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Public distribution system is well known for the distribution of food grains and manages food grains to meet scarcity of food at the time of drought and famine in the country. Prime responsibilities of PDS is to provide basic necessity to the farmer at affordable price. In the last two decades it has become an important part of the government .it motto of forming is to make available the entire requirement of house hold commodities are required for a family.
PDS is being operated by central as well as state government. central government has separate ministry for this .in current time SARAD PAWAR is the minister of PDS under UPA government .central government with the help of FCI fulfill the responsibilities for procurement, storage, transportation and provided food grains to state government as per requirement. It going in the all part of India it has been only possible only with the contribution of state and central both. mainly four things comes under the PDS scheme are sugar, rice, wheat and kerosene.bt some of the state also distributed some extra goods such as Cloths, exercise book, salt, pulses and tea etc.state has responsibilities to run the scheme very successfully and help the needy people more so for identification of BPL and downthrown people they are given ration card on the basis of there basic yearly income.
MR SARAD PAWAR is the current minister of consumer affairs & public distribution under the government of india.The ministry is headed by cabinet rank .The ministry divided by two department each headed by junior minister .Central govt every years give some especial package for this ministry for the development of the common masses especially BPL and villagers.
The department of public distribution has given very prime responsibility to management of food in economic year of the country. Two more essential intention of the department to ensure remuneration and genuine & affordable price for farmer. The department introduced a scheme for minimum support price to the producer of the paddy and food grains and distribution of food grain from central. The department has also responsibilities to watch needy ,BPL and poor farmers are getting proper support on not and there should be no discrimination and biasness from any means or with any section of people .it Moto is to support weaker section of society and uplift there moral and economical status in the society. It is running very successfully and supporting many families especially in village
EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Public distribution has come into existences during inter war period in India it consists essential commodities. public distribution system mainly focus on distribution of food grains in urban areas its scarcity or abundance in the country. it played a pivotal role in the year 1960 to face critical storage of food grains.pds has vital role to control food grins price in the urban market & provided food to the farmer at affordable price .as in the green revolution country has got drastic improvements in production of wheat & rice the area of public public distribution has increased after green revolution and to see the poverty increased in the year 1970 and 1980 so that PDS can work very smoothly and can help to reduced poverty and help the poor of the country.
Till the year 1992 public distribution system was common for all the masses and it had no spiffy target .we can say it was working target less .revamped public distribution system was launched in the year 1992 in 1975 block through the country. But TPDS started working in the month July in the year 1997.
MAIN ACTIVITES ARE FOLLOWINGS
- Formulation and implementation of national polices over procurement movement storage and distribution of food grains like wheat, rice, coarse
- Import and export of rice, wheat and food grains
- Policies and planning for targeted public distribution system
- Buffer stocking policies and matter relating to food security
- Storage facilities for the maintence of central reserve of wheat, rice and food grains
- Research and dissemination of the techniques of scientific storage of wheat, rice, and coarse grains.
- Quality control of wheat, rice, and coarse grains produced, storage and distributed by various public agencies in the country.
REVAMPED PUBLIC DISRTIBUTION SYSTEM(TPDS)
IN the year 1992 of the month June the revamped public distribution (TPDS) was launched and came into existences with a intention to strength PDS as well improved its condition and work very effective or efficiently to facility maximum number of family in villagers especially. it main Moto was to provided support to even masses are living in the far-flung,hilly,remote and increased areas where substantial section of the poor lived there. Many programmed are being covered by this under 1775 blocks like drought prone program (DPAP), integrated tribal development project (ITDP), desert development program(DDP,),and design hill areas(DHA).these are some programmed ruled by government for the enhancement of all the part of people in the country and these all are being vigil by RPDS.Under RPDS a card holder can get 20 kg per month and RPDS has issued state govt to provided the grains below 50 paisa as central fixed price for masses.
TARGETED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM(TPDS)
In The Month June Year 1997 Government of India Had New Policies that is best known as Target Public Distribution System (TPDS).IT first and foremost work to provided basic necessity of the needy and especially poor farmer in the rural india.under TPDS states are required to formulate and implement floor proof arrangement for the identification of the poor for delivery of food grains and food and its distribution in transparent and accountable at the FPS level.
When scheme was launched first it had target to facility at least 6 corer poor families for fulfillment of their needs it had estimated that at least 72 lakh tones food grains would be requried annually to reach the need of all the poor families that had been maintain in the government record. the identification of poor families had been done by state government with the help of planning commission report 1993-1994 based on the mythology of the” Expert Group on estimation of proportion and number of poor “headed by late prof Lakdawala.the allocation of the food grain had been made by basic average consumption in the past average consumption had been taken for last decade at time of introduction of TPDS.
