Disparities between male and female

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Background Of Findings

The following are the findings, which are importance to the study. The analysis proposes that there persist to be disparities between male and female in education and income. Through an analysis of primary and secondary source materials, we will be able to sought answers to a pre determined set of the four-research question related to gender disparity in Malaysia focusing on education and income. The three purposes of this study were to investigate the gender disparity in education, to examine the gender disparity in labour market and discuss the consequences of gender disparity and its implications on social development. As will be bring to the forth chapter, the outcome derived from this attempt to answers to the question. Nevertheless, the study's findings do offer strong approach into a complex topic that is clearly of dominant importance to reduce gender disparity in the future.

Femininity, Fairness & Personhood Differences

Lead To Gender Disparity In Career

It has been observed that there is inequality in the manner and advance in the direction of women and men at the work place, which interprets, into remarkable unfairness in opposition to women. It is well known that organizations are grouped by a gender hierarchy unbreakable and uttered thought male norms and arrangement, fixed in broad social relations of male advantage and female disadvantages.

Women are frequently attentive in the lower and middle management level position as compare to men. Although numbers of women are graduating form higher institution yet the involvement of women in managerial roles especially at senior level continue to be less than men (Wood & Lindorff, 2001).

As we can see in the figure 7, which explain the percentage of labour force participant in

Malaysia. There are large different between male and female contributor in the labour force. Female mostly likely involve lesser than men in the labour force and this condition are mostly probable explain the workplace has become more male dominated. However, there are few factors that influence this situation and at the same time, it could be the barriers to women to be involve as equal as men.

Source : Department of Statistics Malaysia

Emographic Factor

One of the factors that direct to the decline of female involvement towards the labor force is “Demographic Factor”. Women represent about 50.3 % out of the total population in Malaysia and the working age population is from 15 to 64 years. The status of women has always been lower than men in term of position and wage, separately from the little who grab top position (Mavin, 2001). Other study for example (Smedley & Whitten, 2006; Shultz & Adam, 2007) suggested that crucial difference between ages guide to work performance. The main reason behind this occurrence is disparity aligned with them in the appearance of unfavorable promotion judgment and given less chance for females.

The effects of age manipulate the work force involvement between female and their starting salary and therefore women are charged lesser salary than men were. The reason behind this is that as women grow older they are often limited towards upward mobility and promotions. Physical appearance on hiring assessment is connected because it has consequence on promotion assessment or proposal for promotion. Since women are apparent to beg off in pleasant appearance, as they grow older, this variable guide to decline of female accomplishment in career attainment.

Below seen Figure 8, explain the total labour force participant in Malaysia by age group from year 2001 until 2008.Numbers of male participation relatively higher as compare to female participation. Based on the figure we can wrap up that age is one of the factors that influence the labour force participant between male and female.

Source: Department of Statistic Malaysia

Besides that, below seen Table 8, which enlighten labour force participant in Malaysia by age group based on year 1980 and 1991. The female labour participant's rate stayed stable among 1980 and 1991 at low rate of 41.9 %, measured against male rate 83.8 %. As we can see at the age of 15-19 the percentage of male and female involvement at labour force are considerable lower than other age grouped appropriately longer years of schooling before their enter into the labour force. In 1980, the 84.4 % of male was in the labour force as compared to female only 42.2%.

Table 8: Labour Force Participant by Age group in 1980 and 1991

Age Group

1980

1991

Male (%)

Female (%)

Male (%)

Female (%)

15-19

48.9

34.9

43.1

32.9

20-24

91.5

53.5

88.1

59.6

25-29

97.3

44.7

96.6

50.1

30-34

97.9

41.5

97.4

45.1

35-39

98.0

43.7

97.7

42.2

16-65

84.8

42.2

83.8

41.9

Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia

However, there is increase in female labour force participants at age group of 20-24 probable due to increase in the demand of female worker during that period. Furthermore there is delayed in the female labour force at age group of 25-29 due to the natural that female worker get married and committed into family life .The increasing demand for female labour force often resulted biased performs in which they are paid lesser than men for the same work.

According to (Hurley & Giannantonia, 1999) has acknowledged that gender disparity in career attainment happens in two different forms. The first form is adverse promotion decisions and the second form is that race and gender, an individual's age is a further vital demographical variable that might cause gender disparities.

