Application and Development of Emotional Intelligence in an Organization

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The concept of the emotional intelligence is a comparatively new behavioral pattern that has become a well-known due to the book of Daniel Goleman called "Emotional Intelligence". The primordial Emotional Intelligence theory was developed during the 1970s and 1980s by psychologists Howard Gardner, Peter Salovey, and John 'Jack' Mayer. Currently EI is the increasingly integral part for the organization extension and developing employees. Emotional Quotient certainly provides new approaches to recognize and stimulate people's emotions, attitudes, and potential. It is very important in planning human resource capability, management development, adaptation to change, manage adversity, customer service and more.

History and Foundation

The concept of the emotional intelligence is a comparatively new behavioral pattern that has become a well-known due to the book of Daniel Goleman called "Emotional Intelligence", however the very first concepts of intelligence have evolved over 100 years, so-called prototypes of the present theory.

The primary Emotional Intelligence theory was developed during the 1990s by psychologists Howard Gardner, Peter Salovey, and John 'Jack' Mayer. Professors were trying to work out cardinally new approach in estimating the distinction between people's ability in the field of emotions. They figured out that some people were better in understanding their personal feelings, feelings of the other individuals, and dealing with problems involving emotional issues. Afterwards their research works were published in two academic journal articles with title "Emotional Intelligence". Unfortunately, approximately all of their research writings have been done in the academic community; thereby the names of the psychologists are not well-known in social area. Indeed, by reason of this case the name that is associated with the terminology emotional intelligence belongs to the New York writer Daniel Goleman. In the early 1990s he used to write articles for different publications but later on he started to do the research for the book of emotions after he had detected Mayer and Salovey's article. His 1995 book "Emotional Intelligence" made a furor among people.

Basic components

Currently EI is the increasingly integral part for the organization extension and developing employees. Emotional intelligence certainly provides new approaches to recognize and stimulate people's emotions, attitudes, and potential. It is very important in planning human resource capability, management development, adaptation to change, manage adversity, customer service and more. Effective awareness, management of one's emotions, and those of other people are the key components that lead to success and goal accomplishments. Emotional Intelligence allocates two main aspects:

Understanding yourself, your purpose, doings, behavior, response and all.

Understanding others, and their feelings and emotions as well.

Emotional Intelligence contains four fundamental components: Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, and Relationship Management.

Self-Awareness.

This particular component shows how aware you are and how exactly you can evaluate your emotions. In most cases, while we are busy with our daily routine, we do not pay much attention on how are responding to some situations and how we deal with them. The other side of self-awareness is identifying how other individuals respond to us. It is pretty common that people see what they want to see and avoid inconvenient occasions of asking someone for the advice or feedback. It is possible to improve self-awareness by allocating the time for reflection during the day. It will be helpful to listen to feedback of people who are honest and fair with you. In accordance with research study it has been identified that those who sought out negative feedback were more likely to ameliorate self-awareness rather than those who sought out positive feedback.

Self-Management.

It is the capability to control own emotions. This component contains also transparency, adaptability, achievement, and optimism. When you respond to your reaction on some actions, you operate against natural force, and therefore it is so much difficult. You use the rational part of the brain and search for the best result.

Social Awareness.

This kind of component is directed to the service level, level of empathy and organizational awareness. In order to improve service orientation you have to fully focus on customers' needs. Show responsibility and concern to the client and come up with the technique to regularly receive feedback.

Relationship Management.

Management development, motivation of the employees, collaboration with high-performing team, and conflict resolution are integral part of relationship management. You are high on these characteristics if other people valuate your efforts and perceive you as the mentally capable to work with the diversity of people even in the stress and conflict environment. If you are able to support and help them to do difficult things, you certainly accomplished high results on these characteristics.

Another supplementary theory of explaining EI competencies goes along with commonly accepted. They are represented in the pyramid and have slightly different attention on aspects.

Emotional intelligence competencies:

According to Byron Stock there is a pyramid of competencies which compromise emotional intelligence:

Emotional Self-Awareness - the ability to be " here and now", understand your emotional state in the moment. This category answer this sort of questions: " Are you happy, excited, worried, angry". The awareness of the state aids in helping making effective decisions.

