Developing instructional materials for training

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No education programme can be of any success without proper training of personnel involved in the system. These personnel include managers, instructors, supervisors, evaluators and writers. Effort should be made to highlight the training needs of all the personnel involved in adult education. Instructional materials are kind of tools or equipments can help effectively the instructor in theory teaching classroom or in practical assessment.

The National Education Association surveyed a sampling of its members at the close of last school year to gain an understanding of the types of instructional materials being used in schools and the effectiveness of those materials. Conducted jointly with the Association of American Publishers, the survey looked specifically at textbook use, but several interesting findings about the variety and effectiveness of all types of instructional materials were reported. These includes: textbooks, manipulative, specialized instructional software, CD-ROMS, audio recordings, and original source materials and workbooks. (Instructional Materials Use, Web. 25 July 2009)

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Leadership is the activity of influencing people to cooperate toward some goal which they come to find desirable. A leader is not supposed to compel or subordinate or boss over individuals. But, he is expected to bring together, guide and assist people in developing goals and then to work together for the common ends effectively and happily. his job is to present the goal in an appealing manner to the people, to ensure group cooperation and team work strongest, to make the group loyal to the purpose, and ,among others, to show and convince people how they are benefited by the purpose. (Ansari, 1963, pp.89-95)

A genuine interest in the welfare of even the humblest of the people under his leadership, ability to inspire confidence in them, firm faith in the principles of his organization, persistence and perseverance for the accomplishment of the desired ends, willingness to subordinate his personal desires to the interest of the group, knack to understand people and their reactions and above all objectivity and forthrightness, are some of the more important attributes of leadership. Besides, a leader must have the capacity to assume full responsibility demanded by the position he occupies and to make decisions in the vest interests of the group. These are the qualities that cannot be acquired solely by undergoing a predetermined course of training or by possessing a particular degree of education. There are some who are gifted with these and others who have acquired these in the hard school of experience.

In1995 Smith rightly says that successful and effective workplace training programs go beyond reading, writing and arithmetic by linking these subjects to job functions, tasks and procedures.

Many adults need to learn fundamental skills to perform successfully in their professional jobs. But these skills programs often fall short because adults learn differently from children. The opening example of a traditional class may be a little extreme, but it illustrates some key mistakes being made and problems which must be overcome for the success workplace education program.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem to be dealt with in this study is to develop instructional materials for training of principals of secondary schools in NWFP.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To analyze the instructional materials for the training of principals.

To investigate the significance refresher trainings.

To identify the need of the instructional materials.

To provide clear research questions that address areas of interest fundamental to instructional material development.

To develop an instructional material for the training of principals.

SIGNIFICANCE

Jones argues that bringing the world close to universal literacy will be a gigantic legacy of the twentieth century. But the galloping and extended development in education that enabled in to happen, have not taken place in a social and political vacuum. In some cases conditions suitable to mass literacy have only come about popular revolution or fast economic development, but a number of international agencies has played less spectacular and frequently less tangible role. (Preface)

In 1963, Ansari observes that it is equally important to ensure the mental and moral development of the membership as has been said by Sir Thomas Allen: "In all human endeavours nothing is worth making unless in the process it contributes to the making of man." Societies truly cooperative cannot sustain until the people of whom they are constituted are not only educated in cooperative principles and methods, but transformed to cooperation as a means not only of self-help, but of help to the community. Thus the cooperative leader cannot afford to lose sight of his responsibility to help improve the individual member to his full cadre. (89-95)

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Lindeman in 1987, states that an adult educator should have gained enough knowledge about motivational psychology. He should be acquainted with the purposes of people and the processes by which purposes come into being, and the moment one begins the study of motivations one discovers how important is the role played by the intellectual climate of the era and the social environment. (48-52)

LITERATURE REVIEW

Teachers' training is a vital part of education. Therefore, all efforts of the educationists, educators and instructors are aimed at the task of providing better training to the 'would be teachers' for their better education and proper growth, as a benefactor. No doubt, this responsibility can only be exercised, if the educators are equipped with the required knowledge of the subject concerned and trainees develop needed interest in it. That's why, it becomes essential for making adequate provisions for each course to the teachers and as well as trainees. (Rather 219)

The school master plays an imperative role in the army that fights for economic liberation of a country. But he can't direct its operations and will bring disaster if he is termed responsible for its strategy and tactics. It is enough if, with an intelligent understanding of the forces that animate the campaign, he devotes his energies to the recruiting field and to the invigoration and tainting of such officers and men as he stage of the campaign requires . (Mayhew and James 119-146).

