number of authors have set out about the influence school leadership and management has on creating an environment in which education can flourish ; " The good school ."
Maurik ( 2001 ) says " There is a difference between leadership and management. Leadership is of the spirit , compounded of personality and vision ; its practice is an art . Management is of the mind , a matter of accurate calculation ... its practice is a science . Managers are necessary ; leaders are essential."
Brighouse ( 2008 ) says " There is a world of difference between leadership and management : The first is primarily to do with planning and vision and the second with organization and provision ."There is probably a cycle in the running of any organization of planning, organizing, providing, maintaining, monitoring, evaluating and further planning ."The smaller the institution , the more it is necessary for one person to incorporate within his or her own personal functioning an ability to lead , manage and administer. In a large school , it is on the other hand crucial to know who is doing what tasks when and who has responsibility for the tasks.
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Southworth (1998 ) says " Both leadership and management are essential for effective team working and improving schools ; Leadership is more about articulating values , developing a sense of purpose and direction in a team or organization and then inspiring and motivating people to move forward together in that direction . It must embrace the long-term view. Management is more concerned with organising people to undertake successfully pre-determined shorter-term tasks in order to achieve the objectives ." A research by Gardner (1993 ) and Goleman ( 1998 ) concluded that people can have sound values , a clear vision for the future and brilliant organisational skills but , if they cannot motivate themselves and others and manage their intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships successfully , little will be achieved .
Teachers preparing for leadership are likely to have had a team leadership role , such as subject co-ordinator , key stage co-ordinator , head of department or head of the year .Southworth explains why leadership must be a shared exercise; " .... because there is much to manage and less time for any individual to lead , schools need many leaders . Today , shared school leadership is essential. for this reason heads and deputies need to work together. But if these partnerships are to ensure there is shared leadership , rather than the redistribution of management tasks , then headship must be seen as a shared exercise ."
As for Brighouse , he stated that some heads may be born with the talent of leading , planning, monitoring and evaluating . for example, they produce and enable others to produce most impressive long-term development plans: in doing so they go for highly participative , collective review in order to make sure that everyone is moving in the right direction in which the school is determined to achieve. But they may not be good at organizing and making provision for those variables such as time, books and equipment , which allow the new changes to be introduced effectively. Others may do all of that but overlook the small detailed administrative support essential for the smooth running of any activity.
There is a common agreement in the three points of views of the three authors as they assure that creating a climate for success in schools in which teams can flourish requires both leadership and management . They also concentrate on the fact that leadership is of the talent , instinct and the spirit while management is of the mind and organization . A successful leader should have a vision of articulating values , inspiring , motivating and directing his school to the right path of success within a shared leadership which requires commitment from all. But with total regard to good organization and provision . All the three authors agreed that a leader may have the talent to lead but he lacks the organizational skills and vice versa .He or she may have the organizational skills but he or she lacks the spirit of being a good leader. So a little will be achieved if the head teacher cannot have a combination of both leadership and management.
In my school in Egypt , the headmistress , before the first day of school, always takes the full responsibility of repairing and managing everything in our school (ie. Desks, boards, chairs, cleaning, providing chalk and rubbish bins inside classes ) . She is a hardworking head teacher, but some people who are in deputy refuse to help even if she paves them the path to work. While other people who are used to commitment take part in every detail for the good of the school. She also checks the bottom line but she always motivates individuals to be committed to success .In case of the absence of any student , she sends newsletters to his parent and asks one of the teachers to make sure that the student is ok .
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
Between 1998 and 2000 , in my first school the headmistress was leading using laissez-faire style. All the staff were from the same village and she was shy to direct anyone lest they should offend her . So as a result of this negative attitude , everyone was responsible for nothing . She refused any decision sharing from anybody. She always checked the bottom line and adopted the short-time view . what mattered her was to finish the day without problems. Going into another school where everything was scheduled and well organised and this was in 2001 to 2003. The head teacher allowed every deputy to take part in decision making . Every deputy was responsible for leading a specific department but when the matter was about taking a decision for the whole school , the head teacher invited the whole deputy , senior teachers and parents of the board of trustees to decide on what they were going to choose for the good of the school. Sometimes at the beginning of the school year , parents were asked to give charity to be spent on the benefit of the school. The head teacher always focused on the task and people-oriented way of leading with giving way for democratic sharing.