Work-Family Commitment

However, the second factor that pilot to gender disparity in career is “Work -Family Commitment” whereby the labour force involvement, occupations and the significance of work provides important approach hooked between family responsibilities and career. Since in the case of job participation, family contribution is expected to create interior forces to devote enlarged attempts and power in the family field to accomplish family role insists. Family tasks are individually essential issue influencing the sum of time and energy that individual are capable to dedicate to work.

Besides that, a further key matter appear with this analysis is women are often drop into the domestic responsibilities that are naturally engaged them with house chores and there still people hole on the believe the women place is home and they should only take care the family (Jacob, 1999; Moore, 1995) and male should go for work. In order to fulfill their responsibilities, they often occupied in small salaried tasks and informal labour.

Source: http://www.ilo.org

Base on the figure 9, which tells us the percentage of working age in Malaysia based on year. The female participant in labour force not even reached half from the total percentage of working citizen in Malaysia. Even though there is increase in female participant each year yet, male be likely to participant more as compared to female worker. This is because female has to balance between their work and family and family life obligation tender become a difficulty for a female too participant as equal as men.

Moreover, this traditional gender role had cause disadvantage for women in term of economic power. In many circumstances, men persist to be main decision makers and decline to acquire female roles and work outside the house whereas women cannot generously do the same. Women who work outside the home are typically face more burden such as livelihood responsibility in order to fulfill their domestic responsibilities.

 Percentage of Women at Decision Making Level, Malaysia

Occupation Level

2001

2002

2003

Board of Directors

10.1%

10.5%

10.1%

President, Vice President, Managing Director, Chief Executive Officer, Chief Operation Officer, Senior General Manager and General Manager

12.0%

12.1%

12.3%

Source: Survey by MWFD on 50 companies listed under Kuala Lumpur stock exchange

Above seen table 9, which give details on the percentage of women at decision-making level in Malaysia. As we can see that at the broad of director level , women been given lesser decision making power as compare to other level but somehow women are given less power to make decision than men .

Table 9 Hours Worked by Gender

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

Hours

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Less than 20

1.6

3.3

1.6

2.8

1.4

2.3

1.6

2.7

1.2

2.2

20-29

3.3

4.

2.4

3.7

2.5

3.8

2.4

4.0

2.5

3.7

30-39

11.3

14.6

10.5

13.8

10.9

14.2

11.3

14.5

11.2

14.1

More than 40

83.7

77.1

85.5

79.6

85.2

79.4

84.7

78.8

85.1

80.0

Source: Department of Statistic Malaysia

Hence, women's career expansion is still significantly fewer than those of men are and this is because it is difficult for women to balance their work and family roles. In addition, women also fail to growth in an organization due to extended working hours, which is necessary for senior manager level. This is the major reason on why women's face difficulty in the corporate world and clarifies their attention in low paid, part time employment and their nonappearance at the majority of senior stages of management. As seen in the table 9, that express hours worked by gender in Malaysia and female workers are likely to work less than 20 hours and male be liable to work more than 40 hours.

Besides that, as Malaysia shift from labour intensive manufacturing to further capital-intensive types of production, female employees will be less aggressive. Current economics depression, women become more exposed to low skills, low job levels and structural limitations towards their involvement in workforce after marriage and the beginning of family responsibilities (Ahmad, 1998) .

Labour Market Structure Root To Female Disparity In Career

Orporate Cultural

In additional, “Corporate Cultural “is also one of the factors that pilot to the less female participation in the labour force. As we know that, women's role has an additional important effect in business perform or presentation. It is fine to recognize that women are immobile strengthen for work and family behaviors, while men are trained to develop public representations and to notice themselves in term of public identities. The majority of male workers was occupied on production related work or in agricultural and female workers predominated in production related work followed by service such as clerical.

As seen in the below figure 10 which explain male participants in the labour force by sector and figure 11 which explain female participants in the labour force by sector. Male tend to involve more in agricultural and industry sector which compress about 16% and 35 % , while female tend to involve more in service sector which compress 62%.

Source: Department of Statistic Malaysia

Source: Department of Statistic Malaysia

As many firms currently focusing more investment on human capital development and change the way of doing business according to the current trend, modernization could be one of the ways. Modernization is nothing but it is the techniques that used by firm in order to change the traditional way of supervision and direction and at the same time

shifting the gap among the purposeful and imaginative thinker.By doing so, more innovative women's are experiencing minor tough of awareness which is controlled by organizations.