In the Post-Mao period (1976-88), China entered a new period of socialist modernization in which the stated goal was to transform China 'into a greater and powerful socialist country with modern agriculture, industry, national defense and science and technology by the end of the present century. (Eli: Valini 54-57).

The year 1976 saw the smashing of the Gang of Four and the re-establishment of the Party's Leadership in schools. Educational rules and regulations were revised and promulgated; professional meetings were called to devise new teaching programmes and compile new teaching materials .Once again the initiative of educational cadre's for achievement and the enthusiasm of student for study were brought into play. Together they gradually restored order in education and improved teaching standards. (Guo: Valini 54-57).

Alongside the positive elements which political and diplomatic compulsions had shaped, there also existed important constraints regarding UNESCO's approach to fundamental education. Although, the UNESCO constitution had endorsed the equality of educational opportunity as a basic human right, caution was evident in securing an appropriate balance between universal primary schooling and the means of achieving universal education.

It was to be an after-repeating precedent, the Secretariat sought the formation in 1946 of an 'expert body '. In this case the Commission on Fundamental Education, designed to work alongside the preparatory commission, which was busily drafting the initial UNESCO programme. The experts were not responsible for driving up a programme of fundamental education- that was the secrrtariat task. Rather, they were invited to identify and analyze what they suppose to be good examples fundamental education work, and to draw their conclusion about the implications for UNESCO.

In general, the Commission's work focused on regional surveys of literacy, estimate of literacy levels, and consideration of low literacy teaching was organized in many parts of the world. (Jones 50)

There could be no cut and dried method either for discovering such men of for imparting the training .The methods to be employed are largely determined by the circumstances obtaining and the needs felt in a given region or a given branch of cooperative activity among the methods that were employed successfully by national organizations of cooperatively advanced countries for imparting training are refresher and correspondence courses, study groups and study tours, seminars and summer camps. The trainees should be trained to shoulder responsibility and to delegate authority. In other words, they should be taught not merely how to do their jobs well, but also how to help other men do their jobs well .such seminars could be followed by the distribution among the participants, of specially prepared literature of other publications including periodicals prepared on these and allied aspects of the subject matter. (Ansari 89-95)

The author recognizes that the existing subject matter as taught would not fit the needs of prospective adult educators. In some institutions this defect could be remedied by employing a coordinator. (Lindeman 48-52).

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Nelson describes: "teaching model is a pattern or plan, which can be used to shape a curriculum or course, to select instructional materials and to guide a teacher's action."(72)

The four dimensions of curriculum are: aims of objectives, content or subject matter, methods or procedures, and evaluation or assessment . the dimension refers to the reasons for including specific items in the curriculum and excluding others. The second dimension is content or subject matter and this refers to the knowledge, skills or dispositions which are implicit in the choice of items, and the way that they are arranged. Objectives may be understood as broad general justifications for including particular items and particular pedagogical processes in the curriculum; or as clearly defined and closely delineated outcomes or behaviors; or as a set of appropriate procedures or experiences. The third dimension is methods or procedures and this refers to pedagogy and is determined by choices made about the first two dimensions. The fourth dimension is assessment or evaluation and this refers to the means for determining whether the curriculum has been successfully implemented. (Scott 18-20).

EFA suggests: Special district based management programmes for District and School Management will be initiated with regular monitoring and assessment for improvement of system and its product quality and overcome the management gaps.

The training and job description for head teachers should specify their roles and guiding and support their teacher colleagues in mobilizing community involvement In the school and in administration, management and maintenance in the school.

Teacher supply, training and supervision highly interactive, learner centered teaching and instructional materials shall be produced and utilized to ensure quality education in future. (65-66)

METHOD AND PROCEDURE

POPULATION: Principals and senior teachers of female secondary schools of EEDOs in twelve district of NWFP.

SAMPLE: All EEDOs and EDOs (female), 60 principals (5 from each Distt) and 120 senior teachers (10 from each Distt ) will be the sample of the study. The schools will be randomly selected from each distt.

INSTRUMENT: Two Questionnaire will be used as a data collecting tool from the target population.

Questionnaire1 for principals, and

Questionnaire 2 for senior teachers.

FIELD TESTING: To assess the validity of these questionnaires, these will be administered in 60 schools and among the district education officers. If there is any short coming in the instrument, it will be further modified and improved.

DATA ANALYSIS: Relevant statistical tools will be applied for analysis of data.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTESIS:

This study will address the following the questions;

What are instructional materials?

What are the categories of instructional media?

What are the types and uses of instructional material to education?

What are the differences between instructional material and improvised material?

What are the similarities between multimedia and instructional media?

What is the importance of instructional material in the field of education?

What is the difference between instructional material and instructional tool?