Brighouse (2008) stated that the manager of every school has a variety of behaviours : he or she administers, maintains discipline inside school, always looks at the bottom line of how much this will cost him to maintain the budget, works to routine rules which are sometimes deadly, takes a short-term view to achieve the objective declared and never rely on long-term ones. He always accepts the status quo. As for the leader, he directs people , creates a sense of motivation to move forward in the right direction. He, while doing so, must adopt a long-term view. while the manager focuses on short-term ones (ie. One day or a week or even a month ).The leader always challenges the status quo.
If we agree with the three authors, why should the head teacher give the opportunity for deputies and senior teachers to lead as Brighouse says ? Why should not the ordinary teacher take part in the leading process ? As there are a lot of things to be managed, less time is left for leading. It depends on the style of leadership the head teacher adopts ; if he adopts the democratic style , ordinary teachers will have the chance to lead, but if these teachers are newly employed and lack the required experience ,the head teacher will adopt the autocratic style until they are well experienced . This really happens in my school as in the control room for exams; new teachers are not allowed to do any of the tasks by themselves as they lack experience , so they always work under supervision of experienced colleagues. The head teacher should allow every deputy and senior teacher to take part in leading teams, teachers, departments and in decision- making process. The decision-making process includes taking decisions about every aspect of the school such as providing equipment , managing trips , solving pupils' problems , maintaining the school playground and discussing the budget and the students' results. The situation is similar in Egypt as the head teacher always invites the whole deputies, senior teachers and parents of the Board of Trustees to decide on what they were going to choose for the good of the school. Sometimes at the beginning of the school year , parents are asked to give charity to be spent on the benefit of the school. The head teacher always focuses on the task and people-oriented way of leading with giving way for democratic sharing . Should the Board of Trustees take decisions about the learning and teaching process? Of course the situation is different in Egypt ; The school governors in England have the authority to recruit teachers and evaluate them. They even have the power to innovate curriculum and make school as business. The Board of Trustees in Egypt has limited authority as its duty is to discuss the budget of the school and how the head teacher will spend it for the good of the school. They do not have the right to evaluate the teachers as they are not qualified. They can not even innovate curriculum as this is the role of politicians.
What we know about school leadership
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A summary of findings from school effectiveness research concluded that " almost every single study of school effectiveness has shown both primary and secondary leadership to be a key factor " ( Sammons et al,1995,p.8.). "Successful leaders use a variety of strategies and styles depending on what it takes to create an environment for learning and they actively search out the many good practices that are out there, but also adapt them to their particular contexts."(Ofsted,2003,Para.11,p.7.).Successful leaders are optimistic, "can do " individuals who are committed to making a difference for their pupils and are passionate about learning and teaching .In learning-centred leadership leaders focus on pupils' learning , progress and achievements and use this knowledge to support teachers and their development .
To summarize the two definitions above ; the leader uses three strategies of modelling , monitoring and dialogue to create such a fit environment for learning .A leader sets an example to be followed by both colleagues and pupils .These leaders should know that they are "on show " .So they should put their sayings into actions as the teachers watch them very closely. Leaders should remain noticed through classroom visits , encouraging colleagues to talk about their success and concerns, knowing about individual children progress, ensuring that teachers' meetings focus on learning and using outcome data and pupil progress to analyse school performance levels. Monitoring is something to do with visiting classrooms, observing teachers at work and giving feedback. By doing so , leaders will be able to keep in touch with colleagues' classrooms and know teachers' strengths and development needs . As for dialogues, teachers talk with each others about learning and teaching inside the classrooms. These dialogues help teachers improve their understanding of their practices and modify anything to a better one .They can occur in corridors or in offices .
How leaders influence what happens in classrooms .
Southworth ( 2004 ) says "Learning-centred leaders influence in three ways; directly-where leaders directly influence school outcomes . indirectly- where leaders affect the outcomes indirectly through other variables and reciprocally- when leaders influence teachers and teachers influence leaders. The indirect one is the largest and the most common as leaders work with and through others. Head teachers , deputies and key stages all rely on other colleagues to put into practice agreed ways of working." .