Emotional Self- Regulation - the possession of this skill turns one into the master of control of current emotions. The skilled one is no longer a slave or victim of random ineffective non- resourceful emotions. By choosing emotions the human's mind and mood are prospering throughout the day.

Emotional Self - Motivation - this part is responsible for choosing the emotions which ignite the action to be persistent in achieving goals. Moreover while pursing goal the one stays confident, optimistic and therefore enthusiastic

Empathy - is different feeling from sympathy, a great ability to be able to put ones self in other shoes to better feel the emotions of other person, to share for a while his world-view, anxieties and other subjectives.

Nurturing relationships - the readiness to take tender care of other who is needy. Deal with other's interests and appreciate they effort and result.

The Pyramid of Core Competencies of EI

Gender differences in EI

The stereotype of women being the more "emotional" sex survives to this day (Grewal & Salovey, 2006).

The relationship between woman and her emotionalism is tightly connected with her childhood when she socializes. Its commonly accepted to recognize woman to be more expressive than men. For example, Professors Aquino and Argyle state that: "Women, for instance, recognize other people's emotions better, are moreperceptive and have greater empathy". Moreover, according to Baron- Cohen in 2003 it was announced that there is an extra area in the brain of a woman which is specially designated for processing and digesting emotions and feelings.

Despite this brain based difference a group of scholars usually consider wise to refer to the childhood to see the root of upbringing and socialization experience. On the socialization on of the influencing tool is called story- telling. Beginning from the early childhood, girls have a tendency to survive stories they narrate and this way increase their expressiveness. In addition, in terms of a family context, its common that mother- daughter relationships are more emotions oriented than father- son factual and dry relationships. As a consequence, girl raise up as a more skilled verbal speaker and are able to convey their message with higher tones and feelings.

So its clearly stated out in 2003 by a scholar Guastello that: " Gender differ-

ences in EI can be glimpsed from infancy due to the differential teaching given to boys and

girls" and this theory leaves no confusion nor ambiguity. [4] 

Emotional Competence Training Program

A small group of staff in the life insurance division at American Express

Financial Advisors originally developed this program in the early nineties. It grew out of

an effort to discover why more clients who needed life insurance were not buying it.

Research suggested that a major barrier was the financial advisors' emotional reactions to

the process. Consequently, the company developed and tested a training program

designed to help the advisors cope more effectively with the emotional conflicts that they

sometimes encountered in working with clients around life insurance matters. That pilot

program eventually became the Emotional Competence training program. It targets

virtually every aspect of emotional intelligence, but particularly the competencies of

emotional self-awareness, self-control, empathy, communication, and conflict

management. The leadership version of the program offered to managers also helps build

the "developing others" competency.

The program has been offered dozens of times throughout the company on a

continuous basis since 1994. Different versions have been developed and offered for new

advisors and veterans, field management teams, new managers, central office

management teams, and sales consultants. It has become a standard part of the training

programs for both new advisors and new managers. The sessions for managers are

delivered by doctoral level psychologists, while in other versions the trainers are veteran

advisors or human resource development staff.

The length and content of the program also varies with the version. The versions

that have been most rigorously evaluated and found to be effective involve four or five

days of training, divided into two segments separated by one to two months. The first

part of the program covers self-awareness and self-management, while the second

focuses primarily on interpersonal effectiveness, with some additional material on self-

management.

The program begins with a brief lecture on the nature of emotional intelligence.

Then there is an activity designed to help the participants become more aware of what

they are feeling at any point in time. This activity is repeated several times during the

course of the program to help increase self-awareness. Then the participants break into

small groups and discuss among themselves how emotions are important in their own

workplace. This activity helps build motivation and commitment to the training.

The next set of activities focuses on "self-talk." First the participants learn how

their inner dialogue with themselves shapes their feelings and actions. Then they engage

in an activity that helps them become aware of the self-talk associated with an issue that

they find particularly troublesome or disturbing. Finally, they learn how to "reframe"

their self-talk to make it more constructive. In the management versions of the program,

the participants go on to learn and practice how to coach others in a way that helps them

to become aware of their own self-talk.

