Discussion On Assessment Reliability And Action Research

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This assignment will look at the above question in three stages with part one focussing on general assessment theory and contexts and in particular the reliability and validity of national summative assessments and the formative assessment within the mathematics classroom. Part two of the assignment will focus on formative assessment and evaluation of action research undertaken for this assignment that will include a summary of the research, detailed analysis of the data along with evaluations of its effectiveness. Section 3 will be reflective, showing personal development with respect to the relevant initial teacher education (ITE) benchmarks as a result of this assignment and the associated research.

Assessment is a crucial part of any educational programme and is defined as, "the process of gathering, interpreting, recording and using information about pupils' responses to educational tasks" (Cohen et al 2004:323). It can also be explained as any process that aims to judge the extent of students' learning (Freeman & Lewis 1998:314). It should also allow time and care to be given to identifying all the learning and support needs of the person and their skills, abilities and aspirations (Beattie Committee point 2.14). Research suggests that the assessment process has the greatest single influence over the way that students orientate themselves to their learning (Cottrell 2001:116) and therefore careful consideration needs to be given to how we assess students and our role in doing that.

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The process of assessment will include a variety of tasks such as formal and informal assessments as well as the observation and questioning of pupils (Cohen et al 2004:23). It will also consider that assessment has many purposes such as; promoting learning, motivating students, monitoring progress, providing feedback, improve teaching, to aid learning and to certificate learning (Freeman & Lewis 1998:10).

In recent years there has been a significant shift in attitudes towards the function of assessment and the role it has to play in assessing learning. Traditionally assessment has been designed to catalogue ability through formal testing means and has for many been seen to be restrictive. This has mainly been due to the view that the process of assessment does not often give consideration to the process of learning but merely the recorded outcome, and for many teachers the definition of effectiveness in teaching is directly related to achievement rates (Stronge 2007). With many new suggested teaching strategies coming into play, it is important that teachers recognize and provide a variety of ways to assess student progress in order to enable learners to do their best (Merrill & Toth 2006).

It is now hoped that recent studies of assessment have paved the way for the view that an "improvement in classroom assessment will make a strong contribution to the improvement of learning" (Black & Wiliam 1998).

Formative assessment can be described as a process of assessment which "provides feedback to teachers and students on their current performances, achievements, strengths and weaknesses in such a form that it is clear what the student or teacher can do next either to improve, enhance or extend learning and achievement" (quoted in Cohen et all 2004:329). Furthermore the benefit of formative assessment is that it focuses on "deepening and furthering the learning rather than simply measuring it" (quoted in Clarke 2005:8).

In Scotland formative assessment has become a major initiative in the form of Assessment for Learning, Assessment as Learning & Assessment of Learning (Capel et al 2009:417).

Assessment for Learning can be defined as; "all those activities undertaken by teachers and/or by their students, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged" (Black and Wiliam 1998).

The second component Assessment as Learning can be defined as "part of the cycle of assessment where pupils and staff set learning goals, share learning intentions and success criteria, and evaluate their learning through dialogue and self and peer assessment" (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

The final component is Assessment of Learning which can be further explained by giving consideration to the following key points of; gathering and interpreting evidence, local moderation, National Assessments and Scottish Survey of Achievement (www.ltscotland.org.uk). Within the subject area of mathematics for example students will at the end of their course sit examinations or assessments from the National Assessment Resource resulting in certification which awards a mark or grade in relation to the subject area. This can be termed as scaffolding; "when the interweaving of formative assessment tasks towards a summative event is formalized in a course" (Dunn et all 2004:19).

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There are many effective aspects of formative assessment which a teacher can apply within a classroom setting on a daily basis. The first of these is self assessment and one way to promote this effectively is by sharing learning intentions with the learner. This will enable the learner to have a clear idea of what the teacher wants but most importantly should enable them to have a clear understanding of how to get to the desired outcome. One way of sharing learning intentions within a mathematics class would be to display the intentions on flip chart paper - where all learners can visually see what the intentions are and refer back to them as and when required. This method has been researched by Clarke (2006) who found that learners were more focussed in lessons which provide visual sharing intentions and the desired outcome.

