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Teaching as well as extra assistance no doubt builds up the confidence in young children plus they do perform well in their day to day learning process. The need of extra assistance is not only meant to be restricted to teacher however. It is a cast statement in addition to extra assistance can be offered by means of the assistance of parents, teaching assistants if there is extra load on teacher they might go for the option of teaching assistants. Whether its basic learning in the form of phonics, sounds, alphabets or even if it's a bit advance learning children do need extra assistance in most of the cases. Excellent teachers however are aware of this issue and they do come across situations like these several times in there teaching career. It is very much obvious that zero concentration or no attention towards this issue may lead to complete disaster in the form of affecting the child's future. That is why from the day a child is ready to join his primary school or even play group parents want to know how their child is performing and what is the child's attitude towards learning? This concern exists because it the early age where all these loop holes as well as learning gaps can be covered easily, however, if there is little or zero attention towards this problem faced by a child it may be very difficult or in some cases totally impossible to bring the child attention towards learning and ensure his/her involvement in learning. (Gillies, 2008)
They might use different tools plus ideas to overcome situation like these in addition to make life easy for them and for the children, this can be organizing the classroom, introducing different interesting activities, involvement of teaching assistants, participation of parents in over to fulfil the need for extra assistance as well as make the child a good learner. England is one of the top countries where extra concentration on training of teachers and providing of training material is given. That is why the country is known for its high standards in quality education plus learning approaches. (Gewirtz, 2001)
This critical study will focus on the second chapter "Chapter 2: In every school: excellent teaching and the extra help each child needs" as of the DCSF (2009) your school, your schools, our future.
As personalised learning, parent-involvement, workforce motivation as well as accountability are foci of this 21st century vision, it is very disappointing that the current assessment system is not addressed further directly as it forms a significant barrier to the realisation of this vision. (Gillies, 2008)
Obviously, developing children's positive attitudes to literacy, in the broadest sense, as of the earliest stage is very significant. In the best circumstances, parents in addition to carers, along by means of settings and schools, do much to foster these attitudes. For instance, they stimulate children's early interest in literacy by exploiting play, story, songs and rhymes plus offer lots of opportunities, and time, to talk by means of children regarding their experiences as well as feelings. For the youngest children, well before the age of five, sharing and enjoying favourite books regularly by means of trusted adults, be they parents, carers, practitioners or teachers, is at the heart of this activity. (Gillies, 2008)
Parents and carers have to be strongly encouraged in these pursuits in addition to re-assured that, in so doing; they are contributing massively to children's literacy and to their education in general.
However, there are significant numbers of children who, for one reason or another, do not start by means of these advantages. A number of children in addition have neuron-developmental disorders and other special educational needs that might present formidable obstacles to learning to read as well as write. Providing effectively for all such children is an ever present challenge that is being met by means of different degrees of success by various intervention programmes. The leading edge interventions plus associated training observed in the time available for the study were very good indeed and have to continue to be exemplified in guidance to show how the best provision and practice are matched to different types of special educational needs.
It is significant for schools to offer a coherent reading programme in which 'quality first teaching' as defined by the Primary National Strategy and intervention work is closely linked. While interventions for children by means of reading difficulties will always be necessary, the need for them is likely to be much reduced by 'quality first teaching'. This is because such teaching identifies initial reading difficulties as well as this enables suitable support to be offered quickly, thus minimising the risk of children falling behind. It follows that investment in 'quality first teaching' not only brings greatest benefit to children, however is in addition likely to yield the greatest value for money. (Gewirtz, 2001)
It is hardly surprising that training to equip those who are liable for beginner readers by means of a good understanding of the core principles in addition to skills of teaching phonic work, including those liable for intervention programmes, has emerged as a critical issue. Not all the training considered by this study was of a quality that is likely to achieve these ends. In short, the quality of training for phonic work is patchy and requires urgent attention. While these observations relate largely to in-service training, reports as of newly qualified teachers plus practitioners suggest that there is room for development in these respects in initial training.
As by means of most other aspects of the curriculum, a distinction needs to be made flanked by teaching content and its delivery in the case of phonic work. While such work, as of the standpoint of those who teach beginner readers might not be 'rocket science', it does require practitioners as well as teachers to have a detailed knowledge and accepting of its teaching content so that they can plan in addition to implement a high quality programme. Imaginative and skilful teaching that engages and motivates children does not happen by chance: it relies upon well trained adults, who are skilled in observing plus assessing children's learning, good planning as well as preparation. The maxim 'plan, do, study' as of early years education holds true for phonic work. Head teachers and school governors have to ensure that this process informs the setting of realistic in addition to ambitious targets for English. (Gewirtz, 2001)
The check, consequently, highlights the significance of training at all levels. It offers a timely opportunity to consider how to strengthen training to secure competencies that are of direct benefit to the learners, their settings and schools.
