underlined the need to roll from the statement is "high technology should be to reach the unreachable, and the precision of high technology is when the infrastructure used wisely. In such circumstances, distance learning and open education / distance will be a pioneer into the new decade ".
E-learning Policy in Higher Education Management Strategy
Public Policy Process
According to Hoogerwerf (2008, 66) in terms of policy is essentially a kind of answer to a problem, an attempt to solve, reduce, prevent a problem with a particular way, namely by a directed action. James E. Anderson (2008, 33), gives the formulation of policy as the behavior of a number of actors (officials, groups, government agencies) or a series of actors in a particular field of activity.
From some understanding of the policies that have been put forward by the scientists, presumably it can be concluded that, in fact, a study of the policy (policy) covers the question: what, why, who, where, and how. All questions concerning the problems faced by institutions that make decisions affecting; contents, way or procedure prescribed, the strategy, when the decision was taken and implemented. In addition to conclusions about policy terms is, at present the policy term more often and widely used in relation to the actions of government and state behavior in general (Charles O. Jones, 2007, 166)
From this definition, the public policy which covers all things revealed and done or not done by the government. Besides public policy are also the policies developed / produced by agencies and government officials (James E. Anderson, 1979:3). Understanding the implications of this view is that public policy:
a. For an act that led to goals rather than as behaviors or actions that happened;
b. Essentially consists of actions related to each other;
c. Concerned with what is actually done by the government in a particular field or even what the government is mean or do something or says to do something;
d. Can be positive, which means is some form of action (step) government on certain issues, and is negative, meaning a government decision to not do something;
e. Public policy, at least in a positive sense based or always premised on the rules / laws that are forced.
In a study of public policy, policy implementation needs to be done that has to do with the explanation of the mechanism of political decisions into routine procedures through bureaucratic channels, the problem of conflict, decisions, and who gets what from a policy. It is not too wrong to say that the implementation of the policy is a very important aspect in the overall policy process.
A very simple understanding of policy implementation is as expressed by the Charles O. Jones (2007), where implementation is defined as "getting the job done" and "doing it". But behind the simplicity of this formula means that the implementation of the policy is a policy process that can be done easily. But its implementation, according to Jones, a condition which requires among other things: the person or the executor, money and organizational capabilities or resources is often referred to, further implementation of constraints defining Jones as the process of receiving additional resources, so that they can consider what to do.
It is stated based on the fact that this implementation process will be influenced by the dimensions of such a policy. In the sense that most implementations will be successful if the desired changes relatively little, while the consensus of purpose, especially from those who operate the program in the field, is relatively high. From the description above, it is understood that the successful implementation of the policy is strongly influenced by variables or bernagai on gilrannya factors will affect the successful implementation of the policy itself.
That's needed for Policy Analysis E-learning in Higher Education that it needs to be done a study to review these policies. Knowing how well the chosen policy can help achieve goals and to see if there are other impacts that may be caused by the policy. And also to find out what the problem is to be completed by the government, how far the success rate in solving policy problems (achieving goals), and whether such policies lead to other effects that are not desirable, is not considered before, or who is a threat to the government's risk.
William N. Dunn (2008) argued that policy analysis is an applied social science discipline which uses a variety of research methods and arguments to generate and transfer relevant information to the policy, which can be used at political level in order to solve policy problems. Weimer and Vining, (1998:1): "The product of policy analysis is advice. Specifically, it is some advice that inform public policy decision ". So public policy analysis, advice or more a consideration of public policy makers is about the problems faced, a task that must be performed by public organizations related to these issues, as well as various policy alternatives that might be taken with a variety of assessment based on policy objectives.
Having formulated a policy issue, it is now time to look for solution to the problem of what public policy will be taken. In the policy design process there are seven stages as follows:
Stage assessment issues.
This phase aims to discover and understand the nature of the problems encountered have been identified by the organization; formulate problems facing the organization; and demonstrating a causal relationship of the problems identified.
Setting goals and policy objectives.
Setting goals and targets as necessary policy guidelines in the formulation of alternative interventions, as well as the assessment standard basis of whether the intervention measures can be called a "failed" or "successful".
3) Formulation of the model.
Several alternative intervention policies set forth in the form of causal relationship between the problems faced by the organization and formulated simple. Causality is referred to as a model. It could be a model flowchart (flow chart) and arrow diagram (arrow chart). Goals compilation model is intended to facilitate analysis of policy alternatives and selecting interventions which should be chosen.
4) Formulation of policy alternatives.