This report had given complete information and information about BPL this help to state as well as central to make further plane that how and where money could be spended and which state required more food ,money to uplift the condition of poor families in the state
.Identification of BPL families under TPDS
In the year 1996 general consensus was made by central government to identify the BPL families in all part of India. And now it was the responsibility of TDPS to cover the all the BPL families to provide them basic needs at affordable price. All the data regarding BPL came with the help of expert shade by planning commission used methodology it was headed by late professor Lakadawala. The BPL family was judged by on the basis of population, projection of the registrar general of India for 1995. And the state wise poverty was estimated in the year 1993-94. By the help of planning commission it was determined that 596.23 lakhs BPL family lying over India. Guidelines for implementing the TPDS where issued in which the state government to identify BPL family involving nagarpalika and gram panchayat also. While selecting BPL family several criteria has been taken care like yearly income of income of common masses and capacity of farmer and it's on land. It was mainly focused in the rural and semi urban areas of the India. In the BPL section mostly people like rickshaw puller, cart puller, fruit and flower seller and daily wages earner and landless farmers came under BPL.
The number of BPL family has been increased… WEF 1/12/2000. By shifting the base of population projection of the registrar general of India. it was drastic increased in the number of BPL families so it was a great matter of concern for central as well as state government to cope with this great problem which is increasing drastally .total number of BPL families has increased and reached 625.03 lakh as compare to June 1997 it was only 596.03 lakh.
ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA(AAJ)
In the year 2000 ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA has been launched by central government with the help of state government .The main intention of central government is to launched this scheme was to help maximum number of BPL families and especially government wanted to help villagers to strength their condition and made them self dependent at least they can easily fulfill their basic needs of poor villagers .The national sample survey of population has claimed that at least 5% of families sleep with ought meal of night .This section of people came under hungry category and under AAY scheme they have target epically poor and hungry section of people. By the survey it has been claimed that at least one crore of poor families lies all part of the country and most of them in village.
EXTENTION OF AAY AT FIRST STAGE
In the year 2003-2004 AAY has expanded its areas and added another fifty lakh BPL families in India .in the first stage of AAY scheme has given especial privilege to senior citizen and they are given goods of basic need at subsidies price .number of BPL families has increased up 25% so first stage has coverd all these BPL families and tied to give them good support this scheme of government has been proved very fruit full even at its first stage so government has decide to strength to AAY .
SECOND EXTENTION OF AAY
In the year2004- 2005 union budget has launched now AAY had target to serve more BPL families and their estimation was to cover at least 50 lakh more BPL families and first intention was to catch all the hunger families those even unable to eat three times in a day so it reduces the cause of hunger in the country .affect of this AAY second stage has been seen in 3 0 aug 2004 when they have started to identifies people of hunger category and they have mainly targed.cobbler,fruit and flower seller, slum dweller, rag pickers,blacksmith,landless farmer, low income farmer, snake charner,hand cart puller,coolies ,daily bases wagers, rural artist,tanner,weavers,and most weaker section of the society to at least provided them three times meal in a day .
They have also included those house hold has been running by widows or terminally ill persons physically challenged person was also included in these category and person of age of 60 or more has been also included in this section and they are plan to give the commodities at more subsidize rate.
Person of age more than 60 years,physically challanged,widows,and terminally ill person of Family consists only one men or women also they have also given some especial privileged to these type of people in the society .widows or terminally ill person aged 60 years or more or singal women or single men with no family or social support or assured means of assured means of subsistence.
THIRD EXPANSION OF AAY
As in the year 2005 union budget has shown data that BPL has increased as population of India has increasing rapidly so that BPL families is also increasing and it is becoming great problem for AAY and becoming great challenge fog Government also. Now AAY has great challenge to tracle 50 lakh who have just enter in the list of BPL families now it has covered maximum number of family. The state-wise estimated number AAY families are lying in which o the state and which state consist maximum. In the year 2009 AAY has given data that it has covered many BPL families even they claim that they have covered 242.75 lakh.
IDENTIFICATION OF ANTYODAYA FAIMILIES AND ALLOCATION OF FOODGRAINS
The identification of the Antyodaya families and issues them ration card to these families to identifies and provided them basic commodities at lower price in compression to others masses. Central government has made estimated on the basis of data whatever has been given to central by state and union territory and on the basic of these data government issues ration card to all the BPL families of the country. AT the present it is claimed that around 8.50 lakh tones per month by AAY claims that AAY are providing facilities to these all families.