In additional, modernization continues to be subject matter by male traditions and Women are often facing unfairness towards relational developments and organizational development, which often not appreciated or officially recognized in term of employment assessment and performance. Women are frequently unnoticed in term of relational developments due to traditional female responsibility in management, as they overpass which make appease and discuss but are not appreciated for their involvement in response to further strong male cultures.

On the other hand, recruitment selection which emerged with the present of both structurally and culturally which focus more on male orientation and long working hours creates an inflexibility and unfairness among women. Apart from that, study by (Andrew R.J.Dainty, Barbara M.Bagilhole & Richard H.Neale, 2000) has recognized that men and women experiences disparity energetically whereby men expose to promotion more quickly than women throughout their career progress do.

They have proven that this could be resulted due to the consequences of structural organization aspects, which limit the promotion opening within women and the culture, which is opposition to women. This situation would create a segregation and unfair work environment. According to latest report by the Department of Statistics of Malaysia based on January 2010, the labour force has increased considerable to 11.61 million persons as compared to 11.42 million persons in the December 2009.Althought there is an increase in the labour force participant in Malaysia yet the unemployment rate had rose to 3.6 % as compared to previous month which is only 3.4%.

Gender diversity in the workplace is important as women have a positive contribution to make, especially in understanding women related issues. The latter becomes increasingly important with increasing female participant and even domination in some industries like in electronics.

Ender Stereotyping

Finally, the last factors, which possibly lead to female disparity in the labour force, are “Gender Stereotyping”. Gender stereotyping means one side representation of men and women, which are deploying constantly in everyday life. Even though women are graduating more compare to male from the educational institution (Fagenson & Jackson, 1994) but there are still less women's are accounted at senior management level (Parker & Fagenson, 1994). The different view point which express the male dominate on corporate world mirror a constant participants of men compare to women in the labour market and this occurrence is experienced a across all societies.

Other study for example (Adler & Izraeli, 1988) had mentioned that the attitudes, behavioral and structural barriers cause relatively decrease in female career progression. The behavioral characteristic that influences both male and female participant in the labour force for example women tend to be more common type of beliefs and behaviors such as caring, nurturing, interpersonal compassion and emotional, however men be likely to be more ambition, affirmation, organize and independent that may creates different anticipations and experiences for male and female. Thus this is the reason why there is different between male and female participant in labour force.

Man are offer expose to promotion compare to women due to their behavioral characteristic and this situation pilot less confident among women whereby their have less persuaded over their future progression as they have rated themselves lower compare with men.

Besides that, when a women try to adopt male style against their preference, they lead to be more aggressive and unexpected from the feminine customs. However, this above mention factor tells us that the gender disparity in career does subsist and women tend to be the subject matter.

Barriers Faced By Women In Income Progression

Income Distribution In Malaysia

The distribution of income is an essential accept to be consider because it establish the national harmony and poverty rate. Apart from career disparity, women are also facing income disparity along with their male counterparts. Based on the United Nation Human Development Program (UNHDP) report in 2004 explains that the richest 10% in Malaysia control 38.4% of the economics income as compared to the poorest 10% who only control 1.7%.

Income disparity and labor market disparity in different countries have established that women usually been paid at lower rate compare to men. This sector of the study attempts to discover the contribution of labour market structure and firm level characteristics that lead to income disparity. Although Malaysia had achieved outstanding economic growth above the past decades, however the gender disparities among Malaysian are continue living.

Malaysian mainly appear unsighted to the dilemma of income inequality in the society. Based on the Figure 12 , tell us the female participants in workforce are only 24% compare to male participants which is about 42% out of 34% as total labour force participants according to year 2008.

Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia

According to the Gini coefficient, which used to compute income inequality, Malaysia has a wider disparity of income compare to other ASEAN countries. Based on the table 10 below, Malaysia has the highest gini coefficient among the ASEAN countries which excluding Myanmar and Brunei data. Malaysia recorded 49.2 gini in year 2004, which is the highest among the ASEAN countries.

Table 10: Human development and inequality in ASEAN countries in 2004

Country

HDI

Gini coefficient

Singapore

0.902

42.5

Malaysia

0.793

49.2

Thailand

0.768

43.2

Philippines

0.753

46.1

Indonesia

0.692

34.4

Vietnam

0.691

36.1

Cambodia

0.568

40.0

Laos

0.534

37.0

Source: UNDP Human Development Report, 2004

Different In Pay Policies

Apart from the labour market structure, “Different in Pay Policies” also influences the gender disparity in income. Job satisfaction means a lot to an individual either male or female because it mirrors the temperament of the work performed, the features of the organization and individual wants and assessments. Pay and promotion process and policies is an important issue to organizations and employees because it will outline employee's observation of justice and therefore their obligation toward the organization.

