Development Of Expert Coaching Education Essay

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Novice competent, focus on participant behaviour rather than body of knowledge, relishing the experience, difficult to distinguish participants performance, developing skills and not gaining any knowledge i.e. my coaching has been based around what governing bodies have taught me and therefore, drills have been taught, but no real coaching has taken place.

Novice= coaches often give up on participants who have problems and do not attempt to help struggling players and give up on participants .i.e. my current football team is a charity based and involve challenging behaviour children. I have tried to help participant within training who lack social skills however, not successful and split participants into two groups, those want to learn and those and those who don't for the meantime. At present I have started to integrate those who didn't want to learn into those who wanted to learn and this is proving more effective. (I have got to know the individuals and what makes them tick. So now most of the individuals want to learn. However, Schempp et al (2006) states low level of expertise does not attempt to support struggling athletes because ultimately prove unsuccessful or pointless.

Competent= practice important, information to increase coaching competence, instructional repertoires by observational of experience coaches and personal trial and error i.e. the earlier coaches learn-quicker improvement will occur. Learn from experiences, gain more knowledge, and decrease amount of mistakes, coaches concerned with rules i.e. do not talk when I am, but hard when three or four participants are messing around and others listening! Although, Schempp et al (2006) states, let participants talk and therefore, knowing when and what to do through experience (strategic knowledge).

Contingency plans good, if/then planning= devise practise/game plane i.e. performers look tired apply much time speaking about the value of stretching or if participants look energetic=get them running.

Expert= see errors when coaching takes place as their knowledge and understanding can alter the course action, perceptual capacity in participants performance whilst coaching whole team hard, but critical (athlete individuality i.e. coach different levels of abilities within the team). Also, analyse the course of events= looking for alternatives or information to make participants better.

Expert= the ability to predict potential outcomes, reflect coaching and experimenting with new ideas, conversations with other coaches about solutions for the progression of the participant, widespread knowledge due to conferences, meetings, journals, books and athletes experiences etc… therefore, reed around the subject area and become familiar and create a data base to reflect back to as progression is vital with the next few years.

Expert= intuition, years of experience and knowledge in decision making, years of trying, failure, succeeding to gain expert coach. As schempp et al (2006) state, 'player behaviour or motivation, effective communication, planning, acquiring equipment etc.. How they analyse those problems and devise solutions' i.e. more careful in solving problems and very natural in doing so. Spend more time coaching instead of setting up participant or practices (plan to coach)

Formal, non-formal and informal coach learning

Formal learning= is defined as institutionalized, chronologically graded and hierarchically structured. Furthermore, characteristically involves individuals demonstrating fundamentals admission guidelines (governing bodies). However, low impact on learning i.e. low on knowledge into coaching practice, does not look at the individual and therefore, unsure when to use their knowledge of why, when, how within coaching. Coaching knowledge and professional practice low.

Non formal- workshops, best practice, conferences, seminars = learning does not take place but good for understanding basics. However, good for basic understanding

Informal- research starts and learning takes place, on-going life long process in skills, knowledge i.e. reading, internet, coaching manuals, journals and coaching sessions etc… to overcome different situations/dilemmas. Observing and exchange knowledge or experiences with other coaches. Therefore, have a feel of what is coaching, maybe a bit of all 3 would be beneficial. Linking back to coaching, managing the sites that takes place. Nelson et all (2006)

Interdependence theory

Illustrates the relationship between participants in terms of the outcome Interdependence or relationships members cause each other to experience bad and good consequences.

Interdependence theory-deals with psychological aspects as a platform for coach and athletes relationship, therefore, athletes achieve basic roles, tasks and responsibilities.

Dyad = Two individuals or units regarded as a pair maintaining a sociologically significant relationship.

Closeness, cooperation co orientation

Closeness- High levels of trust and respect for coach athlete= high levels of closeness and therefore experience good outcomes. However, athlete's disheartened and the dyad has broken down a poorer outcome will occur. Therefore, get to know the individuals and what makes them tick, think etc… Also take an interest and listen to the individual and really value their opinion and therefore trust and respect the coach will occur.

Co orientation- is an essential procedure by which individuals integrate themselves into a social group. Furthermore, co orientation relates to the cognitive aspect of the relationship, i.e. views or concerns, feelings between coach and individual. As Jowett (2007) states, Co orientation between coach and individual mutual dependence because athletes are experienced and coaches are establish and therefore the relationship maybe be on an equal basis.