SCALE OF ISSUES OF FOOD-GRAINS UNDER TPDS
In the year 1997 every BPL families are starting giving 35 kg from 10 kg per families per month .it said it was great effort from government with the help of AAY .The scale of issues to BPL families was increased 10 kg to 20 kg per family per family per monthly with the effect from 1.4.2000.As AAY was first launched the parpotion of giving food was not this much as years passes and number of BPL families has increased rapidly and it was big challenge for government to face the over load of BPL families and but with the help of AAY it has been possible to covered all the families and provided basic commodities to all at low price.
CENTRAL ISSUES PRICE(CIP)
At present central issues price(cip) of food grains being supplier under TPDS is as under
COMMODITY APL BPL AAY
RICE 8.30 5.56 3.00
WHAT 6.10 4.15 2.00
ACHIVEMENTS OF TPDS
PDS has become pro-poor after in the year 1997 .The urban discrimination has been finished in terms of giving facilities and providing them commodities at affordable price .but now the condition has been quite change now BPL showing faith in TPDS and now villagers are happy with services due to this effort of government and TPDS living standard of farmer are improving and they are not migrating towards town.
In accordance with the commitment of the government to make hunger free India and reform PDS for providing better services to the masses and made India hunger free for this intention a scheme in year 2000 had been started .The CIP for AAY category was kept lowest of RS 2 per kg for rice and RS 3 per kg for wheat .the number of AAY household have been increased to 2.5 crores.
BASIC OF ALLOCATION AND BPL ESTIMATED OF PLANNING COMMISSION
The planning commission had estimated that in the year 1999-2000 the poverty rate has came down as it is only 26.10% is there in compression to 36.15% in the year 1993-1994.But whatever the estimission of TPDS about what they have targeted is still far from reach of government and TPDS so they have plane to make the system more common and reach to all and sundry and in the next decade the poverty rate most come down and maximum number of people should utilized this scheme they have also going for investigation that what is real cause of not getting that success as it had been estimated by TPDS and government. This report of poverty and number of BPL families living in all part of the country it was collectively effort of state as well as central government.
MEASURES TAKEN TO STRENGTHEN TPDS
It is a very good and fruitful scheme for common masses especially poors and farmer by government so it needs a lot of support from public as well as government because it very good for removing poverty and make India hunger free. So it needs amendment as per time changes for strengthen it many steps has been taken by government.
A revised citizen charter has been issued in July 2007 for adoption and implementation by state & UT governments for faciliting its use citizen as per provision of right to information act 2005 in relation to functioning of the TPDS.
For making proper supplies and making the goods available at all time .public distribution system order 2001 has been notified on august 31 2001.The order mainly contains provisions with regard to these are following issues
- Identification of BPL families
- proper ration cards for all
- Scale and issues price
It was order given by central government that all state and union territory should be fair enough that there BPL families must be poorest of the poor and the list should be made not on the basis of irrelevant either it should must be based on proper data. They should given to each and every BPL families proper ration card and check proper time to time and there should not be any kind of nepotism or beaurocracy.It is now state responsibilities to cheack about work and its progress and report should should be given to central government at proper interval of time and there is any ambiguity of distribution system it must be removed and guilty person must be jailed .The state government or UTs are also to ensure issues of utilization certificates conforming that the food grains have been lifted and distributed to the intended beneficiaries under the TPDS.An offer committed in violation of the provision of this order shall invoke criminal liabilities under the essential commodities act 1955.now this act is so pro active and it is working as it is expected to do so with ought the effort of state government vigil it cannot work properly so government need to be so fair and active enough to cope criminisation because these type of scheme are indeed fruitful for masses of all the country epically for villagers and poor .For these type of scheme common masses must be aware that it of program of for what and what government is providing to theme and what is they are getting it is of well standard how much they are paying is it fair or not more than government price or not.
ARES OFFERS SCHEME
In the year 2000 Feb. the area offers scheme was launched in the department of public distribution with the objective to provide a mechanism to coordinate with the state government and UTs administration for regular and effective review and monitoring of the targeted public distribution system in the state and UTs. The higher rank officer are appointed as the active member of this scheme and they work as officer of ARES OFFERS SCHEME they are given post of deputy secretary .These type of people have long experience of social culture and they know the society better than common masses .