In another segment of the program, the participants learn about the role of

emotions in behavior, and they engage in an exercise that helps them clarify the rules for

emotional expression in their workplaces. As a result of this activity, they are able to

decide whether they want to change any of those rules. Following this part of the

program, the participants learn about "emotional response patterns," and the trainer helps

them to explore an emotional response pattern of their own that they find troublesome

and would like to change. Then the trainer shows the participants how they can use

visualization to modify their response patterns, if they wish to do so.

The next part of the program shifts the focus from the self to relationships with

others. The trainer first helps the participants explore how relationships are in

their work as either advisors or leaders. Then they learn how to use self-disclosure to

improve relationships with others. Next the participants learn to "listen" for feelings as

well as thoughts in what other people are saying. They spend a considerable amount of

time practicing the skill of listening for feeling and reflecting back to the other person the

feelings they heard. Then the participants shift from listening to speaking - specifically,

they explore the feelings associated with having to deliver "hard messages" to other

people.

The participants next learn about interpersonal boundaries and how effective

relationships depend on our being sensitive to, and respecting people's boundaries. The

trainer helps the participants to analyze incidents in their own lives when they

inadvertently violated someone's boundaries and, conversely, when someone violated

theirs. One goal of this activity is to help participants become more sensitive to the cues

that warn us that we are about to violate someone's interpersonal boundaries. The

discussion of boundaries leads naturally into a segment dealing with interpersonal

contracts. The participants learn how to identify, discuss, and, if desired, renegotiate

such contracts.

The last part of the program returns to a focus on the self. The participants think

about what optimal performance would look like, and they identify the barriers to

achieving it. This leads to a consideration of topics such as stress management, nutrition,

and exercise. This segment includes self-assessment exercises and the teaching of stress

management techniques such as breathing and progressive muscle relaxation. Then the

participants learn to use mental rehearsal to enhance their performance. The program

concludes with the participants writing personal action plans to apply what they have

learned.

Throughout the program, the trainers use a variety of teaching modalities to help

the participants learn new ways of thinking and acting, including small group discussions,

individual exercises involving drawing as well as writing, demonstrations, clips from

popular movies, and participant role plays. [1] 

Customized Leadership Development Program

A large amount of universities offer a wide range of Customized Leadership Development Programs nowadays. These programs are exclusively tailored for the particular company to satisfy the needs of it. This program has a lot of advantages and here are the instances of those from the Banff Centre in Canada which does:

• Ensures that your specific organizational needs have primary

importance, through careful and collaborative program design

• Provides your staff with unique opportunities to discover and

expand their individual leadership capabilities in depth

• Promotes teamwork, planning, and goal-setting for

participating teams, units, and divisions through their

shared experience

• Speeds learning integration back in the workplace with

universally understood skill-building

• Intensifies the power of the learning when removed from the

distractions of daily workplace pressures

• Invigorates participants with a variety of creative, dynamic,

and experiential learning methods

• Provides flexibility in scheduling your program to best suit

your organization's business cycle [2] 

Moreover, they guarantee results that will work. So from these kind of practical applications, emotional intelligence is supposed to boost and be a part of the effective leadership.

Application in the area of Business Environment:

Daniel Goleman in his interview with John O'Neil describes emotional intelligence as different way of being smart. As D. Goleman put it himself, "[Emotional Intelligence] includes knowing what your feelings are and using your feelings to make good decisions in life. It's being able to manage distressing moods well and control impulses. It's being motivated and remaining hopeful and optimistic when you have setbacks in working toward goals. It's empathy; knowing what the people around you are feeling. And it's social skill-getting along well with other people, managing emotions in relationships, being able to persuade or lead others" (O'Neil, 1996).