The second way of using self assessment within a classroom is through the use of traffic lighting. This is where a learner indicates using colour whether or not they understand tasks in hand such as multiplication or division. For example a learner will be provided with a sheet outlining a variety of mathematical tasks, and in this sheet they can indicate their level of understanding by colouring the traffic light red for no understanding at all, orange for some understanding and green for a good level of understanding (Appendix 10). Through this process, learners are encouraged to individually asses their learning and can refer to their progress as the year goes on; "Students get a great deal of satisfaction when they can color a skill green, after having worked on it for a number of months" (http://tlc.ousd.K12.ca.us).

Self assessment in mathematics has proved to be a useful. Research into mathematics students found that algebra students improved in ability when provided with problems to solve for themselves (cited in Black & Wiliam 1998:30). This could therefore be further supported in providing learners with appropriate home work tasks, and constructive feedback.

An appropriate case study of this in relation to mathematics can be seen in the work of Dunn et al (2004) where an example is given by setting up small groups of students to work together and solve a problem with the teacher providing support to the groups and providing feedback when required. Students are able to work at a pace appropriate to their learning needs, support one another and with relevant appropriate feedback from the teacher achieve the task in hand. The relevance of this is explained as "each of the stages of feedback and improvement cycle is part of formative assessment" (Dunn et al 2004:18).

A study of over 500 mathematics students by Elawar & Corno (1985) found that those who were provided with written responses to homework tasks had a much more positive effect on attitudes towards mathematics than those who were merely given homework marks without comments (cited in Black & Wiliam 1998) therefore supporting further the importance of feedback in relation to the subject area of mathematics as a useful tool in aiding the learning process.

A useful extension of self assessment is peer assessment which enables learners to reflect upon their own work whilst identifying areas of improvement in a supportive environment. Furthermore this process enables learners to further understand tasks through the process of evaluating the work of others (Gipps et al 2005:8).

A final method of formative assessment is the use of effective questioning. One way to do this is to question individual students directly - however a study by Bromme & Steinberg (1994) have shown that in mathematics, teachers using this technique often interpret responses to be from the "collective" student rather than individual learners (cited in Black & Wiliam 1998:33), and therefore using a technique such as a dry wipe board can be more useful. This technique can prevent students who are more capable than others of dominating the classroom by continuously responding.

In many mathematics classes this technique can be used to adequately assess a learners understanding. This no hands up approach in class where learners are required to write down their answers using iresources such as dry wipe boards - enables the whole class to show their answers at the same enabling the teacher to assess the understanding of the entire class, rather than just individual learners.

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Summative assessment can be described as assessment of learning which "is terminal; it comes at the end of a programme and assesses" (Cohen et all 2004:329).

There are a variety of summative assessment types such as the National 4 and National 5 assessments which under the guidelines of Curriculum for Excellence will now replace Standard Grade General and Credit as well as Intermediate 1 and 2 qualifications. In order to enable learners to progress from these qualifications smoothly, Access, Higher and Advanced Higher qualifications will also be revised to "ensure that they reflect the values, purpose and principles of Curriculum for Excellence and provide good progression" (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

These assessments are designed to "allow learners to delay decisions about the level at which they will be presented as well as to encourage them to aim for the highest level of achievement" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). The qualifications furthermore will increase the flexibility of learning as well as allowing greater scope for personalisation. With these new assessments coming into play it is expected that in order to ensure reliability and validity, that "centres are expected to have internal quality assurance systems to ensure quality and consistency in their assessment decisions" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). External quality will be provided by the Scottish Qualifications Authority.

