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There is no single definite defination of intelligence, over the year's researchers and philosophers have all defined intelligence in there own understanding supported by the facts they tend to accompany to the concept of intelligence in human beings. Intelligence has been defined as the ability to use the once mind to solve the day to day problems by some while others say that intelligence is the ability to have an abstract thought and effectively solve problems. There was the belief that intelligence was passed from one generation to the other, that is it was passed from the parent to the children and that it was constant, with more studies it was observed that intelligence in people varied depending on the environment influence that they were exposed to(Sigelman & Rider,2008).
The researchers had different approach to intelligence, for instance, the traditional approach led to the establishment of standard ways of testing a person's intelligence, this approach was known as psychometric approach. In this approach intelligence was considered as a trait used to determine the character of a person, depending on the intelligence each person has, people can be differentiated. A major contributor to a person's performance in class was observed to be the general intelligence, people with this type of intelligence are observed to perform better in the class subjects thought they are observed to have little memory of words (Sigelman & Rider, 2008).
The special ability intelligence is present in every person and the different kinds of the special intelligence are related to specified duties. This is the kind of intelligence that helps identify the people strength or weaknesses. In the case where the special intelligence performs so effectively in the duty that it is supposed to perform, that translates to the person having that particular function as his strength and in the case that the performance a function by this kind of intelligence is poor then a person will have it as his weakness.
There are two major dimensions of intelligence, this include, fluid intelligence in which the ability of a person to solve the novel problems is natural, that is, it is not derived into the person by an y means. The skill involves reasoning, drawing conclusion and relating the occurrence of certain activities to the stimuli that triggers them. For example, identifying relationships between deferent of geometric figures, memories of different unrelated words and solving verbal correlations (Sigelman & Rider, 2008).
The kind of knowledge that is acquired in school or through experience is the second dimension of intelligence, it is known as the crystallized intelligence. Crystallized intelligence plays a very important role in the solving of general information tests search as the knowledge of the suns temperature, getting the meaning from words, such as, what is the meaning of the word intelligent and improvements in a person's numerical activities. Therefore we may conclude that fluid intelligence involves the ability of a person to use his mind in a situation that has never occurred to him before and perfectly finding a solution to it while crystallized intelligence is majorly involves the use of ones mind in problems that one already has an idea of it (Sigelman & Rider, 2008)
Intelligence can be studied using various abilities, such as the analytic ability. Analytic ability is a very important aspect of intelligence, an intelligent person solves problems, the analytic ability will enable a person to identify a problem, once the problem is identified then the same ability will help determine the magnitude of the problem. The analytic ability helps a person design a solution to a problem and observed the progress of the solution most of all analytic ability helps one identify the available chances and once identified then it enables the person to take the best of the chances and utilize them maximally (Weiner et all,2008).
The ability to be creative plays a very vital role in the intelligence of a person; creative ability enables a person to design a solution that works reliably and perfectly. Creative ideas enable a person to get so much out of so little. A creative person gets a small idea and then develops it into a bigger and better idea. The research that have been carried out indicate that the conventional IQ is almost partially related to creativity though that creativity is domain based, that is, that a person may be creative in a specified field say art while at the same time having no idea on a different field say science (Weiner et all,2008).
The practical ability is very essential in the implementation of solutions and making them work. The application of intelligence work in areal work content entails the practical ability. A very important t aspect of practical ability is the gaining and application of implied knowledge, which is the knowledge that one is required to have in order to be successful in a given environment, this knowledge is usually not taught neither is it verbalized but one just acquires in adapting to a given environment.
There are several forms of intelligences which include:
This involves ones sensitivity to written and spoken language, it also involves the ability to study and understand a given language then employ the language to attain to some given target.
Logical mathematical intelligence
This involves the ability to study problems realistically and carrying out mathematical solutions to them. It also involves the logical thought of issues and identification of given regular frequency of the occurrence. This further involves the designing of better solution to the various problems.
It involves the performance skills, the composition and the admiration of musical notes. It also involves the understanding and ability to compose musical rhythms and may also include the ability to identify the deferent kinds of music styles.
Bodily Kinesthetic intelligence
Here the ability of one to employ parts or the whole of his body is considered. Body movements are coordinated by ones mental abilities in order that some specific goals are achieved, be it entertainment or physical exercises.
The space patens differ and it may require some adoption in order that the space is utilized fully. This is therefore the ability to use space effectively.
It involves the ability of a person to understand other people in relation to their intension, needs and motivations. It may also involve the ability of a person to interact freely with the society in a way that avoids commotions.
It involves the ability of a person to understand himself, his motivations, needs, feelings and fears. It also helps a person to know his strength and his weakness therefore making him concentrate on improving on both. (Sigelman & Rider, 2008).