According to the (Smith , 1776), theory on Wealth of Nation has identified several reasons why there is a different in earnings between male and female and this way of thinking forms the contemporary idea of compensating differences. One of the significant elements that the author highlighted is the complexity and cost of understanding a job, which means some types of employment require years of training, education and work experiences, and it can be categorized human capital development.

This situation can have an effect on the involvement of female whereby they are mostly likely to be different from men in relation to their human capital level. Women usually has additional focus on harmonizing work and family, as men are provoked to expand income thought work. Besides that, men have more chance such as to have flexible way of life and have more sense of balance between work and family.

Women mainly married women are not classically as the most important income contributor in the family hence women are only consider as second income contributor. Furthermore, women are normally inactive in term of society life and taking care of others, mainly family members and having career aims that are oriented in the direction of accomplishment and fulfillment. Therefore, men are likely to be involved in the high paying and high rank position.

Based on the theory of human capital, which (Becker, 1993) developed clarify that in business investment such as on equipment and individual investment in education and training bring the similar outcomes. Human capital means the education, knowledge, training, experiences or skills of a person, which create them possible precious to an employer. In order for an individual to improve in their human capital level, they should engage with some cost in form of training, involving in time and besides that an individual need to let go their earnings even if it is been paid by the state or employer. Here, again female as limited time especially married women to balance their time and contribute in the process of improving their human capital level.

In additional, another theory which was developed by (Becker , 1957 ) which called the taste based theory of discrimination , has identified that men receive more advantage handlings and this is because employer preferences to employ men rather than women and men dislike to work along with women mainly at lower position..

Since the employers, focus is primarily to maximize profit using this strategy then the effectiveness of the employer is increasing in profit and decrease in the number of women employed in the firm. However, the employer will only employs women if the ineffectiveness of employing a woman is salaried by increased profit from that act and that can occur when he/she pay women less.

Malaysian organization focus on the position of promoting professional women to management or higher management positions stay insightful matter that need handle carefully. The equal pay policies only been apply in the Malaysia public sector, however, in the private sector it is not applicable, thus important wage discrimination still continue although with comparable human capital level (Lee & Nagaraj, 1995).

Occupational Segregation

Moreover the gender disparity in income also been influenced by “Occupational Segregation”, which means group of workers are spread crosswise occupational according to qualified characteristics. There are two form of occupational segregation, which is horizontal and vertical segregation. Horizontal segregation means when labor force is made up typically by single gender, race or other qualified characteristic and the vertical segregation means opportunities for career development are only given to an exacting gender, race or other qualified characteristics.

For example based on the report done by the International Labour Organization although women had made significant advancement in order to close the gender gap in management and professional jobs, yet most of women are still been excluded from the top level position in organization no matter in public or private sector or even in their political life.

Labour Force Participants by Male based on Industry

Year

Agricultural

Manufacturing

Health

Education

Construction

Electricity

2001

11.9%

27.5%

3.6%

9.3%

1.8%

0.2%

2002

11.5%

25.1%

3.7%

9.1%

1.9%

0.2%

2003

10.9%

24.7%

4.2%

10.3%

1.9%

0.3%

2004

10.4%

22.8%

3.8%

10.8%

1.8%

0.2%

2005

10.0%

22.0%

4.0%

10.8%

2.0%

0.2%

2006

9.9%

22.0%

4.2%

10.7%

2.0%

0.3%

2007

9.8%

20.6%

4.3%

10.8%

1.8%

0.2%

2008

8.9%

20.0%

4.6%

11.3%

2.2%

0.3%

Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia

Based on the Table 11, which explain percentages of male involvement in the workforce by industry and it tell us that every year there is improvement and increased in the involvement of male. However, male tend to involve more in Agricultural, Manufacturing, Education and Health related industry compare to Construction and Electricity which relatively pay that higher wage .