"To delegate is to "entrust authority to another". The delegation process has three aspects; responsibility, authority and accountability. Most managers cannot manage their time effectively unless they delegate tasks. In this area, personal effectiveness depends on leaders understanding that they cannot do everything , and that others can do many things as well, and some things better than the leaders themselves. Staff will not grow and improve if they are never given the opportunity to develop new skills. Under pressure, managers are overstretched and overworked . They are unlikely to be able to protect their strategic thinking time if they are always "doing" .Highly effective leaders spend dedicated, quality time thinking ahead, thinking strategically. To do so, they must delegate.". Department for Education and employment (2000).
But before delegating, the leader should ask himself some important questions; Who will be able to be the right person in charge? Can he provide enough training and support to enable them to do the job effectively? Can the leader articulate the tasks and the desired outcomes clearly and effectively to help avoid any ambiguity? And what time needs to be spent on measuring progress, review and feedback? Delegation in Egypt does not go like this . It is a routine process rather than a leading one; If the head teacher has a meeting with the governor or with the minister or on a mission , he or she can choose anyone to lead, but this delegated person may be not qualified for this job as he may have personal liking to any group in the school and hatred to another which prevents him from doing the right task . This will harm the teacher a great deal and affect the learning process badly as it will put the teacher under stress which in turn will affect pupils learning . What matters him is to finish the day without any problems. Another point , the head teacher does not allow this person to keep the stamp of the school with him. He or she does not have trust in that person and this is due to the accountability system. For example, in my school in Egypt , the head teacher may have a training course or a seminar or a meeting with the governor, she may ask any of the deputies to be in charge. He may not have the ability to lead as he is not interested or he may not be qualified to be a leader. Some deputies in my school are not interested although they attend training courses for being successful leaders. The whole staff should help each other and improve their school as Brighouse(2008) said "We should speak well of our schools." or if they do not love each other or they do not love their school, nothing will be achieved. One more thing ; the deputy in charge should be accountable to himself first before being accountable to the head teacher. He or she should know the limit of his responsibility and the level of authority so that the task is done in the right way. Some head teachers refuse to involve senior team leaders in taking decisions. That is because they are reluctant to have the risk of being responsible for others' decisions. Trust plays a vital role in shaping relationships within schools and in determining the extent to which collaboration among school staff can take place. Without trust, people are likely to say only those things they expect others want to hear, and they will assume that sharing their ideas, thoughts, and personal resources can involve considerable risk. Despite the importance of trust for a healthy school climate, research indicates that trust is still more an ideal than a reality in school's life".
MacGilchirst et al ( 2004 ) says " Continuous learning for everyone is central to the notion of the intelligent school ." Barber M ( 1996 ) says " Teachers teach , but unless they learn constantly , they will be unable to perform their central role in a rapidly changing society." All school improvement involves change and development .However , the experience of change can be individually threatening or disconcerting so we need organized settings and systems in schools that support staff in the process of change and make it more likely that school improvement will occur and good and outstanding schools develop ." Brighouse T ( 2008 )
Brighouse & Woods ( 2008 ) say that" Creating opportunities for staff to learn together will make performance better and more consistent throughout the school . To build and extend professional learning community requires the development of a high proportion of staff who are enthusiastic and always positive , practise leadership at all levels , stimulate and spark others through working in teams , use critical thinking , creativity and imagination , are able and willing to evaluate their own practice and make their practice accessible to others and believe they can improve on their previous best."
The three authors present a very good idea which is the constant development of staff especially teachers can help in making my school successful . There are some similarities between Egypt and England in this aspect ; As in Egypt teachers are called to attend continuing development courses throughout the year such as video conference meeting , International Computer Driving Licence(ICDL) course , missions to foreign countries and weekly seminars with the supervisors or the deputy minister. Once a teacher is well trained to any course, he is asked to reflect what he or she has learnt to his colleagues and train them as well. But there are also some differences ; as the teachers in England can practise leadership at all levels. However, it is hard for teachers in Egypt to practise leadership at all levels because of the centralization system, the kind of head teachers and the accountability system, They may be leaders of departments or staff in their schools only. One more point , There are two kinds of assessment in England ; formative assessment and summative assessment and the teacher can evaluate his work continuously using these two types of assessment. However, the teacher in Egypt only uses the summative assessment which is at the end of the year. The teacher can not evaluate his work at the end of the year, this is due to the absence of pupils all the year round. Where is the role of the portfolio? Why do not the teachers in Egypt resort to the formative assessment as well ? Attendance throughout the year should be taken into consideration as part of the summative assessment to stop pupils quitting from school. Third year prep students do not give any care to the monthly tests as they do not affect their final assessment. A teacher can not even finish the designed curriculum. Why should not the teacher take part in designing the curriculum and deciding the material appropriate for his pupils? This can not happen in my country as politicians design curriculum. It is the first year of portfolio in my school but it is still not understood as it is a new way of assessment.