CURRENT STATUS OF THE SECTOR
Brining agriculture centre stage in department agenda is essential for enchacing food security boosting growth and overcoming proverty.The crux of problem is producing enough in a sustainable manner and investment in rural infracture and agriculture rearch and development and transferability of new technology to farmer to enhance and the condition of farmer and cope with challenge of climate change. The use of modern technology of farming and modern equipment for farming and convectional approach has increased input using effencilly and affective recourse of our farming has shown great hope of production by using modern and up to date technology for better production of food grains in the country .There is great changes are required in this sector because the population of India is increasing by leaps and bound .Agriculture sector is one of the very vast sector in the country over it at least 60% population fully depends. There is an urgent need of enhance investment in research in public sector and making the research very productive and easily available for farmer so they can use the technology in very smoothly.
SOME FACTS OF INDIA RELATED TO THIS SECTOR
India is second largest population consists and India is this time feeding 17% of population of the world and India covers 3% of land of the world land and 5% of water available of the world .Over of time we have taken several steps to increased agriculture output of food security
the green revolution and white revolution a vast network of agriculture research and education institutional ,revitalization of revitalization of extension system with the help of information and communication technologies.
Empowering the farmer through easy availability of rural credit along with farmers friendly fair price support mechanism to a well functioning public procumbent and distribution system.
The record food grains for public distribution system already touches 47 million metric tones it is great achievement in the support of common masses and they have target to just make it double within a decade.
In the year 2007-2008 it was great production of rice and wheat has shown it is said this year that 227 million tonnes and epically rice has shown great hope of progress of 175 million tones out of 227 million tones.
The increased in India of price of rice has been shown modest with 7 & 8% respectively for wheat and rice as in compression to global market price increment of rice and wheat as global price of wheat and rice has increased 76 and 61% respectively during last year.
Intention of India is not only to produces much rice and wheat but also pulses in coming decade. Production of the food product is not enough it is required to enhance the condition of farmer and make them aware to use modern technology and make India hunger free because India has to shown its great contribution in global world .
Food and livelihood security are major concern of a developing country even a develop country has also god contribution of this sector .So many developing country has raised voice to give especial attention over agriculture and agriculture fully dependent country need especial package and good support from developed country it a matter of great discussion in last DOHA development round of negation in the WTO.In DOHA round India has played a pivotal role to raise the voice for the development of agriculture and there would be more research should be related to development in coming dacade.India is committed to a successful pro-development conclusion of DOHA round trade liberalization in agriculture must take adequately take into account the livelihood and security concern of poor and vulnerable farmers in the developing and third world country.
Government of india commited to ensure food security to all and make available essential commodities to all the common masses specialy weaker section society at affordable price through the help of public distributive system . with this objective in the mind pds was recognized in jume 1997 with one intention to focus BPL family of india and thy will be given 20 kg food grain per month at 50% of cost. This is estimated that it will be benifited for 33 crore living under poverty line in the country while population above poverty line will continue to get food grains at economical cost through the fair price shop. The estimated sunsidiary for gaining the target public distribution system would required Rs 7457 crore per year. food security is ensured through the system of processment of food grain there shortage , movement ,public distribution and maintenance buffer stock. Adequate size of buffer stock of good grains is an essential element of national fodder policy. Food grains in buffer is necessary not only limited inport inter seasonial stability of food grain of supply and price but also to ensure food security and meet management adverce situation arising from out of unexpected reduction in crops area natural disaster etc. food grain program is on the minimum support price offer by government .rice is also being produced under levy from rice mills at price announce seperatly for each state in the country . wheat procurement has touched an all high during the ruby marketing seasion in 2000-2001 with the procurement reaching about 157.82 lac ton as on june 7 2000 as against the total procurement of 141.43 lakh tones during the last year. The ministry has started a citizen's charter for imparting essential information to the public on entitled of BPL families quality of food grains procedsive of the issues of ration card inspection and cheating ,right to information vigilance as well as public participation with the objective of strengthen the public distribution system and to ensure that the benefit of PDS that must have now reach to all the poor and bpl families in the country.
During the year the ministry had needs special allocation of food grains to orrisa for cyclone relief to provided them basic commodities at more subsidize rate for badly affected victim to provide even free. In reply of this government has raised its fund and announced to give 39670 tonnes. Special allocation of 526462 tonnes and 419205 tonnes of food grains are given to rajsthan and gujrat respectively and Andhra Pradesh for relief operation in draught affected area in these state. These allocation were for distribution of 20 kg per family per month to both BPL and APL at different rate like APL would not get much subside as BPL will be given.