The study of intelligence has helped great deal in education. In the past before the extensive study of intelligence, the curriculum used in schools was not favorable for the learners, with increased researches in the understanding of intelligence wonderful curriculum have been made and are now used in schools for a better learning process. The understanding of intelligence has enabled people with different capabilities to be identified, their capabilities have been natured through the induction of desirable material into them and we have seen this unique capabilities being very useful in various fields. The approach that was taken by he teachers in the past has been changed so that the material that is taught matches the mental capabilities and understanding of the students so that whatever the student are taught is useful.
Not every person have the same intelligence levels, the capabilities of people vary and thus it may be possible to differentiate people by using their mental capabilities, age however does not affect the mental capabilities of a person. Most of the intelligence in a person is obtained through the person's interaction with the environment while a very small part of it is natural. Intelligence plays a very important role in education; it is almost obvious that an intelligent person will pass his exams in school while that that is not intelligent may not perform very well in school (Sigelman & Rider, 2008).
The research by Haward appreciated the fact the intelligence was key in problem solving, he further appreciates that by the different intelligence level people can be isolated, he believes that because the existence of idiots savants, geniuses and other types of people. Haward use various other criteria in understanding peoples intelligence, he believed that through the core operations, a development of history as well as defined performances, evolutional history, the support from experimental emotional task, the psychometrical observations and vulnerable encoding in a sign system intelligence would be well understood.
Haward further thought that the various forms of intelligence would be subdivided in the following ways, that is, linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence were very essential in schools. The physical kinesthetic intelligence, musical intelligence as well as spatial intelligence was of great importance to arts. Personal intelligence entailed inter and intrapersonal intelligence. The seven intelligences are believed to be working simultaneously and it may not be so easy to separate intelligence from the other because in their operation they tend to co ordinate with one another.
Most educators did appreciate the work of Haward of multiple intelligences; however, most of the academic philosophers did not appreciate his work. Teachers in the schools have used the suggestions by Haward and the results have been wonderful. Haward suggested that the approach to teaching should focus on intelligence at a time, that the educators should focus on deeper understanding and the curium used should be flexible. Further he suggests that intelligence is linked to morality, because an intelligent person knows what is write and that which is wrong and through intellectual people that world would be a better place in the near future (Sigelman & Rider, 2008).
The research by Gardner on multiple intelligence rejected the fact that intelligence of a person is all based in their IQ. Gardner argues that there are several other intelligences that are important but are neglected by the pioneers of uniform tests. He understood that every person had his are of strength and weakness depending on the kind of intelligence he had in abundance. Gardner further believed in the existence of the following intelligence in every human; Linguistic intelligence, logical mathematical intelligence, Musical intelligence, spatial intelligence, body physical intelligence, inter and intrapersonal intelligence and finally naturalist intelligence (Brody, 1992).
We realize that the research by Gardner is almost the same in findings with the research carried out by Haward only that Gardner proposes the existence of the naturalist intelligence in addition to the other seven mentioned by Howard. Gardner believes that the naturalist intelligence is the familiarization of a person with the natural world of both the plants and the animals.
The standardized IQ test was ob served to concentrate majorly on the linguistic and the logical mathematical intelligence and partial concentration on the spatial intelligence, this was because the IQ test was probably designed to test the intelligence that the western nations concentrate on. The other kinds of intelligence apart from the ones mentioned are neglected; this therefore makes the accuracy of the IQ test to be in doubt considering the fact that the rest of the intelligence to play a substantial role in person intelligence. Gardner puts forth evidence to show that each of the mentioned intelligence is distinct, according to Cloninger (2004) Treffert suggests that each person has one or more intelligence that is dominant in him and may also have some of the intelligence being passive, for this reason, person can be perfect in a given ability yet poor in a deferent on, this was further elaborated by the servant syndrome, in which people that were considered mentally retarded were observed to be exception in performing some duties. He further found out that each form of intelligence had its own course of development. Gardner agrees that by knowing the intelligences in a human then a better approach can be devised to help in learning process.
Sternberg (2006) identified the theory of triarchic intelligence which put emphasis on three features of intelligence characters namely, the contextual aspect, the experimental aspects and finally the information processing aspect. Sternberg made the observation that according to the contextual aspect, the intelligence of person was affected by the cultural and social environment where it is portrayed. He disagrees with the fact that intelligence is not affected by the age of a person, in fact he suggests the historical period and the age of a person does affect his intelligence.