The internal quality process focuses on the judgement of teachers and their reports along with National Assessments, moderation and a sharing of standards. Externally the process involves surveys of achievement, National Qualifications such as those provided by the Scottish Qualifications Authority, international studies and HMI inspections and reports of local authorities and schools (www.scotland.gov.uk). Processes such as these are vital in ensuring that assessment is a valid and reliable process in our education system today; "Judgements about children's and young people's learning need to be dependable. This will mean that assessments are valid and reliable" (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

Validity in the process of assessment is defined as "ensuring that the assessment in fact assesses what it purports to assess and provides a fair representation of the student's performance" (Cohen et al 2004:334). In order to ensure that assessments are valid, staff must ensure that; "assessment tasks and activities closely match the intended outcomes" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). This will therefore require teachers to match activities closely to the ITE benchmarks. This will further ensure that assessments are fit for purpose and meet the specifications of the qualifications and awards being offered (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

The reliability of assessments is described as; " an important issue given the significant role of teachers in formal assessments and examinations" (Cohen et al 2004:331), and can be defined as " an index of consistency and dependability of marking practices and standards" (Cohen et al 2004:331). The Curriculum for Excellence framework defines reliability as; " high quality evidence and information that is comparable" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). For teaching staff this means that instructions to learners must be clear, and marking of work consistent between staff (www.ltscotland.org.uk). According to the Curriculum for Excellence reliability and consistency of assessments can be "improved through participation in moderation which is the process by which teachers share standards and expectations" (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

Marking guidelines for assessments are provided by the Scottish Qualifications Authority the National Assessment Resource. Within the Scottish Government publication Assessment for Curriculum for Excellence: strategic vision and key principles, it is outlined that within Curriculum for Excellence the National Assessment Resources "will help teachers to achieve consistency and understanding in their professional judgements" (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

This professional judgment is highly important in the process of assessment as the locus of responsibility during the marking process will lie with the examiner or marker, and therefore the formality of marking guidelines should ensure that the process is fair. Cohen et al (2004) outline several threats to the reliability of assessments; primarily being errors in marking including different markers giving varied marks for a similar piece of work and also markers either being too lenient or too harsh during the marking process. If the process is to be trusted and reliable, it is important that teachers follow marking guidelines correctly and that the process of moderation takes place to ensure transparency.

The marking of students work as a reliable process should enable teachers to provide feedback and enable all students to achieve success and focus on achievement rather than just ability - thus enabling all learners to deepen their subject knowledge if given enough time and the opportunity to do so (Clarke 2005:12).

As a marker it is important to recognise that results of an assessment do not give the learner advice on how to improve, do not identify areas for personal improvement and for low achievers can be a de-motivator and for high achievers can provide no challenge (Hodgen & Wiliam 2006). Therefore open dialogue with learners is an important part of the assessment process in ensuring reliability. It will demonstrate transparency and evidence the reliable process that has taken place in using the marking guidelines. It will also enable the teacher to encourage learners to be reflective, identify errors for themselves and extend their existing knowledge (Hodgen & Wiliam 2006).

Curriculum for Excellence: Framework for Assessment has been designed to create "a more effective assessment system which supports greater breadth and depth of learning and a greater focus on skills development" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). The key messages from this document in terms of reliability and validity are that consistency will be ensured by the Scottish Government and local education authorities. This will be achieved by local education authorities ensuring that "schools in their area are consistently applying national standards and expectations" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). Staff will also be provided with adequate professional development - particularly for the National Assessment Resource in order to ensure the consistent application of standards. Self - evaluation will be a vital process and here ITE benchmarks will be applied and monitored over time through initiatives such as the revised Scottish Survey of Achievement where the results from our Scottish schools will be compared with other national and international schools - enabling teachers to compare our performance with that of others (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

Partnership working will be vital in Scottish Education and in particular during the application of Curriculum for Excellence. For schools to have credibility in their learners achievements - assessment needs to be valid and reliable; "As part of planning, staff should build in opportunities to discuss and share assessment approaches and expectations with colleagues to ensure their appropriateness for the intended outcome (validity) and that they are fairly and consistently applied for all learners (reliability). Such sharing and reflection will develop staff's common understanding of the outcomes and criteria for arriving at sound evaluations of learning" (www.ltscotland.org.uk).