Making sure that the benefits of training are exploited fully and offer value for money is an obvious priority for those in positions of leadership.
Significantly, these findings show that we have a workforce of practitioners, teachers as well as support staff who are further than capable, by means of suitable support and training, of meeting the recommendations of this study. In addition we have a well established infrastructure for training and development programmes. The findings in addition strongly suggest that our settings plus schools have at least enough in addition to often good material resources for teaching reading, including phonic work. (Anders, 2000)
Defining 'best practice':
The interim report defined best practice as that which results in the greatest benefit to the learner. Three questions, therefore, that might be asked when seeking to promote best practice are:
â€¢ Is it replicable across the broad range of settings and schools?
â€¢ Can it be resourced as well as sustained at reasonable cost?
â€¢ What knowledge, skills and understanding are required by practitioners, teachers and others who are liable for securing it?
Research, inspection plus leading edge work of settings as well as schools might inform best practice. However, findings as of different research programmes are a number of times contradictory or inconclusive, and often call for further studies to test tentative findings. While robust research findings have to not be ignored, developers of national strategies, much less schools in addition to settings, cannot always wait for the results of long-term research studies.
They have to take decisions, based on as much firm evidence as is available as of a range of sources at the time, especially as of replicable and sustainable best practice.
It is significant, too, that those working directly in settings and schools do not feel they are at the mercy of 'rows of back seat drivers pointing in different directions'. Practitioners and teachers who have contributed to the study were clearly looking for steady guidance that offered them structure, simplicity as well as a number of flexibility. (Gillies, 2008)
A significant test of best practice has to be how well the teaching methods secure optimum progress plus high achievement for all beginner readers and writers. It was clear as of responses to the interim report that a number of believed its recommendations ran counter to the view that 'children learn in different ways'. These views were often expressed as 'one size does not fit all'.
However, all beginner readers have to come to terms by means of the same alphabetic principles if they are to learn to read in addition to write. In the daily work of settings and classrooms this means finding the line of best fit for the great majority of children, underpinned by means of additional learning support for those who need it.
Moreover, leading edge practice bears no resemblance to a 'one size fits all' model of teaching as well as learning, nor does it promote boringly dull, rote learning of phonics.
The findings of this study argue strongly for the inclusion of a vigorous, programme of phonic work to be securely embedded inside a broad and language-rich curriculum: that is to say, a curriculum that generates purposeful discussion, interest, application, enjoyment and high achievement across all the areas of learning plus experience in the early years and progressively throughout the key stages which follow. (Gewirtz, 2001)
In practice, this means teaching relatively short, discrete daily sessions, designed to progress as of simple elements to the further complex aspects of phonic knowledge, skills as well as understanding. The best teaching seen during the study was at a brisk pace, fired children's interest, often by engaging them in multi-sensory activities, drew upon a mix of stimulating resources, and made sure that they received praise for effort in addition to achievement. Children's response to these sessions was, overwhelmingly, one in which success was its own reward. For instance, they took pride in demonstrating phonic skills, were becoming confident communicators, and showed positive attitudes to reading as well as writing. Such practice fell well inside what the Primary National
Strategy has described as 'quality first teaching'.
What roles do teaching assistants play?
Research shows clearly that children are further likely to succeed in learning when their families actively support them. When family members read by means of their children, talk by means of their teachers, participate in school or other learning activities plus assist them by means of homework, they give children a tremendous advantage.
Homework assists child do better in school when the assignments are meaningful, are completed successfully and are returned to her by means of constructive comments as of the teacher. An assignment have to have a specific purpose, come by means of clear instructions, be fairly well matched to a child's abilities and assistance to develop a child's knowledge and skills.
In the early grades, homework can assist children to develop the good study habits in addition to positive attitudes described earlier. As of third through sixth grades, small amounts of homework, gradually increased each year, might support enhanced school achievement. In seventh grade and beyond, students who complete further homework score better on standardized tests as well as earn better grades, on the average, than do students who do less homework. The dissimilarity in test scores plus grades flanked by students who further homework and those who do less increases as students move up through the grades.
