Different Views And Perspectives Education Essay

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Critical Reflection gives us the opportunity to create further insight within our work by developing a deeper reflection on the experiences that we faced. It is a process (Kahn et al., 2006, p. 5; Taylor, 2006, p. 197) to maintain continuous learning and to develop a personal awareness (Watson, 2008). Furthermore, it helps us consider other perspectives from theories and individuals. This consideration can include the practice of reflective writing in order to capture ideas from diaries, journals, logs and people, which deepens our abilities to learn at work and in every aspect of our life.

Argyris and Schon's (1974) argue the people have plans or sort of a map about how to deal in certain situations. This also involves the process of planning, implementing and reviewing the actions . The notion of using methods in reflection was developed upon the theory of action by Chris Argyris early research into the relationship between the organization and individuals (Argyris 1957, 1962, 1964). Therefore, Argyris and Schon suggest the involvement of two theories of action. Firstly is the Theories-in-use that governs the actual behaviour to contain assumptions about ourselves, the environment and others as a part of everyday life. Secondly, the espoused theory which is the words used to convey a message about what we do or what we like other to think we do. Argyris (1980) thinks that a real effectiveness of the two theories can be gained from the congruence between them. Thus, the role of reflection is essential where it focused on exploring feelings, thought and actions with the gulf between theory-in-use and espoused theory.

As a result, there was a search for other means of the action theories which was introduced by Argyris et al. (1985). A single-loop learning to merely change the actions in order to lead to the same outcomes where values, goals and frameworks are taken for granted. In contrast, the double- loop learning doesn't require alternative actions by reflecting on norms, values that involves questioning to role of learning to underlie the real goals of reflection.

Accordingly, different views and perspectives are found about critical reflection (Ghaye and Lillyman, 2000, p.33). Schon (1983) is one of the classic authors in reflective subjects, and he distinguished between the "reflection in action" and "reflection on action". The reflection in action happens in response to an event or experience. The reflection on action happens when looking back to a past event or experience. Greenwood (1993) thinks that Schon's reflective practice fails to consider the important role of reflection-before-action which involves of thinking what needs to be done before doing it, in order to prevent errors. With Greenwoods third component, there was also a missing point that came in the shape of a fourth component in Boud (1992) work. Boud thinks that capturing the experience and enjoying its positive and negative feeling must be accompanied with a phase of re-evaluations to relate what was learnt from that significant experience.

Looking back into the purpose of reflective practices Schon's (1983) also thinks that reflection can be used to fill the gap between practice and theory, and reveal more practical knowledge. it has already been observed above that Argyris and Schon( ) view it as a creation of a world where people faithfully reflect on their values and beliefs through revising of action theories Schon (1983, 1987) and Argyris et al. (1985). Moreover, according to them double-loop learning is important to consider, because the creation of better social and practical realities need a proper action redesign. Ertmer and Newby (1996, p. 18) also argued the importance of refection to transform the knowledge which has been gained from in and on action into another knowledge used for action.

Tapping into Taylor (2006, p. 15) work we can form a general understanding to three types of reflection which were introduced by him:

(1) Technical Reflection: Accompanies empirical knowledge and scientific reasoning to look at clinical practices and procedures.

(2) Practical Reflection: Making sense and meaning of human experience.

(3) Emancipating Reflection: Regards power relationships between people in the workplace which leads to "transformative action" or change.

However, the practical reflection is the most commonly used method at work circumstances and in higher education, though in practice these three sorts are expected to join or overlap creating good framework to deliver a proper critical reflection.

D.A.R.E is a good example for a frameworks that provides a critical approach to reflect in details on our experience while covering all the aspect of double-loop learning and reflection on action. It also provides four steps to describe the incidents that we face in details. These steps are describe, Analyse, reflect, evaluate. McCarthy (2000).


I was full of excitement as I sat to take the MBTI with my body full of anxiety while waiting for the outcome. I read each question carefully while sitting in a quiet room and paying attention to the choices where more than an answer could fit. As I completed the test, I felt more anticipation to see my result. The result was "ENFJ", which is quite acceptable for me after analyzing its meaning.

I would normally see myself as a thinker and that is why I took this test to see how far it would match my character. So In regards to my type, the E indicates that I am driven by the outer world, activities and people. The N says that I evaluate information through intuitions. The F means that I use my feeling to make decision and eventually the J has affection on the lifestyle that I want to live. Accordingly, surprising was the manner in which I sat down to take the type indicator would fall nicely in line with my results because it was impressively accurate compared to my expectations.

I am generally chosen to be planner for group activities, what has later become a joke between my friends that I hold organizational skills. This explains the E indicator where I am able to plan and complete multiple tasks without facing many difficulties. This also helps me socialize and enjoy my time with others when in many occasions I was referred as a great time manager.

The "Intuition (N) Preference for taking information through a sixth sense and noting what might be" (Hirsh and Kummerow 1-3) was the most surprising result for me, until I read its effect of preference in many work circumstances which started to make more sense to me. It helps to make fast decision in critical working situations. Moreover, I like solving complicated issues and learning new things that help me through these challenges. An example is taking a step of traveling to UK to gain a higher education. This will help me come out of the third world country Lebanon into a more critical and reflective ways of thinking, which will helps me boost my life and career to an upper level.

Armed with this new information about my intuitive character, I am planning to work on the pitfalls of my result. I will do this by learning to approach more objectively to criticism and strengthen myself by taking various opinions from others about myself. I will also try to make use of my intuitive abilities in event management which needs faster and better decision making when an event is going on. Overall, I am satisfied with the results of MBTI and the possibility to identify my strong and weak points of practice in working situations.

Hirsh, Sandra, and Jean Kummerow. Introductions to Type in Organizations. Third. 1-3. Print

Johari Reflection

Completing the Johari window assignment was an interesting task because I ended up with result that described my personality perfectly. I enjoyed with the Johari lesson because it gave me the opportunity to use phrases or key words that can best describe my personality and my lifestyle. It was provoking my thoughts to know how my family and friends were picking the word to describe me by identifying it through this personality test.

With Johari Windows I noticed how my friends used to see me, independent, proud, mature, kind, silly, proud, independent, etc. Surprisingly I never expected all these words that others might see me in. Their Thought about me was more about other concepts of everyday life like appearance, feelings and social traits. Some other words I chose were also identifying me as a caring person who likes to be happy and goal oriented.

Discovering these words I agree that these factors that contribute in my personality. So from Johari Windows I understood that the importance is to know the level of confidence that I built in myself which is part of my social background. I also assessed myself to higher up the values where people can use to invest more trust in me.

Using and reading about Johari Windows has also helped me learn about the facts that take a part in developing a better communication skills and relationship in various environments. Accordingly, this will also help to solve key problems at work, home and school. For example, I used to own an internet cafe where people from different backgrounds and cultures used to visit. I had many difficulties establishing a proper communication with them, but after identifying key issues in my personality I can easily address these problems without getting stressed or distressing others.

Finally, Johari windows is a very important lessons to built self-esteem about who we are, how we see ourselves and how other see us. Personality is one of the main factor of life where all the social and behavioural patterns combine to form a lifestyle and interpersonal communication skills. I have learnt that I need to gather more confident in myself by knowing the real me and by analyzing my strong and weak points. In the future I will make sure of paying a better attention to these words that convey a clear message of who am I and how people would like to see me.