Byron Stock & Associates LLC, which specializes in emotional intelligence skill building, explains how workers in different positions (customer service representatives,

Executives, high potential people, sales professionals, supervisors/managers, team, team leaders/project managers, technical professionals, staff and other) can benefit from the development of emotional intelligence skills. For example, executives must make decisions daily that may improve or worsen the work of their companies. They experience constant, burdensome pressure that can create feelings of anxiety, fear, caution, and even guilt and depression. The wrong decision, an untimely decision or no decision may cause "The Street" to undervalue the company, hampering its ability to meet its goals and stockholder expectations. Enhancing leaders' EI skills enables them to lead with courage, demonstrate their passion, grow and retain talented leaders, and empathize with people while humanely challenging them to meet demanding business goals.

Even though administrative stuff do not make such significant decisions as executives, being emotionally intelligent is an essential skill. It helps to cope with big number of different tasks, constant interruptions, and different innovations in the company which may lead to feeling completely overwhelmed, worried, dejected, confused, and fearful. These feelings that damage health, attitude, and morale paralyze the working process. Enhanced EI skills enable people to avoid it and gracefully handle multiple demands, interruptions, and tight deadlines (Stock, 2001).

When hire an employee, HR managers look at both IQ and EQ. Daniel Goleman claims that both types of intelligence are important, but they are important in different ways. IQ contributes, at best, about 20 percent to the factors that determine life success. That leaves 80 percent to everything else. There are many ways in which your destiny in life depends on having the skills that make up emotional intelligence (O'Neil).

A good example that proves the validity of the EQ-i is its usage by U.S. Air Forces. The ability of successful selection of recruits saved the U.S. Air Forces about $3 million annually. After the U.S. General Accounting Office in January 1998 recommended the method, in addition to Air forces the EQ-i is currently being used in the Army, Navy, and Marines.

Bar-On concludes in his Technical Manual that EQ-i has been shown to predict academic performance, occupational performance, job satisfaction, the ability to cope with work-related stress, marital satisfaction, the accumulation of new immigrants, the ability to cope with physical and emotional health, and various aspects of criminal behavior (Cherniss&Goleman, 2001).

Daily Life Skill application

New concept of psychology called Emotional Intelligence can make a difference in the way various matters are perceived because that concept set the way people handle themselves and other people. Hanging emotions is very complicated process, which is possible when the self-awareness involved. Without it, we would lack the insight of how feelings (is it positive or negative) affect us and everyone we interact with. The negativity of feelings affects our physical energy, mental clarity and emotional balance, thereby reducing our personal effectiveness. We end up feeling angry, defensive and even hostile. We can lose focus of our goals, fail to realize the impact of our emotions on others and generally feel messed up at the end of a day - everyday.

"Our emotional intelligence controls our self-control, our emotionality, our well-being, and our sociability every day. Let's look at emotions. Some people have deficiencies in understanding, processing, and describing their emotions. In our society, men are conditioned to either suppress or repel emotions, and supposed "unemotional" men think that they are behaving normally when they are able to hide how they feel. We are not born with emotional intelligence. It is socialized into us, and it is behavior that can - over time - be unlearned. However, it takes a concerted amount of effort and the desire to change. But you'll be glad to know that there are unlimited resources on self-improvement and change. Our thinking causes our emotions, and our emotions cause our actions. If we can learn positive change at the thinking level, our emotions and actions become much more manageable. The more strategies that we learn in emotional management, the higher our emotional intelligence will be." (Jenna Pope)

Conclusion

Emotional Intelligence is understanding and perception of your actions and feelings, how do they influence people around. It also has other meaning - understanding people and their thoughts, needs, feelings. It means that you can put yourself on their place and able to empathize or identify with them on many different levels. Emotions and feelings could be relevant to any place where people could have to use emotional intelligence. Actually nowadays organizations are selecting employees they believe have high levels of EI. The basic premise is that ―you can't divorce emotions from the workplace because you can't divorce emotions from people.

Although traditional understanding of intelligence is important to success in life, emotional intelligence is a key to relating well to others and achieving goals because the human world is all about relationships. Development in workers of how to identify, express, and manage their emotions will not only improve their performance and help in their careers but also will be beneficial in their daily life.

We suggest introducing key EI concepts into colleges and universities so that it can be helpful in recruiting and retaining students as well as accomplishing the universities' mission - the advancement of knowledge, the development of students, and the promotion of the general well-being of society.

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