Engaging young children in interesting and worthwhile pre-reading activities paves the way for the great majority to make a good start on systematic phonic work by the age of five. Indeed, for a number of, an earlier start might be probable and attractive. This is because it ill serves children to hold them back as of starting systematic phonic work that is matched to their developing abilities and enables them to benefit as of the wealth of opportunities afforded by reading as of an early age. All that said, the introduction of phonic work have to always be a matter for principled, professional judgement based on structured observations as well as assessments of children's capabilities. (Gillies, 2008)
Every child deserves excellent reading teachers because teachers make dissimilarity in children's reading achievement in addition to motivation to read. This position statement offers a research-based description of the distinguishing qualities of outstanding classroom reading teachers. Excellent reading teachers share several critical qualities of knowledge plus practice:
1. They understand reading as well as writing development, and believe all children can learn to read and write.
2. They continually assess children's individual progress and relate reading instruction to children's previous experiences. (Anders, 2000)
3. They know a variety of ways to teach reading, when to use each method, and how to combine the methods into an effective instructional program.
4. They offer a variety of materials as well as texts for children to read.
5. They use flexible grouping strategies to tailor instruction to individual students.
6. They are good reading "coaches" (that is, they offer help advantageously).
In addition, excellent reading teachers share several of the characteristics of good teachers in general. They have strong content plus pedagogical knowledge, manage classrooms so that there is a high rate of engagement, employ strong motivation strategies that encourage independent learning, have high expectations for children's achievement, in addition to assist children who are having difficulty.
Teachers make difference:
There is a growing body of evidence that documents teacher effects on children's reading achievement scores (Jordan, 1997). Teacher effectiveness which can be measured as scores on teacher proficiency tests (Ferguson, 1991), past records of students' improved scores, teachers' level of education, type of appointment (tenured, probationary, substitute), as well as years of experience (Armour, 1990)is strongly correlated by means of children's reading achievement. Moreover, teachers have strong effects on children's motivation to read (Ruddell, 1995).
Excellent reading teachers know that reading development begins well before children enter school and continues throughout a child's school career. They understand the definition of reading as a complex system of deriving meaning as of print that requires all of the following:
â€¢ The development plus maintenance of a motivation to read
â€¢ The development of suitable active strategies to construct meaning as of print
â€¢ Enough background information and vocabulary to foster reading comprehension
â€¢ The ability to read fluently
â€¢ The ability to decode unfamiliar words
â€¢ The skills as well as knowledge to understand how phonemes or speech sounds are connected to print (IRA, 1999)
Excellent teachers understand that all components of reading influence every stage of reading, however they in addition realize that the balance of instruction related to these components shifts across the developmental span in addition to shifts for individual children. Excellent teachers understand how reading plus writing development are related, as well as they effectively integrate instruction to take advantage of the child's development in both areas.
They are familiar by means of the sequence of children's reading development. They believe that all children can learn to read and write. (Anders, 2000)
How do excellent reading teachers assess student progress?
Excellent reading teachers are familiar by means of a wide range of assessment techniques, ranging as of standardized group achievement tests to informal assessment techniques that they use daily in the classroom. (Gillies, 2008)
They use the information as of standardized group measures as one source of information regarding children are reading progress, recognizing that standardized group achievement tests can be valid as well as reliable indicators of group presentation however can offer misleading information regarding individual presentation. They are well aware that critical judgments regarding children's progress have to draw as of information as of a variety of sources, and they do not make critical instructional decisions based on any single measure.
Excellent reading teachers are constantly observing children as they go regarding their daily work. They understand that involving children in self-evaluation has both cognitive plus motivational benefits. In the classroom, these teachers use a wide variety of assessment tools, counting conferences by means of students, analyses of samples of children's reading in addition to writing, running records as well as informal reading inventories, anecdotal records of children's presentation, observation checklists, and other similar tools. They are familiar by means of each child's instructional history and home literacy background. As of their observations and the child's own self-evaluations, they draw knowledge of the child's reading development, and they can relate that development to relevant standards. They use this knowledge for planning instruction that is responsive to children's needs.
What do excellent reading teachers know regarding instructional methods plus how to combine them to meet the needs the children they teach? (Gillies, 2008)
Excellent reading teachers know a wide variety of instructional philosophies, methods, as well as strategies. They understand that excellent reading instruction addresses all the essential elements of reading. They are aware that instructional strategies vary along several dimensions, including the component of reading targeted by the teaching (for instance, pronouncing words, understanding text, building motivation), the degree to which the instruction is teacher- or student-directed, and the degree to which the instruction is explicit or implicit. They understand that children vary in their responses to different types of instruction, and they select the most efficient combination of instructional strategies to serve the children in their classrooms.