Labour Force Participants by Female based on Industry

Year

Agricultural

Manufacturing

Health

Education

Construction

Electricity

2001

14.80%

21.10%

12.70%

3.30%

0.90%

0.80%

2002

15.10%

19.80%

13.70%

3.20%

1.00%

0.70%

2003

14.50%

19.90%

13.90%

3.60%

1.10%

0.80%

2004

14.90%

18.90%

12.90%

3.50%

1.00%

0.80%

2005

15.40%

18.60%

12.90%

3.40%

1.10%

0.80%

2006

15.30%

19.20%

12.60%

3.20%

1.10%

1.00%

2007

15.80%

17.70%

12.70%

3.30%

1.10%

0.80%

2008

15.00%

17.30%

13.40%

3.30%

1.10%

0.7

Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia

On the other hand, according to the table 12, which express percentages of female involvement in the workforce by industry. By look at the table, there are no constant improvements and participant in the female workers and the value tend to fluctuate every year. This situation, give us a clear picture male tend to dominate the labour market every year and make notable improvement compare to female workers.

Apart from that (Women and Work Commission, 2006; Browne, 2006; Tomaskovic-Devey, 1993; Yahya, 1993) argued that occupational segregation which been practice in Malaysia are robustly gendered. They also provide a constant facts the female jobs are often fall into the lower and middle income group such as secretarial staff, service and production workers, equipment operators and laborers although there is increase in the female participant in labour force .Male workers who tend to be involve in professional jobs such as engineering, information technology and etc which is basically high income occupation.

In additional this occupational segregation created a large gender disparity in income and explain that female are often be the subject to this situation although the experiences, working order and talent are controlled. Although the female participant in the workforce are increase yet due this occupational segregation cause frustration among them which indirect lead to less female involvement at the senior level in an organization.

Based on all those factors mention above, it is save to say that there is gender disparity in income experienced by female in Malaysia. Income disparity between genders branched from the practice that decides the excellence if career and earnings related with jobs. Earnings linked jobs will root to income disparity in term of placements of individual into particular jobs.

Possible Role Of Family Guide To Education

Disparity Among Female

Even though information on female education cannot be obtain directly, gross enrolment rate, literacy rate and employment in applicable segment that able to be use to review women's participants on the base of the connections from side to side the various stages of education.

To determine the gender disparity in education, first of all female literacy rate, which is define as the ability to read and write in Malaysia compress 85.4% according to the 2000 census compare male, which is about 92% . At one glace, it able to tell us female still face education disparity compare to their counterpart. Education is the essential element for female in order to build basic capability and it plays an important function that could create impartial social and economic development.

Summary of Enrolment and Literacy Rate in Malaysia

Year

Items

Male

Female

2002

Primary Gross Enrolment Rate (%)

93%

93%

2002

Secondary Gross Enrolment Rate (%)

67%

74%

2002

Tertiary Gross Enrolment Rate (%)

26%

33%

2000-2004

Adult Literacy Rate (%)

92%

85%

Source: International Labour Organization (ILO)

According to, the report by Human Development in year 2004, Malaysia is rank 57 out of 167 countries, however based on the report in year 2009 Malaysia is rank 66 out of 167 countries. Besides that, based on the table 13, we can able to see that, the numbers of female student increasing higher at all schooling level compare to the male student, which relatively low.

The number of female enrollment rate is probably higher due to other factors such as population size of female. As we know that, out of the total population of Malaysia, female compress about 50.3% and male 49.7% (refer to Figure 3) , which tells us that the female proposition is larger and increasing over the years.

This could be the reason why the female enrollment rate is higher judge against to male at all schooling level. However, when we look at the literacy rate, females ( 85% ) are relatively lower as compare to males (92%) and at the end it tells us that education disparity take place and been experienced by female no matter female enrolment rate in higher than male. There are many reasons why female face education disparity, but I could like to emphasis the main important element that creates the occurrence of education disparity.

Parents Investment On Girl'S Education

Investment on girls education can be divided into two broad categories which firstly through their parents and secondly through the government such as promoting equality opportunity in education. If we look from the point of parents it has been a cultural practice among parents to investment more on son education compare to daughter education. Glick& Sahn (2000) defines that raise in household income will direct to greater investment in girls schooling.

Education attainment among gender, primarily demonstrates the important on equal distribution on family resource between son and daughter. For example, socialization disputes highlight the significance of role modeling, in a way that the children model their parents as their own educational and occupational ambitions and attainment. Besides that, some researcher argue that role modeling as on gender specific, girls (daughter) tend to be more like their mother and boys(son) tend to be more like their father as they expand their educational and occupational ambitions (Rosen & Aneshensel, 1978). As results from this, parents believe that daughter should relatively do better in household chores compare to education attainment while son should do better in education attainment.

