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The "development of the internal aspects of a person" or "access to one's own feeling life" is a part of Intrapersonal intelligence (p. 239). It was identified by Maulding (2002) that emotional intelligence was closely related to personal intelligence and was further qualified by Gardner with is employment of two personal intelligence aspects. Intrapersonal intelligence was further described by Gardner as the capacity to discriminate amongst one's feelings, to label them, and use them in ways to understand and guide one's behaviour. But at the same time interpersonal intelligence "turns outward, to other individuals" (p. 239). This focal point examined "the ability to notice and make distinctions amongst other individuals, and in particular, amongst their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions" (p. 239).
Gardner concluded that an individual's knowledge of one's self was reliant upon information gathered by observing other people, while knowledge of others is derived from perceptions made by the individual on a routine basis. The term "Personal Intelligence" covers the close relationship of both intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence because, as Gardner stated, "these two forms of knowledge are intimately intermingled" (p. 241).
18.104.22.168 Emotional Intelligence
Mayer and Salovey wrote in 1990 an article outlining their emotional intelligence framework. Emotional intelligence was listed by them at that time as a division of social intelligence. Elements of Gardner's personal intelligence study were employed when Mayer and Salovey defined EI as "the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings, to discriminate amongst them and to use this information to guide ones' thinking and actions" (p. 189). The book entitled Emotional Intelligence (1995) was published as a way of coping with the pointless acts that were taking place, (e.g., random violence and school shootings) (Salopek, 1998).
The book achieved best seller status, and an increased interest in emotional intelligence took place (Mandell & Pherwani, 2003). Goleman followed up on this success in 1998 with a book entitled Working with Emotional Intelligence where he reviewed 18 emotional intelligence competencies usable in the workplace. Mayer and Salovey's (1990) definition of emotional intelligence was modified by Goleman (1998c) with his revised definition of EI, " 'Emotional intelligence' refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships" (p.
317). Goleman listed 5 social and emotional groups - self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. This was subsequently reduced to just 4 after the arrival and review of new information.
A mixture of interpersonal intelligence and intrapersonal intelligence was used in defining emotional intelligence and the four clusters (Maulding, 2002). The 4 new groups were labelled as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002). Self-awareness and self-management were merged into a "personal competence" category which included the capabilities that "determine how we manage ourselves" (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002, p. 39). The capabilities that "determine how we manage relationships" define the Social Competency category (Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee, 2002, p. 39) and include the social awareness and relationship management groups.
The elements of Emotion and intelligence have often been viewed as at odds with each other. Emotions were considered by (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) as both irrational and disruptive forces in the work place. However, McDowell and Bell (1997) determined that emotionality and rationality were complimentary elements and considered them to be "inseparable parts of the life of an organization" (p. 6). Both authors observed the operation of the human thought and found that "proper functioning of the brain is dependent upon the smooth interaction of emotionality and rationality" (McDowell & Bell). Goleman's (1995) theory was that people have in effect, two minds, "one that thinks and one that feels" (p. 8). This implied that there are two ways "of knowing to construct our mental life" (p. 8). Consciously, the rational mind is the one with which people are -"aware, thoughtful, able to ponder and reflect" (Goleman, 1995, p. 8). The emotional mind worked in conjunction with the rational mind, but could be considered as impulsive, powerful, and even illogical on occasion (Goleman).
Ordinarily, there is a balance between emotional and rational minds, with emotion feeding into and informing the operations of the rational minds, and the rational mind refining and sometimes vetoing the inputs of the emotions. Still, the emotional and rational minds are semi-independent faculties, eachâ€¦reflecting the operation of distinct, but interconnected circuitry in the brain. (Goleman, 1995, p. 9) In order to function harmoniously, the emotional and rational minds work in a tight, intertwining way in order to guide us through life.
As discussed previously, the wide ranging skills and abilities expertise required by Librarians (or Information Professionals) makes for a challenging job. Working within a multidisciplinary team, responsible for handling information, answering individuals and customers enquiries, operating ever more sophisticated equipment (such as OPAC), on-line services etc. produces a demand for emotional qualities from library staff in order to cope with a constantly changing work place. A state of calmness is needed during stressful times and when important decisions need to be made often at short notice. There are central capabilities and performance standards related to librarian's emotions which are; psycho-social-behavioural, analytical, physical, and sensory abilities. These will aid a perfect performance and learning these qualities will help ensure the success as a librarian.