Section B

As part of this assignment action research was to be undertaken in relation to the application of specific formative assessment approaches for a sequence of Teaching Placement One lessons. Before undertaking the action research for this assignment, I first took a look at what elements of Assessment is for Learning (AifL) was currently being implemented within the mathematics department of the school. The department did not seem to implement many of the AifL approaches on a departmentally wide basis, however a few teachers used some techniques independently. Examples of these techniques were mainly using wrong answers to stimulate discussion and starter questions. After observing the techniques used within the department I decided to trial two AifL techniques. The first was to share the learning intentions with the class before each lesson and also include the success criteria to ensure that the class knew exactly what was expected of them. Clarke states that this is a useful technique as "too often children know the learning intention, but not how the teacher is going to judge the performance." (Clarke 2006:22).

The second technique I was going to apply was to have the pupils undertake the process of self evaluation by using the traffic lighting assessment technique. This technique is a useful example provided by Dylan Wiliams which enables learners to "show understanding of a concept so far, green = I got it, Amber = still unsure and red = haven't got a clue" (www.school-portal.co.uk).

The mathematics department at the school do not formally share the learning intentions of each lesson with the pupils but research has found that once children have access to the success criteria it will enable them to ensure appropriate focus, clarify understanding, identify success, determine difficulties, discuss strategies for improvement and reflect on progress (Clarke 2005).

The year group for this research was first year, a mixed ability class that I would have more flexibility in teaching. In addition to this, the learning intentions would be specific enough at this level to generally have single success criteria for each learning intention.

For this research, each pupil would be given a "Learning Objective" sheet (see Appendix A) at the start of each lesson in which they would fill in their name, the date and copy the learning objectives from the whiteboard. This would allow the pupils to clearly see what they should understand by the end of the lesson.

In addition to copying the learning objectives down at the start of the lesson, the pupils would be required to review each of the learning objectives and assess how well they think they understood them at the end of the lesson. This would take the form of traffic lighting each learning objective with green meaning they fully understood the learning objective, amber showing they understood it but still required some practice or a little assistance and red meaning they struggled to understand it and required more practice or teaching.

The traffic lighting brought in the second AifL technique of self assessment. "Self assessment has an essential role to play in formative practice" (Hodgen & Wiliam 2006:21) and can provide essential feedback to the teacher on how the lesson has went as "only the learner can do the learning" (Hodgen & Wiliam 2006:21). Without having feedback from pupils on lessons, teachers can have a confused view of how the lesson has been received, and can often form misconceptions about the success of the lesson in hand.

However, once in the department I found that it was impossible to source red, amber and green pencils, pens or stickers and had to adapt the "Learning Objective" sheet and include a table at the bottom that included three levels: "I can complete with ease", "I can complete with some assistance" and "I don't understand this and need more practice". The pupils would then place a tick against the appropriate level for each learning objective. This added an extra level of complexity that I was trying to avoid when introducing self assessment as with the introduction of any new technique pupils require training which would be difficult to undertake during a four lesson sequence. Adapting the method of self assessment although inconvenient, it was none the less important as learners need to be actively involved in the formative assessment process by "demonstrating their knowledge and understanding through a wide range of evidence including specific assessment tasks and activities" (www.ltscotland.org.uk). The Learning Objective sheet can be found in Appendix B

As part of the research I wanted pupils to have a week (four lessons) of me teaching them rather than their normal class teacher. So after a week of teaching the pupils using their normal class teachers' routine, I introduced the research.

The research was started during the fourth week of my placement due to timetable issues, year tests and in-service days / holidays and was completed in week five after a period of four lessons. The lessons were planned to cover mathematical elements of time including timetables and measuring time, using both traditional and active learning, aiming to incorporate as many teaching techniques as possible within the four lesson block.