Based on the Human Development Index in year 2007, adult literacy rate in Malaysia is 91.9%, which means around 8.1% of the adult in Malaysia has not involve in any form of education attainment. However, literacy rate of male in year 2007 is 94.2% and female is 91.9%.Base on the literacy rate by Human development Index in 2007, female tend to be moderately lower than their counterpart is. This is because parents believe that the return from son education investment will give them higher returning than daughters. Apart from that, parents believe that sons usually are expected to be financial and responsible to take out the family as they are grow older, while daughters will marry out. As results parents investment more on sons education compare to daughters.

 Student Participant in living skills subject by gender, 1998

Options

Male

Female

Total

Female (%)

Manipulative skills

134945

27264

162209

16.81

Home Economics

4567

148845

15340

97.02

Agricultural

48338

22084

70422

31.36

Source: Ministry of Education, Malaysia

Furthermore, based on the table 14, which enlighten that female student be likely to participant more in female related subject such as in home economics and agricultural compare to male involve more in manipulative skills.. This is because female been educated and encouraged to involve more to femininity related skill even from home to school.

However, in the process of women's participants under the Ninth Malaysia Plan, which attempts to improve the role of female aligned with nation's development program that mainly focus on educating female and providing them more training opportunities, in order they could be able to meet the demand on knowledge based economy and improve the upward mobility in the labour market.

There has been rapid growth of educational opportunities and openings for women and men to improve their economic condition. Overall, the table15 below shows percentage of literacy rate in Malaysia over the period of 1970-2000.Over the period of 30 years, there was increase in the proposition of student who had the secondary and tertiary education in Malaysia, yet somehow male squeeze high percentage than female

Table 15: Percentage of Literacy Rate of 15-24 years by sex

Year

Male

Female

1970

83.0%

68.0%

1980

94.0%

89.9%

1991

95.9%

95.3%

2000

97.2%

97.3%

Source: Department of Statistic of Malaysia

Moreover, parents have a propensity to give more freedom to sons to develop their knowledge and skill, which in the later will increase their income, and parents limit daughter's education. Parents believe that investment on daughter's education will give them low return. For example based on (Gertler and Alderman, 1989; Dollar and Gatti, 1999) pointed three main reasons on low investment on girl's education, which is firstly, is “low return” followed by “no direct benefit” and lastly “social preferences” which is refer more to the reason such as traditions, cultural and local tradition.

Technical And Vocational Education Separation

Apart from above mention factors, female students are also experiencing disparity in term of educational segregation compare with male student especially in the technical and vocational education level. As we know that, these forms of education have a propensity to supply training in order to produce, students who are knowledgeable not only in word of theroically but also technically.

Generally, in the context of Malaysia education system, students at the upper secondary school level also have the options of continuing their education in professional courses, but here again it seemed to be gender stereotyping of education in Malaysia where the pattern of gender disparity in the enrolment and type of schools occur at the upper secondary level. More opportunities and priority is given to male students compare to female and the course are design mainly men related.

Table 16: Student participant in Technical Courses in year 1998

Courses

Male

Female

Total

Female (%)

Mechanical Engineering

4624

648

5272

12.29

Civil Engineering

3173

2923

6096

47.95

Agricultural

87

276

363

76.03

Commerce

375

1243

1617

76.87

Total

13555

6599

20154

32.75

Source: Ministry of Education Malaysia

With regards, table 16 show that student participant in Technical school courses in year 1998.As we can see that female student tend to obtain more in Agricultural 76.03% and Commerce 76.87% courses compare to Civil Engineering 47.95 % and Mechanical Engineering 12.29%.

Courses

Male

Female

Total

Female (%)

Engineering Trades

12241

1470

13711

10.72

Commerce

544

2209

2753

80.24

Agricultural

453

398

851

46.77

Home Economic

256

2534

2790

90.88

Total

13494

6611

20105

32.82

Table 17: Student participant in Vocational Courses in year 1998

Source: Ministry of Education Malaysia

However, in respect to Student participants in the Vocational courses in year 1998 as seen in above table 17, as well as Home Economic is offered at the Vocational school, it able to attract more female student with a involvement rate of 90.88 % followed by Commerce 80.24 %, hence female student involve lesser in the Engineering Trades which amounted 10.72% with 1470 female from the total participants of 13711.