Policy alternatives are a number of tools and techniques used to achieve goals and objectives that have been determined either directly or not. Alternative formulation begins with the description logic framework associated with the various possibilities that arise in the framework of the intervention problem. The possibility that impact both positive and negative. After the alternatives are identified, it was time to choose the alternative most likely to achieve goals and objectives set before.
5) Determination of alternative policy selection criteria. Criteria and parameters that can be used to choose among policy alternatives are a) technical feasibility, which emphasizes the aspects of the effectiveness of intervention measures in achieving objectives and targets; b) economic and financial feasibility, which emphasizes the efficiency aspects of the costs and benefits obtained by using engineering cost and benefit analysis; c) the political viability, which saw the political impact of the resulting accessibility (acceptability), compatibility with community values (appropriateness), responsiveness (responsiveness), compliance with legislation (legal suitability), as well as equity (equity) ; d) Operability of the administrative view of the dimensions of authority implementing agency, institutional commitment, capability of staff and funding and support organization.
6) Assessment of policy alternatives.
Through this assessment will be found alternative interventions are most effective, efficient, and visible in solving problems. Therefore, the chosen alternative interventions are not necessarily the most effective in achieving goals and objectives, the most efficient in cost and benefit side, the most acceptable by the stakeholders, and as an institution can be implemented and meet the administrative requirements. Also consider the ethical and philosophical aspects of that alternative does not violate social values prevailing in society.
7) Formulation of policy recommendations.
Policy recommendations are made based on several scores of alternative interventions, which are considered visible alternatives to achieve goals and objectives, the optimal cost with maximum profit, accepted by all stakeholders and in accordance with the ethics and values prevailing in society and legislation, and the institution can be accomplished. On the other hand, alternative interventions are also considered more comprehensive, holistic, integrative and prospective before selected. After that, an alternative set of interventions recommended and approved that has the force of law.
E-learning policy in the Current Higher Education
Policies regarding e-learning in the Education Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education (EDUCATION) 2009-2014 as part of Quality, Relevance and Competitiveness stated as follows: "Considering the rapid growth of the use of ICT in various sectors of life, the government will continue to develop the use of ICT for school information systems and learning including the development of electronic learning (e-learning). Until 2009, the steps to be taken are (a) designing a network system that includes the Internet network, which connects schools with data centers and applications, and intranet networks and the media as a means of communication, and internal information the school; (b) design and create database applications, which store and process data and school information, school management, learning content (c) to design and create a portal-based learning applications, web, interactive multimedia, which consists of tutorial applications and learning tools; (d ) optimize the utilization of educational television as an enrichment of material in order to support the improvement of education quality, and (e) implement the use of ICT in stages to facilitate the management of junior high school education and at the same time to support the learning process in all parts of Indonesia ". In other parts also mentioned the efforts that have been made as follows: "Considering the rapid growth of the use of ICT in various sectors of life, the government will continue to use ICT to develop information systems of schooling and learning including e-Learning development. Until 2009, the steps to be taken are (a) to design and create database applications, which store and process data and school information, school management, load (content) learning; (b) to design and create a portal-based learning applications, web , interactive multimedia, which consists of tutorial applications and learning tools; (c) optimize the utilization of educational television as an enrichment of material in order to support the improvement of education quality, and (d) implement the use of ICT in stages to facilitate the management of high school education and vocational as well as for support the learning process in all parts of Indonesia. "
Especially for college, e-learning policies in accordance Education Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Education (EDUCATION) 2009-2014 is: "Development of distance learning (distance learning) in college, with pilot projects in several universities and training centers until the year 2009, the ITB, ITS, UGM, IPB, UI, Melayu, UNDANA, UNHAS, PENS, and POLMAL. Dissemination of this project will be developed in UNLAM, UM, UNY, UNP, UNHALU, UNCEN and PT-PT others. "While the target set is:" ICT literacy (ability to access, utilize and use the radio, television, computers and the Internet) 80% for the students and faculty "with Strengthening Governance, Accountability, and Public Image in the field:" Enhanced capacity of higher education unit conducted through competitive grant programs run by governments, such as competitive grant programs, partnership programs, research grants, education development center and instructional activities (P3AI). Management capacity building will also be supported by the application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), such as the development of higher education information system ".