According to Millon (2003), Spearman put forth a two factor theory after his research to explain the human intelligence, according to his theory, the intelligence of a person was dependant on two factors which he called the general factor (g) and the specific factor (s). The proposal of Spearman was supported by the results of the data that was analyzed by a technique that was discovered by him based on statistics the one he called the factor analysis, which was used to determine the latent sources of a personal differences that resulted in the variation of performance in the tests. In the analysis of the correlation matrix, Spearman observed that the general factor was present in the entire test but the specific factor was unique to the given tests. He suggested that the general factor was the base energy of intelligence but this fact was not clearly discussed.
The research by Sir Godfrey Thomson asserted that it was a possibility for a person to have a specific/Psychometric factor (s) in the absence of the general factor (g). Thomson believed that the general factor g did exist but it was a possibility for a person to have the specific factor inn the absence of the general factor. The general factor he said might have come about as a result of bonding. The various test might have required the same form of mental skill, given that the different people tackle the same question then the way of response may have some similarities because of that, the general factor was observed in common. The bonds were not clearly explain by Thomson but his argument might suggest that the common factors that are included in the answering of questions include reading understanding and responding to the questions (Millon, 2003).
The research by Louis Thurstone used the idea of factor analysis in understanding multiple intelligences, he felt that it was a mistake to live the axes of the factorial solutions unturned, and he therefore thought that the solutions obtained by Thomson were psychologically random. He suggested the rearrangement of the simple structures so that the degree of the load of the questions were included instead of the earlier research method where there were many moderate questions, Thurstone suggested that there existed various forms of intelligence which include; Verbal comprehension where one has the ability to comprehend verbal material. Verbal fluency, which was ones the ability to produce sentences or words. Number, this was the ability to do calculations. Memory, which was the ability of one to remember sentences or words. A perceptual speed was defined as the ability to promptly recognize numbers and the alphabet. Inductive reasoning which was defined as the ability of a person to reason starting from the specifics and tending to the general and finally the spatial visualization. The spatial visualization was defined the ability to visualize shapes. Thurstone argued that the so called primary mental abilities were generally basic (Millon, 2003).
The research by Haward greatly supports he fact intelligence plays an important role in education, he recons that there are many forms of intelligence and each performs a specific duty and that how dominant a part of the intelligence is goes a long way to determine the strength and weakness of a person. Haward further appreciates the fact that the logical arithmetic and the linguistic intelligence were most important kinds of intelligence in school.
The research by Haward does concur people can be identified by the intellectual capabilities; that a person may be excellent in a specified role or talents yet so poor in a different sector. The knowledge of the various intelligences has helped a great deal in the improvement of teaching approach; the teachers have designed the curriculum of the schools in a way basing on the intelligences the students are able to gain maximally.
The knowledge of the intelligence has helped in the identification of the students strong points and weak point s and therefore the teachers have been able to know the areas to concentrate on in order that the right kind if the skill is attained. In the poor educational facilities the methods of teaching emphasize on the aspects that are not suitable for some of the students or over emphasize on points that are irrelevant. Howard also appreciates the fact that the age of a person may to some extend affect his mental capability.
The research by Robert does suggest that the IQ can not be use to determine the intelligence of a person, the IQ majorly reflects the mathematical and the linguistic intelligence which are the types of intelligence that are emphasized in the westernized school. Using the IQ to determine the intelligence of a person may be insufficient because the other parts of the intelligence will have been neglected.
The intelligence of the person however has been portrayed as a very important factor in the schooling of a person. The fact that logical mathematical and linguistic intelligence are included indicates that the research does bring out the areas where the teachers have to concentrate on while teaching; Logical mathematical intelligence is the one that has been indicated as having a major importance in the mathematical calculations and understanding. Linguistic intelligence has been shown to have of major importance in the understanding of the languages that are used in the learning process. The combination of these two intelligences is of a great impact in education because most of the studies in school do concentrate about the language understanding, while the other subjects involve the understanding of mathematical calculations and formulations. For this reason the argument t t5hat a person with great intelligence will pass in the school examination is strongly supported.
The research by Sternberg concentrates on the theory of triarchic intelligence where much emphasis is put on three features of intelligence characters, that is,
The contextual aspect
In this aspect it is argued that the intelligence in a person is greatly affected by the environment that he is in, the intelligence of a person is therefore shaped by the surrounding factors that include the social and cultural surrounding. This would help in the education sector because by knowing that the environment does affect the development of intelligence in a person then the school environment would be made suitable form learning because learning is as well affected by an individual's intellect.
The experimental aspects
This aspect is very important because it helps in the experience growth, People learn through the persistent trying and this has been extensively used in schools to ensure that the practical intelligence is gained as well. This further helps in the identification of a person's strengths and weaknesses.
Information processing aspect
The information a person get requires that they are further interpreted so that a clear meaning is brought out of it. The interpretation of the information requires some kind of intelligence.