Brighouse (2008) says that "A key indicator of any school is how staff - teachers and support staff are alike - behave one towards another ; as well as with the pupils . Are they cheerful , optimistic and full of ideas and good humour , or are they dull and careless ? Successful schools seem to be agreed that you are looking for three things in staff : competence in job , the potential and disposition to improve and that they should be of the right disposition . All staff require four conditions to be satisfied if they are going to carry out their duties effectively . They need responsibility , permitting circumstances , new experiences , respect and recognition."
The head teacher's visits to classrooms and departments represent respect and recognition for the staff. There is the seeking-out of matters to be praised , by a written note of thanks and the spoken word . At staff meeting the wise leader thanks colleagues by name . There is also the governor's meeting . It is a very good idea of Brighouse to praise the hard-work of the staff using written words or verbally as this creates the sense of competition among staff. It is very similar in Egypt as the head teacher in my school visits classrooms and gives praise to hard working teachers. Through the staff meeting we are praised by the senior teacher for our great effort through the year .Also there is a competition of the ideal teacher .And the chosen one is praised by the governor and well rewarded. How can these competition participate in the continuous professional development of the staff ? How often can they be carried out ? How can staff benefit from such competitions ? Brighouse focuses on collaborative learning and team-teaching. It is very useful for teachers to work as a team and observe each others teach , but there should be rewards and praise for who work hard to create a challenge among staff. Competitions can take place every month. Since the teacher finds himself in continuous competition with others , he will try hard to be enthusiastic and to offer new ideas which are different from other colleagues .When discussing these ideas, all the staff can benefit from them which may offer solutions for some problems.
The school should have a system for knowing who is responsible for what and this should be written on the notice board of every school . Once the teachers know their responsibilities , they need permitting circumstances . If there are no books , materials or equipment , then the opportunity to teach is restricted . So the link to the environment is obvious and of primary importance .The third aspect is new experiences . People need new experiences to be stimulated and challenging .
This is a very good idea especially when people find themselves in new experiences, they exert more effort to do the best , benefit from these new experiences and challenge each others. Competitions among schools do a lot of challenge among schools. But are competitions better or co-operation between schools? Schools can not co-operate between each others as each school has its own problems and its own resources which differ from another school. Schools can adopt others' plans, ideas or even its system, so the competition will not be fair. Competition is better in this aspect as it is built on fair assessment without cheating or imitating others. Through the program of Susan (good quality), the school which wins that competition , their staff are well rewarded . Also the program of teacher cadre which puts the teachers in constant challenge to get the highest ranks . Moreover , getting the licence of international computer driving licence (ICDL) will promote the teacher , so teachers keep in the track of challenge all the year round .
" It is the right for every teacher to observe other teachers and be observed as a collaborative learning activity. Good schools model , promote and support professional development by providing a wide range of opportunities for learning . Many of these are internal to the school as peer observation , but there are many others including skills workshops , subject-development sessions , professional discussions , learning walks , participation in action research projects , joining working groups and team-teaching. Individual members of staff do need to take full advantage of permitting circumstances so that the school keeps up the momentum of improvement . One way of doing this is for staff to have an annual , individual learning plan that identifies the skills to be practised and developed , the particular learning experiences to be undergone , leadership development to be experienced and work-shadowing opportunities all aligned to the overall performance management system .Certainly all staff should be capable of developing an extensive portfolio based on the new teaching standards , which will help them build a career proposition as a contribution to leadership development and succession planning generally ." Brighouse ( 2008 ) .