The operational e-learning policies set forth in the accreditation document (BOOK IIIB) point 6.4.1 (Information Systems) as follows: "Describe the management information systems and facilities of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) used the Faculty / School for the academic administration and administration (eg SIAKAD, SIMKEU, SIMAWA, SIMFA, SIMPEG and the like), including distance / e-learning. Explain utilization in decision-making processes in the development of institutions. "In Book VI - ACCREDITATION ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS FOR GRADUATE PROGRAM STUDY also described in detail the policy" Access and utilization of information systems in managing data and information on the implementation of academic programs in the course of study ", including e -learning, which can be seen in the following table:
Policy Proposal E-learning for Future Higher Education
Utilization of the Internet for learning or e-learning is also not free from shortcomings. Various critics (Bullen, 2001, Beam, 1997), among others, can be stated as follows:
a) Lack of interaction between teachers and students or even among the students themselves. Lack of this interaction could slow the formation of values in the process of learning and teaching;
b) The tendency to ignore aspects of the academic or social aspects and instead encouraging the growth of the business / commercial;
c) The process of learning and teaching tend toward training than education;
d) The changing role of teachers from the original master conventional learning techniques, are now also required to know the learning techniques that use ICT;
e) Students who do not have a high learning motivation tended to fail;
f) Not all the available internet facilities (this may be related to the problem of availability of electricity, telephone or computer);
From the above situation, authors suggest policy of Future E-learning in Higher Education can be use framework of the Gellman-Danley and Fetzner (1998) as follows:
Calendar, Course integrity, Transferability, Transcripts, Student/Course evaluation, Admission standards, Curriculum/Course approval, Accreditation, Class cancellations , Course/Program/Degree availability, Recruiting/Marketing
Governance / Administration / Fiscal
Tuition rate, Technology fee, FTE's, Administration cost, State fiscal regulations, Tuition disbursement, Space, Single versus multiple board oversight, Staffing
Compensation and workload, Development incentives, Faculty training, Congruence with existing union contracts, Class monitoring, Faculty support, Faculty evaluation
Intellectual property, Faculty, Student and institutional liability
Student Support Services
Advisement, Counseling, Library access, Materials delivery, Student training, Test proctoring, Videotaping, Computer accounts, Registration, Financial aid, Labs
Systems reliability, Connectivity/access, Hardware/software, Setup concerns, Infrastructure, Technical support (staffing), Scheduling, Costs
Adoption of innovations, Acceptance of on-line/distance teaching, Understanding of distance education (what works at a distance), Organizational values
Meanwhile, "Policy Analysis Framework" for the policy hierarchy can use the following models:
Faculty (including Continuing Education and Cooperative Extension)
Rewards (e.g., stipends, promotion and tenure, merit increases, etc.); Support (e.g., student help, technical assistance, training, etc.); Opportunities to learn about technology and new applications (e.g., release time, training, etc.); Intellectual property (e.g. ownership of materials, copyright, etc.)
Support (e.g., access to technology, library resources, registration, advising, financial aid, etc.); Requirements and records (e.g., residency requirements, acceptance of courses from other places, transfer of credit, continuing education, etc.)
Management and Organization
Tuition and fee structure; Funding formula; Collaboration (e.g., with other Departments, units, institutions, consortia, intra-and inter-institutional, service areas, etc.); Resources (e.g., financial resources to support distance education, equipment, new technologies, etc.); Curricula/individual courses (e.g., delivery modes, course/program selection, plans to develop, individual sequences, course development, entire program delivery, interactivity requirements, test requirements, contact hour definitions, etc.)
E-Learning will be used or not depends on government policy in education and how users view or assess the e-learning. But generally the use of these technologies depends on: (1). Is the technology was already a requirement?, (2). Is adequate supporting facilities?, (3). Is supported by adequate funding?, and (4). Is there support from policy makers?
Many people often try to launch e-learning without careful consideration and use it to look prestigious without Management Policy and Strategy Education obvious. Therefore one thing to note before using the Internet for learning, the policy analysis to answer whether it requires e-learning. In this analysis would have included whether it is technically and non-technical e-learning can be carried out this analysis regarding the availability of hard-ware, especially the computer (with his network), electricity, phone and its software; especially the availability of personnel, teaching materials are prepared in -online- and the "course management tools" that will be used. Also, is economically beneficial use of this Internet (Economically profitable). Economic analysis such as Cost Benefit (B / C) ratio, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Net Present Value (NPV) or Return on Investment (ROI) can be used as a measuring tool. Furthermore whether socially, the use of e-learning must be accepted by the community (socially acceptable). Because sometimes, although the usage of e-learning for learning has been prepared properly and operate quality is also good, people can not accept it because they consider the ways of conventional education is considered better. Therefore please note the problem of accountability in the use of information technology.
One thing that should be emphasized and understood is that e-learning can not completely replace conventional learning activities in class. However, e-Learning can be a partner or complementary with conventional learning in the classroom. e-Learning is an independent "basic thrust" of electronic learning activities, but this type of learning activities still require adequate interaction in an effort to maintain its quality.