Sternberg does not agree with the fact that age does not affect the intelligence in a person, he in fact points out that even the historical period affects the intelligence in a person. The perfect example that can be used in this context is that a three year old does count from one to twenty, when he gets to five years he counts to a hundred meaning that the level of intelligence in him does change with time (Teele, 2008).
The African setting clearly shows that the environment of a place does affect the intelligence in a person, people who stay and learn in well developed schools in the urban towns do perform better than those who study in the villages where the school is under constructed. Similarly the best Universities in the world are found in the western countries so that those that are in the third world country and seek to get the best university knowledge do travel to the western countries.
The intelligence of a person in the Sternberg theory can not clearly differentiate the personality of people because he does not give details of the impacts of the various intelligences in a person.
Spearman's research put forth a two factor theory to explain the human intelligence, namely the general factor g and the specific factor s; the intelligence of a person was dependant on these factors. Factor analysis was used to prove that indeed the intelligence of as person does depend on the above factors. Spearman did argue that in responding to various problems the general factors were observed in all the attempts while the specific factor were only observed inn some specific problems. This indicated that the human intelligence is almost similar by using the explanation of the common general factor. This contradicts the earlier argument that by using the intelligence of a person then they can be differentiated.
The acquisition of person knowledge according to the Spearman's argument is dependent on the specific factor, because the specific factor of individuals was different; this further indicates that there may be a way of defining people by looking at their intelligence.
The specific factor s determines the intellectual level of a person because considering the fact that the general factor is the same for all human beings then the only way that the responses tend to differ is because of the specific factor. The response observed by the occurrence of the general factor in every person is because of the fact tat, in the initial stages of responding, the same reactions are taken, one has first ton read, reading is the same for every person and so we expect that the same process is taken at this time thus the same signals are triggered, further, the person needs to comprehend the question that he has read, at this point we expect that the understanding will almost be the same but in giving the response, that is when the opinions differ depending on the understanding of the individual hence the deference in the specific factor.
The understanding of the Spearman theory enable one understand the difference in the capabilities of different people thus may help in the formulation of better approach methods. The Spearman's theory however tries to put the implication that the intelligence in a person may be affected by their hereditary so that the some generation is known to be either geniuses or others are known to be hoodwinks (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2008).
The research by Sir Godfrey Thomson was almost similar to that that was carried out by Spearman, Like Spearman; Thomson believed that both the general and the specific factors contributed to the intelligence of a person only that it was a possibility for a person to have a Psychometric factor (s) in the absence of the general factor (g). According to Thomson it was still possible for a person to have the specific factor in the absence of the general factor thought the general factor did exist.
The Thomson model did support the fact that people would be different by using their intellectual standards, the fact that the psychometric factors are deferent throughout individuals means that their intellectual capabilities are deferent, the possibility of the general factor being present does mean that people may have the same intelligence initially that are just dormant but with learning then they develop further. This may also help in designing the better ways of teaching and thus being of importance to education.
Thurston's research suggested the existences of various intelligences. This therefore meant that depending on the dominant intelligence one was able to be identified and the identification of the strengths further helped in learning. The various forms of intelligence include; Verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, memory, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning and spatial visualization.
Robert suggested IQ alone would not be used top determine the persons intelligence. The IQ that are carried out are based on only mathematical and linguistic intelligence. The test on IQ however can be resourceful in the educational sector because they help gauge the students understanding, However the tests on the IQ can not be used to determine whether a person is intelligent or not because there are various other forms of intelligence that are not tested.
The research by Robert does support the fact that a person who is intelligent will pass the examination in school; this is because the IQ being part of the intelligence test shows that a person is intelligent in some specific parts of the intelligence.
The various researchers have positively contributed to the study of the intelligences in the human. Most of the contributions do appreciate the existence of multiple intelligence in a human beings and that the dominance of any kind of the intelligence interprets to a person having that part as his strength.
Learning process is strongly dependent on the intelligences with school learning having its major contributors as the logical mathematical intelligence and the linguistic intelligence. All the types of intelligence are important in learning. In some cases the age of a person affects the intelligence in him; however the age impact to the intelligence of a person is almost negligible for it affects only the memory
The environment greatly affects the intelligence in a person as well as the passing of a particular history. It is therefore important that the environment under which learning takes place is made as conducive as possible.
The learning process is highly dependant on the intelligences, teachers should therefore try to understand the logics behind the development of the various intelligences and use this understanding to better their teaching approach
The environment also affects the intellectual growth of individuals it is therefore mandatory that focus is given to the surrounding of learning institutions so that the environments supports positive mental growth. The basic understanding of humans is almost the same; focus should be put to nature the growth of the specific intelligence in individuals.