It seem , that either in the Technical or Vocational school are more male dominated , in fact those courses been offered there more towards developing male human capital level which is an crucial aspect that allow that to be more marketable in labour market. Therefore female student offer lack in industrialization knowledge that restrict them from manufacturing related job (refer to figure 13)

The data in vocational and technical education in Malaysia suggests that female participants are low especially in engineering sector. Furthermore, female student be likely to involve more in an inclination for the arts and soft sciences in the learning institution. Based on this, female student are experiencing educational segregation and they been not encourage or promote to involve in sciences related courses which important for them in order to enjoy from the current economic transformation.

Market Structure

Before the Asian financial crisis in 1997, the salary and wage rate in Malaysia had practiced an important growth. Present, technological transform have effects an increase in the demand for workers with higher education. In order to supply the manufacturing sector, which has highest growth rate during the last decade, the demand for technically trained workers such as engineers, technician etc relatively increased.

As we know, that more male are involved in technical related job or even in higher education male student tend to be involve more in information technology and engineers besides female tend to involve in administrative and management field. Female contribution in labour market is still lagging behind compare to male especially in this sector. For example, the transformation in industry needs change in skilled workers mainly in technically, but female are still intense in low skilled jobs and labour intensive.

Note: Includes Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing, Electricity and Construction.

Source: Department of Statistics Malaysia

As seen in the Figure 13, which give explanation on percentage of labour participants based on sector. Male workers tend to contribute greater proposition judge against in term of female workers contribution especially in Mining and Quarrying, Manufacturing, Electricity and Construction. The figure, able to drawn a clear explanation that worker who are more talented and skillful in term of technically able to dominate the labour market or labour force and it is true that male are better in term of technically compare to female.

Most of Female workers have a propensity to involve in labour intensive in manufacturing sector work such as clerical workers, equipment operator, productive workers and service workers, which relatively provide that with fewer wages, compare to male worker who involve in high waged labour intensive works.

Income is the sum of consumption and saving that obtained by an individual within a particular period, however it is the matter of whether it is equality distribute among male or female is depending mainly by firm and society. As mention above gender disparity in education is experienced by female in Malaysia and the government need to provide equal opportunity for all and promote female in every accept by providing them more training and empowerment on female will direct to greater economic growth.

Consequences Of Gender Disparity And Social Development

The greater awareness begins in 1970's such as rural output and informal economic activity, thus rising promotion on the issue of women and development. According to the (Lagerlof, 1999) define that the outcomes of gender inequality in education and economic growth are linked each other. Moreover the gender disparity in education can cause a poverty corner, which would explain public deed to run away this low level balance continue with gender gaps in education

Source: Department of Statistic Malaysia

On the other hand, the largely labour force participant's rates for rural areas and urban areas were approximately equal at 63% and 62.8% as demonstrated in the figure 14. However, male labour force participants in rural areas are higher than did their urban at 85.3 % and 82.4 % correspondingly. In compare, the urban female participant rate is higher than that of rural females. The advanced female labour force participant's rate in the urban areas can be endorsed to the expansion of industry in urban areas and the increasing demand for female workers. Furthermore, in rural areas, women may decide not to go into the labour force appropriate to traditional insight about gender responsibility.

There are several ways that Malaysia government would address the gender disparity in Malaysia, which is through forming institution to set up equal opportunities among men and women, focus on right approach which will be the most effective way to reduce gender disparity and finally taking action that will provide constant equality in political involvement of women.

There has been tremendously enhancement by Malaysia government in order to rising the level of understanding on gender equality and advancing the development of women. Although substantial improvement have made but women still face disputes of globalization. Education is an essential element that should be considered and it is a tool to empower women as well to reduce gender disparity, thus to build basic capabilities and bridging reasonable social and economic development. Based on department of statistic Malaysia, nearly 50.3% of the country's total populations were female, so it is crucial to ensure equal access and treatment for women in education as men.

Besides that, based on the Malaysia third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) for the period of 2001-2010, which focus more women participant more in education and training opportunities in order to meet the demand of knowledge based economy and improve upward mobility in labour market.

Moreover, it is important to provide equality for women in term of economic participant, economic opportunities and education attainment because firstly due to the number of population of female is larger than male, so by improving them Malaysia able to achieve social and economic development .Secondary, as mention above that women empower will lead to bring equitable social and economic development.

Economic Participant

Base on the analysis on gender disparity in income, we will able to wrap up that female participant in the labour market relatively lower as compared to male .Not only that the proposition of female to grab senior level position at an organization is also lower than men. It is important to take step towards raising female income and labour force participants and encouraging them to involve equality as men in economic development

Recent Malaysia economic transformation which focus more too manufacturing sector and industrialization, thus aligned with the globalization it is crucial to generated equal opportunities for women with providing them with more training in order to meet the demand in manufacturing sector.