I took 10 minutes during the first lesson to discuss the research with the pupils and the introduction of the learning objective sheets. This open dialogue with the pupils went well as it enabled them to have a clear overview of their work and what was expected of them. This is an important issue in the process of self assessment as outlined by Black & Harrison (2001:2).

The learning objective sheets were individualised and were given out to the relevant pupil before each class and taken in at the end of each lesson by the teacher in order to ensure confidentiality.

In order to include time during the lesson for the completion of the learning objective sheets and self assessment, the usual practice of starter questions was stopped for the four lesson sequence. I feel this had a negative impact with the higher achieving pupils, who looked forward to starting each class with questions. These pupils usually focussed on the starter questions quickly and settled into the class without issue. With this being on hold they seemed less interested in the learning objective sheets, taking as long as the other pupils to settle and focus.

I also found an unexpected benefit from collecting the learning objective sheets in after every class. By reviewing them, it helped me as the teacher gain valuable feedback on how the lesson went. The sheets allowed me to review my lesson plans and accurately see how well the pupils were progressing in achieving the learning objectives. This process of reflection was vital for me during my first placement as I fully understood the importance of providing timely constructive feedback to the pupils in order for them to progress - something which is highlighted as important by Marzano, Pickering & Pollock 2001 as cited in Harmin et al (2006:10).

In order to assess the successfulness of the research, a questionnaire was developed and would be issued to the pupils at the conclusion of the research (see Appendix C). This would ask three main questions in order to asses; the clarity of what the pupils were expected to learn before and during the research, whether the self assessment assisted the pupils in where to focus study or practice and whether the self assessment helped the teacher focus the teaching within the following lesson. The questionnaire was completed anonymously by the pupils to try to ensure honesty.

I would expect the research to show an improvement in lesson clarity for the pupils and increased focused learning, concentrating on sections that the pupils identified as problem areas.

The results of the questionnaires are detailed in the next section of this paper.

The first question asked was "Before this research was started, how well did you understand what you were expected to learn during class?". The pupils were to then score on a five point scale from "Completely Understood" (1) to "Didn't Understand At All" (5). This is a baseline for assessing the impact of the research and it was clearly expressed to the pupils that this was only for the four lesson sequence taught by myself prior to the research starting.

11 of the 17 pupils (65%) surveyed scored this question either 4 or 5 indicating they felt they understood the content of the lesson before the research began. 4 of the 17 pupils (24%) scored this question 3 indicating a neutral response while the remaining 2 pupils (11%) scored the question either 1 or 2 showing they did not understand the lesson content. The chart below shows the results for question 1.

The second question asked was "Do you feel by copying down the Learning Objectives, you better understood what you should be learning?". Again, the pupils were to score on a five point scale from "Better Understood" (1) to "More Confused" (5).

9 of the 17 pupils (53%) surveyed scored this question either 4 or 5 indicating they felt they understood better with the sharing of the learning intentions. Three of the pupils (18%) scored this question a 3 indicating a neutral response and no change from their views from question 1. Five of the pupils (29%) scored either a 1 or 2 showing they were more confused after the introduction of the research from the baseline.

The chart below shows the results for question 2.

The third question asked was "Do you feel the table at the bottom of the learning objective sheet (How well did I understand) helped you focus on where you need to do more study?". Again, the pupils were to score on a five point scale from "Really Helped" (1) to "More Confused" (5).

8 of the 17 pupils (47%) surveyed scored this question either 4 or 5 indicating they felt the self assessment helped them focus on where then needed to revise. Five of the pupils (29%) scored this question a 3 indicating a neutral response. Four of the pupils (24%) scored either a 1 or 2 showing they were more confused after the self assessment.

The chart below shows the results for question 3.