They know early intervention techniques as well as ensure that children get the assistance they need as soon as the need becomes obvious. For instance, in a single middle grade classroom, teachers have children who still recognize very few words plus struggle by means of decoding, children who are fluent in addition to avid readers who can and do read everything they get their hands on and children who are fluent decoders however struggle by means of comprehension and motivation. In the case of a struggling reader, excellent reading teachers know enough regarding the child as well as the child's instructional history to offer access to very simple books on topics studied by the class. The teacher can work by means of similar children in a small group to build sight vocabulary and decoding ease, and the teacher can offer suitable accommodations so that these children can benefit as of comprehension instruction plus continue to learn critical content despite their reading difficulties. (Gillies, 2008)
Excellent reading teachers include a variety of reading materials in their classrooms. A number of times they rely on one or several reading series as the anchor of their reading program, however they in addition have supplemental materials in addition to rich classroom libraries that contain at least seven books per child. They read to their students, and they offer time in class for children to read independently. They are aware of the reading abilities as well as interests of the children, and they constantly offer a selection of books that will be both interesting to the children and inside the children's reading capabilities. (Anders, 2000)
Excellent reading teachers are familiar by means of children's literature. They include a wide variety of fiction and nonfiction genres (such as storybooks, novels, biographies, magazines, plus poetry). Excellent reading teachers in addition use school in addition to public libraries to ensure children's access to suitable books.
Organizing the classrooms for instruction:
Excellent reading teachers organize their classrooms so that schedules are predictable and children know what is expected of them in a variety of activities throughout the instructional day. They use flexible grouping strategies. When there is new as well as difficult information to convey that most of the class needs to learn, excellent reading teachers use large-group, direct, explicit instruction. They model the focal strategy or skill, demonstrate how and when to use it, and explain why it is significant. They guide the children in their use of the skill or strategy, gradually diminishing support and assistance and requiring students to assume greater responsibility as the children become further skilled. They offer opportunities for individual practice plus observe children in their use of the skill or strategy. During practice activities, they observe children closely, intervening when necessary by means of a question or comment that moves children forward. (Gewirtz, 2001)
They in addition know which children will advantage as of all elements of a direct instruction lesson in a particular skill or strategy as well as which children will need only a brief period of guided instruction or study followed by independent practice. They use efficient grouping practices to accommodate these dissimilarities.
Excellent reading teachers in addition understand that large-group, direct instruction is time-consuming in addition to costly and that, often, several children in the class will not benefit as of this instruction. They know when to organize children in large groups for direct, explicit instruction, when small-group or person instruction is further suitable, and when children will learn more efficiently on their own. They assist children advance in reading by differentiating the type of instruction, the degree of support, and the amount of practice children receive. They do not allow children to spend time learning what they already know and can do. (Gewirtz, 2001)
Interaction by means of children:
Excellent reading teachers interact by means of individual children frequently in the course of their daily teaching activities. As they assist children solve problems or practice new skills as well as strategies, they "coach" or "scaffold" children by providing assistance at strategic moments. They are skilled at observing children's presentation plus using informal interactions to call children's attention to significant aspects of what they are learning and doing. They frequently assist children by means of a difficult part of the task so that the children can move forward to complete the task successfully. It is significant to note that such teaching is neither incidental nor unsystematic. Excellent readings teachers know where their children are in reading development in addition to they recognize the likely next steps. They assist children take these steps by providing just the right amount of assistance at just the right time. (Anders, 2000)
Recommendations and Conclusion:
Excellent teaching and extra help from the teachers, parents and assistant teachers will enable the child to understand as well as learn quickly plus without any problem. Along with this the child will also start loving learning as he will not be under pressure and will not think of learning in addition to education as a burden as children will take as a light fun and will be easy for the teachers and parents to ensure the involvement of children in learning. There are some further recommendations made in order to cover the loop holes and make the standards even better for teachers as well as parents. (Gewirtz, 2001)
â€¢ Teachers have to view themselves as lifelong learners plus continually strive to improve their practice.
â€¢ Administrators have to be instructional leaders who support teachers' efforts to improve reading instruction.
â€¢ Teacher educators have to offer both a solid knowledge base in addition to extensive supervised practice to prepare excellent beginning reading teachers.
â€¢ Legislators and policy makers have to understand the complex role of the teacher in providing reading instruction and ensure that teachers have the resources and the support they need to teach reading.
Legislators plus policy makers have to not impose one-size-fits-all mandates
â€¢ Parents, community members, as well as teachers have to work in partnership to assure that children value reading and have several.