Cooperation- 'is the behavioural aspect of the relationship, referring to interpersonal behaviour between coach and athlete in a particular their effective cooperation' Jarvis (2006).

Delivery Practical Two, Lecture Notes

How coaches construct knowledge

Analysing performance and watching other coaches, feedback from participants and coaches.

Observing- insight into tactics and technique, watch as much sport as I can. Write down things about movement on off the ball etc... Rather than just get feedback do something with it, reflect on the process.

Experience- coaching participants etc..

Playing the sport- how good, yes or no, context, playing ability must be a good coach? However, not essential to be a good coach as coaching team could help a lot i.e. look for expertise coaches where my knowledge lacks in certain areas.

Formal education- University and college i.e. give us the insight.

Research- directed towards something.

Coaching knowledge

Technical and tactical, social, different coaching methods, philological i.e. race, gender and psychological, sport knowledge- biomechanics of the sports, knowing when where and how to coach or not coach, knowing you players i.e. growth spurts, puberty, injury's, environmental= context playing/surface raining, dark, rules and regulations i.e. design games around offside etc.. -a dyad- two way relationship, history/culture of the club, motivational.

Coaching knowledge

So we know how to improve in the field, Sports coach uk, NGB = very linear, no challenging etc.. From experience on the field and not within a classroom setting.

Coaching session= Start point = basic + progression and then game=to structured, 20% around the knowledge of the sport and 80% of coaching needs to be done.

Coaching is an individual and social process (Cushion et al 2003)

Human's progression i.e. worried, nervous etc... Can impact on the coaching process Jones et al (2004)

Science -knowledge is gained through observation, experimentation and development in which results can be described.

Sports Science- aims to improve sporting performance through scientific evidence.

Discipline-an area of learning is taught and research at University standards.

Sub discipline- expertise within sports scientists, i.e. grow and develop, motor learning and biomechanics are involved.

Knowledge-through experience or education, information, skills, and facts are developed.

Areas of knowledge

SDSK- Sub discipline sports knowledge

PED K- pedagogy knowledge-how we coach/teaching style/process of feedback-when, receive etc... Did it have an impact on me or my coaching?

IPK- inter and intrude personal knowledge

CK- Contextual knowledge all four are non-sports specific

Middle= SCK- sports coaching knowledge- this is where I want to be within coaching.

SMCK-subject matter context knowledge

CCK- curriculum content knowledge these two (frame work of my own coaching of reference, experiences and observations)

Novice- very instructs/ what type of coach I am??

Expert= see errors when coaching takes place as their knowledge of the sport incredible.

Declarative knowledge- knowledge about something- explains and express verbally

Procedural knowledge- knowledge how too/ how to achieve it,

Conditional knowledge- when and why to do something-what will happen if, if something happens what you haven't got planned.

Coach learning

Educational setting but no idea learning is taking place. (Learning has to take place) Experiences through coaching-doing, meaning see it,

Formal= institutionalized and controlled education system and therefore year 1, 2 and 3 at university. NGB does not look at the individual/learner? Question the purpose of theses! How to coach i.e. know how to coach, failure is part of experience, so therefore ok! Ideas or opinions not allowed. Learning is decontextualized therefore, decreases the difficulty of the role of the coach.

Non formal- workshops, best practice, learning does not take place but good for understanding basics. However, hard to gauge if learning is taking place and therefore does not provide the context-based learning, which is vital for coaching knowledge.

Informal-constructing knowledge, developing skills, behaviours and attitudes that inform your coaching practice. Research starts and learning takes place, on-going life long process, observing to challenge something, reflecting on experiences, the development of coaching knowledge,. However, everyone's different, so a bit of all 3 would be beneficial. Linking back to coaching, managing the sites that takes place.

Nonlinear= does not just mean game with messy or chaos games, but coach the individual or team the technique, technical and principles etc…

Coaching points= coach one team and then coach the other team and if more than one coach both coaches coach a team each. Coaching points= do not talk to long at the start of the session, just get them going! Bring progressions within the session.

Coaching points= only start with five participants and then when become better take on ten participant to coach in till a time where coaching all participants. Coaching points= when a session is based on movement, plan session so as you can coach movement i.e. movement creates space and therefore opponents move to defend in which opens up more space, but show and coach when delivering a session. (Paint a picture)

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