2.3.3 The Need of Behaviour Skills amongst Librarians
22.214.171.124 Analytical abilities
Librarians must have the ability to interpret, examine, understand and be able to synthesize library material, using written, verbal and other formats. (e.g., NLM, ALIA, IFLA, ALA, LOC etc) Librarians must be able to identify user needs and evaluate situations and own performance use critical thinking for problem-solving.
126.96.36.199 Psycho-Social-Behavioural Abilities
In addition, for the utilization of the librarian's full abilities in the exercising of good judgement, completing all responsibilities relevant to user requirements promptly, and develop mature and sensitive user relationships, they must possess the necessary emotional health. Librarians must be able, in rapidly changing and potentially stressful environments, to function effectively within the various department settings. Sensitive interaction with others, such as; users, customers, other staff members all from differing and wide ranging cultural, emotional and social backgrounds, is needed. Communication, in English must be effective in visual, written, verbal and non verbal formats.
188.8.131.52 Physical Abilities
Physical workloads require physically fit librarians. First aid in the work place to fellow workers or providing CPR, general or emergency care to other staff or users, calibration and use of equipment can only be carried out if librarians possess fine motor abilities to manoeuvre safely in the work environment
184.108.40.206 Sensory Abilities
If Librarians sensory abilities are not adequate, they should be able to adapt in order to compensate for that deficiency. These abilities should allow the individual to receive and disseminate knowledge through a variety of means. Planning, provision and evaluation of nursing care should be one of the student's abilities.
220.127.116.11 Emotional Intelligence Skills
Emotional intelligence is frequently mentioned when discussing the necessary skills required for career and personal success, in addition to the standards and abilities described above. EI is defined by (Mayer and Salovey, 1993:433) as: a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate amongst them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions"
It has been proposed that a person's level of EI is a superior forecaster of occupation performance than IQ. Hunter and Hunter put forward that, IQ accounts for about ¼ of the variance while Emotional Intelligence accounts for the rest. Goleman suggests in his best-selling book, "Emotional Intelligence" (1995): Coupled with the core performance standards described above, these emotional competencies will help you effectively respond to the circumstances you'll face in the Librarian profession.
It has been consistently acknowledged that emotional competencies are essential in the place of work. Organizational psychologists have neglected communication, coping with pressure, teamwork and leadership skills in the past. Employee well-being through assessment and training of EI may increase and improve organizations productivity. However, this philosophy may turn out to be the latest business trend as much of the work on EI in institutions lacks vigour.
Work and emotions are both equal and opposite in the relationship. Job performance may be directly attributable to successes and failures at work and the emotions that they generate, may affect health and other work behaviours. Identification of emotional competencies that determine whether the employee can manage work demands adaptively will invariably lead to understanding of the connection between work and emotion.
Research has focused on whether measures of Emotional Intelligence can predict job proficiency. Various scales for EI have been compared with other intelligence tests and personality surveys. Although humble links between EI and job performance has been shown, meta-analysis suggests that Emotional Intelligence has little practical use as a forecaster. IQ is a stronger forecaster of performance. Research has moved its focus now to moderator factors that may manipulate the strength of the link between EI and proficiency, such as the extent to which the job is people-oriented or dependent on emotional labour.
Occupational criteria in addition to job proficiency, has also become a research target. Evidence exists that EI relating to affective outcomes - including job satisfaction, and organizational commitment and citizenship, although high EI does not necessarily produce improvements in relation to affective criteria. Effective leadership, especially transformational leadership dependent on charisma and inspiration has also been linked to high EI.
American industry spends millions of dollars annually on training programs intended to enhance social and emotional abilities. A number of organizational and personal benefits in the workplace may be conferred by attempts to improve EI. Hopes are high that many of the problems faced by the modern workforce are contributable to remediation of EI. Empirical data shows that measures of EI relate to various organizational criteria, although validity of information is frequently unsubstantial. Having said that, research corresponding aspects of EI to specific job competencies, is required in order to authenticate the significance of EI to the workplace.
All aspects of human interaction appear to be closely linked to Emotion. Our daily life leads to a familiarity with emotions, as well as something that we identify with in everyday situations as we read peoples' faces or body language. According to Ciarrochi, Chan, Caputi, and Roberts (2001), Figure 2.3 shows the potential roles of EI in the workplace and the relationship between work success and EI. In theory, there are three explanations for the link between character and EI. People who have a large number of negative emotions would substantiate the Ciarrochi et.al. report that; an individual's perception, expression, understanding and management of emotions are directly related to the success in workplace. The importance of being able to understand and manage these emotions are then interpreted and adapted according to those life events, leading to life outcomes, either positive or negative.