The fourth question asked was "Do you feel the table at the bottom of the learning objective sheet (How well did I understand) helped the teacher focus on where more work is required?". Again, the pupils were to score on a five point scale from "Really Helped" (1) to "More Confused" (5).

11 of the 17 pupils (65%) surveyed scored this question either 4 or 5 indicating they felt the self assessment helped the teacher focus on where more work was required. Six of the pupils (35%) scored this question a 3 indicating a neutral response. None of the pupils scored either a 1 or 2.

The chart below shows the results for question 4.

Two additional questions were asked in the survey, one asking for improvements or changes the pupils could suggest to the learning objectives sheets and whether they completed the self assessment honestly.

Two pupils of the 17 surveyed said they did not undertake the self assessment truthfully. This was a surprise as it was assumed that by collecting the sheets personally at the end of each class, this would reduce embarrassment for pupils and would encourage honesty in their responses.

Clarke suggests that once children have access to the learning intentions and success criteria it should enable them to ensure appropriate focus, clarify understanding, identify success, determine difficulties, discuss strategies for improvement and reflect on progress (Clarke 2005). This suggests that the four lesson research should see an increase in understanding and focus from the pupils, however as previously mentioned, the focus of the higher achieving pupils seemed to diminish certainly during the first five minutes of each lesson.

The results of the survey show that over half the pupils (53%) felt that the introduction of the learning objectives helped clarify what they should be learning during the lesson while 29% felt they were more confused about what they should be learning. This shows that while the majority of pupils saw a benefit (or no change - 18% of pupils), there was an adverse impact on some students. Perhaps this was due to the very short period of time that the research was undertaken or perhaps it was how the learning objectives were explained however this should be considered when implementing this method and further research would be required.

As similar result was found after analysing how the pupils responded to how well the self assessment focussed them on where they require more practice. Around half of the pupils (47%) felt the self assessment they undertook helped them focus n areas they required more practice on, while 24% felt they were more confused about what areas required more revision. This shows that while the research improved the learning experience for around half the pupils, for about a quarter of them, the experience was worse than the benchmark.

A more significant result came from how the pupils assessed the impact of the teaching style based on the results of the pupils self assessment. About two thirds of pupils (65%) felt the teacher used the pupil assessment to refocus the following lesson, reinforcing the learning. It should be noted that the remaining pupils (35%) felt there was no change in how the teacher focussed the learning and none of the pupils felts there was a negative impact.

The pupils were asked for suggestions on how the research could have been improved with several interesting responses. The majority of pupils (13 of the 17) said they would not want any changes to the learning objectives sheets they were issued with. Two of the remaining four responses suggested changing the tables on the sheets, indicating they were too complicated for some pupils to understand. This was an initial fear I had when the traffic lighting was impossible to implement, while traffic lighting would produce similar results in terms of self assessment, it may prove to me more simple and straightforward for the pupils to complete. The remaining two pupils suggested changing the self assessment to include happy or sad faces, another form of self assessment.

One pupil suggested changing the single learning objective sheets into a booklet or jotter and I feel that should this research have lasted longer than the single week then a booklet would have been a better, more structured approach giving the pupils more "buy in" and ownership.

On the whole, the research indicates that sharing learning intentions and having the pupils undertake self assessment will result in more focused learning and better understanding. However, more research over longer periods and more year groups would be required to increase the validity and reliability of the current results.

SECTION C

This assignment and associated action research has helped my professional development over so many of the Initial Teacher Education (ITE) benchmarks.

ITE benchmark 1.1.1 requires student teachers to "know how to match the level of the curriculum and subject(s) to the needs of pupils". One thing that came out of the research undertaken was my increased knowledge of the curriculum by writing lesson plans for these classes and ensuring the learning objectives set for the pupils met the course content from both Curriculum for Excellence and the 5 - 14 framework. These documents were key for me to understand what should be taught and learned during each lesson.