In order to fulfill this, Malaysia government need to allocate budget particularly to gender budget purpose to develop women. In addition, government also needs to monitor and analysis the effects of gender disparity and implement policy or action in order to close the gender disparity.

Economic Opportunities

Based on the study, female tend to participant in low wage and more female dominated career which indirectly minor female are less involving in upward mobility. This is because female often face the problem of balancing their work family commitment, which discourage them to involve economically as men.

Furthermore, the female face phenomenon of cultural boundaries that affect their participation in the labour market. Corporate cultural of an organization established barriers, thus it is also more towards to the interest of men. At the end, female workers lend to involve low paid wage and limited progression within professions.

The public and private firm needs to develop a cultural which able to create comfort working environment for both male and female. This is especially to provide equal opportunities for both gender and this can help to reduce the gender disparity in income

Education Attainment

Education within in doubt is a fundamental element to empower women. As mention by (Glick & Sahn, 2002) that investing in girl's schooling will provide to increase in the household income. Gender disparities in education are linked with social and economic development. For example education disparity will indirectly lend to decline in the economic development in term of reduce in the human capital who are able to compete with current demand for knowledge based workers and eventually this situation will lend to reduce in the productive of the countries.

Providing equal opportunity in education for both male and female able to develop to social and economic status of the countries. However, taking a different view from (Dollar & Gatti, 1999) define that there is relationship between the gender disparity in education and economic growth. This mainly female student participant in the technical and vocational are less than male and those course that offered are more to the interest of male student.

In order to demand the demand of knowledge based worker which is essential for the current trends in labour force, it is crucial that each and every workers regardless of gender to be more skillful and technical expertise which allow them to compete in international arena.

In this manner, we able to close the gap of gender disparity and empower women's thought education and income in order for them to able to promote impartial social and economic development, thus in order to Malaysia achieve gender equality it is important to focus in providing equal opportunities among gender and creating competence human capital .

Conclusions And Recommendations

Summary And Conclusions

Gender equality and the empowerment of women are fundamental to human capital development. They are in addition necessary to achieve the social and economic development. Investment in girl's education supplies them with social and economic opportunities and choices throughout their lifetime. This is vital since women with required skills and knowledge to facilitate them to make sure to be further aggressive and flexible to convene the dispute of a knowledge based economy.

This paper has examine the gender disparity in Malaysia, mainly gender disparity in education and income and its consequences and social development .it may be useful to briefly highlight the most important findings:

First, it materialize that gender inequality in education does delay economic growth direct thought income earned between male and female and indirectly thought its impact on career opportunities and development. Secondly, it emerge that the effect is gender inequality in education and promoting female education therefore have a superior wage and salary. Gender disparity in education trim downs economic directly by lowering usual human capital.

Gender disparity in workplace occurs due to the transformation role of management style and working cultures. Fixed gender role division may have been suitable in traditional cultures but is entirely inappropriate in the modern world. It is significant to offer structural situations that would assist equal accomplice in the workplace and industry related career. Family aspect and cultural aspect had made noteworthy part to the forecast of career selection for female students. Besides that, necessary education extended convenience to technical and vocational for female in order to upgrade their skills.

Recommendations

Along with the government's assurance headed for creating opportunities for women in the country, align with the social and economic development, the National policy for Women (NPW), which was formulated in 1989 with the objective of make sure equity sharing in the way of gaining of resources, knowledge and gain opportunities and advantages for the progress in equally men and women. Furthermore, Malaysia had proposed for setting up an Institute for the empowerment of women such as Non Aligned Movements (NAM) in Malaysia to ensure women's development and empowerment which is aligned with the Millennium Development Goal such as “Achieve universal primary education “and “Promote gender equality and empower women”

In contract, with women's population, which is nearly half from the total population yet their labour force, participant is comparatively low. Efforts should be undertaken in order to mobilize this available pf resource, thus increasing the supply o female labour force. As we know the Private sector contribute largest employer in Malaysia It is important for their to facilities women employees. On the other hand, the Employment Act 1995 should be reversed again and it should include flexible working arrangements in order women to integrate career with household duties.

Finally more education and training opportunities should be provided for them to meet the demand of knowledge based economy as well as facilitate upward mobility. This is crucial issues because it will prepare them to enjoy high paying professional and support them to follow non-traditional field of education.

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