The situation in Egypt is very different from the situation in England; Teachers in my school in Egypt lack learning walks as we all focus on teaching inside the classroom although these walks are of good importance as pupils can never forget things they learn when connecting them to the environment . Why should not teachers take their pupils to learning walks ? for example to the park, to the Pyramids or to the museums ? These walks do really enrich learning especially when pupils feel free to be in the open air and not restricted to the desk and the classroom. Pupils learn effectively when they connect what they learn to the new experiences. A teacher can not participate in research projects or even do a research about his school. Who should be responsible for doing research about schools ;inspectors or involving teachers in this vital process ? The teacher is the only person who can do research about his school as he experiences the whole matters and the advantages and disadvantages of this school. Should the teacher be chosen publicly or should it be a secret matter? If the teacher is going to do a research about his school outspokenly, he will be affected by the head teacher's views and other views which may contribute to the fake of the research; I mean he will not be able to talk about the disadvantages of the school and the whole research will be based on fraud information. The teacher will do his best to please the head teacher and his colleagues. But what is the best way to do research about one's school ? The best way is to give the teacher the opportunity to do this research by himself secretly since he knows every details ,every advantages and disadvantages about that school , but this should happen in a secret way. Teachers participate in projects such as Suzan project for good quality schools. Why is this project held every year? How does it enhance education ? This project is based on competition among schools to keep all the schools in continuous development and updated to the recent developments in education . Good quality means to be the successful school of the year in all every field; leadership , management , teaching , learning and results . This project enhances the process of improvement very well as it keeps the school in the right track for endless success. Every school tries hard to know its weaknesses and tries hard to modify these weaknesses in order to be a successful school. The school of the year will be praised and its staff will be rewarded very well.
Brighouse ( 2008 ) says that" Support systems is represented in the administrative support system , the arrangement for trips , meals , ordering equipment and supplies and the governors meetings . Supervisors' impact has had a profound effect on the incidence of bullying in particular , and the behaviour of the school in general . So if the teachers are the people who mainly contribute to a school's main business , it is wise not to forget that support staff have the potential to contribute significantly to that task . How pupils are treated in the schools' office , how support staff talk to pupils in the corridor or on the way to school , how they deal with confidences , all affect children's life chances ."
Supervisors in particular are the people who can affect the teacher greatly but their role in Egypt is not of great importance since they do not go and observe teachers inside classrooms .What matters them is to sign in the visitors record , then he checks some lesson plans and at the end he writes his visit .So he follows the same routine without benefiting any teacher . The administrative system and the governor do not support the teacher especially when dealing with bad pupils as the teacher's power is restricted and he is helpless . Only the social worker is the only one who can help the teacher by co-operating together in evaluating every student and treating bad and good students . The teacher has no role in arranging trips as he can be chosen to be a guide for pupils or not . Ordering meals or equipment are beyond the teacher's power as he can work according to the material available .
It is a good idea to keep continuous professional development for the staff to be updated and well equipped with modern strategies and teaching approaches which will suit all pupils . Developing teaching is necessary for teachers to work together and evaluate each others . Developing support systems is very important as they help the teacher greatly in achieving his role inside and outside the classroom .
The resources are:
Brighouse T How Successful Headteachers survive and thrive: www.rm.com/_RMVirtual/Media/Downloads/How_head_teachers_survive_and_thrive_by_prof_Tim_Brighouse.pdf (Accessed November 2009)
Brighouse T and Woods W (2008) What makes a good school now? Network Press, London
Brighouse T (2006) Essential Pieces: The Jigsaw of a Successful School
Department for Education and Employment (2000) Access Stage Unit 3.4: Personal Effectiveness HMSO, London
Department for Education and Employment (2000) Access Stage Unit 3.2: Leading and Managing Teams HMSO, London
Department for Education and Skills (2004) National Standards for Headteachers: Staff Management HMSO, London
Leadership Styles www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_84.htm (Accessed November 2009)
Southworth G (2004) How Leaders Influence What Happens in the Classroom (www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&source=hp&q=southworth+g+How+leaders+influence+what+happens+in+the+classroom&meta=&aq=f&oq=
Saphier J, King M, D'Auria J (2006) 3 Strands form strong school leadership NSDC, London
Tomlinson M (2006) The Jigsaw Grows: Five Extra Pieces for an Even Brighter Future