By introducing the self assessment part of the research to the pupils I have progressed against ITE benchmark 1.1.2 which states that teachers should "... show commitment to raising these pupils' expectations of themselves and others". With the introduction of the self assessment, the pupils have had the chance to assess their current learning and knowledge and using this as a starter point for their expectations. I gave individual feedback to the pupils based on their self assessment, showing where they need practice and encouraging when pupils said they struggled, ensuring they know the learning objectives were achievable, even to those who had low self confidence.

Student teachers should "know how to access and apply relevant findings from educational research" and "engage appropriately in the systematic investigation of practice" (ITE benchmark 1.3.2) was a key benchmark that I was working towards during this action research project. Studying and reviewing AifL techniques and research others have conducted gave me a good starting point for my own research while undertaking specific, methodical research ensured that I progressed toward this benchmark confidently.

ITE benchmark 2.1.1 requires teachers to "Plan coherent, progressive teaching programmes which match their pupils' needs and abilities, and justify what they teach" and this was another key benchmark that I progressed towards during this assignment. Using the pupils self assessment tables helped me plan changes to the next lesson and in one instance, stopped the planned sequence of lessons and revisited one of the lessons. In that case the pupils were supposed to complete a journey and timetable related investigation but during the lesson I had my concerns that the pupils were coping with the task and after reviewing their self assessments it was clear that the pupils struggled to understand. The following lesson on measuring time accurately was then postponed to allow for an additional lesson on timetables.

It is a requirement for teachers to "demonstrate the ability to evaluate and justify the approaches taken to learning and teaching and their impact on pupils" (ITE benchmark 2.1.3) and through the process of undertaking this research I have I have taught both with and without sharing the learning objectives at the start of each class. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages but I feel the research has shown the sharing the learning objectives at the beginning of each lesson is beneficial.

I have also used formative assessment to measure how the pupils have achieved and the pupils have used self assessment. I feel a mixture of both methods will benefit both myself and pupils in the future and I will be employing both methods in my teaching practice.

ITE benchmark 2.1.4 states that teachers should "demonstrate that they are able to encourage pupils to take initiatives in, and become responsible for, their own learning". This was a big part of the research undertaken during placement and trying to get pupil "buy in" was, I felt, key to ensuring the research had a good opportunity to succeed. Having the pupils understand that their input and views would be important and will influence how they were taught was a big part in getting the pupils involved and understanding that if they complete the self assessment honestly and truthfully then it will benefit them and their experience in the class room.

Appendices

Name _________________________________________________

Date ______________________ Period ________________

Learning Objectives

LO1 _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

My understanding (Traffic lights)

LO2 _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

My understanding (Traffic lights)

LO3 _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

My understanding (Traffic lights)

Name _________________________________________________

Date ______________________ Period ________________

Learning Objectives

LO1 _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

LO2 _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

LO3 _________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

How did I progress towards the Learning Objectives?

After today's lesson

Learning Objective

LO1

LO2

LO3

I can complete with ease

I can complete with some assistance

I don't understand this and need more practice

Before next lesson

Learning Objective

LO1

LO2

LO3

I can complete with ease

I can complete with some assistance

I don't understand this and need more practice

The last four mathematics lessons have all identified the Learning Objectives to you at the start of the lesson. This is a short survey to see how this method of teaching has impacted on you as a pupil.

Before this research was started, how well did you understand what you were expected to learn during class?

Completely understood Didn't understand at all

1 2 3 4 5

Do you feel by copying down the Learning Objectives from the board at the start of the lesson, you better understood what you should be learning?

Better Understood More confused

1 2 3 4 5

Do you feel the table at the bottom of the Learning Objectives form (How well I did I understand) helped you focus on where you needed to do more study?

Really helped More confused

1 2 3 4 5

Do you feel the table at the bottom of the Learning Objectives form (How well I did I understand) helped the teacher focus on where more work is required?

Really helped More confused

1 2 3 4 5

Did you complete the tables truthfully?

Yes No

Are there any improvements you would make to the Learning Objectives sheet to make it more useful to you?