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A fundamental challenge to education in this century which calls for concerted actions, is to teach human values and social skills most necessary for learners to be a 'complete person'. This means going beyond an instrumental view of education that emphasises the development of the complete person. "The physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man is a broad definition of the fundamental aim of education" (Delors Commission, 1996). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, article 26(2) states: "Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality...."
Throughout the two hundred year history of public schooling, a widely scattered group of critics have pointed out that the education of young human beings should involve much more than simply moulding them into future workers or citizens. There is more and more pressure from the economy and politics to prepare the labour force and citizens that fit into the needs of a globalized, economy dominated world. Employability, Mobility and Flexibility have become catch words of this development. Critique on existing curricula speak about an "unbalanced emphasis on economic and utilitarian aims, leading to an overâ€emphasis on school as a competitive market where the child is unable to flourish and grow as a person, or to be listened to" (Watson, 2006, 253). The Swiss humanitarian Johann Pestalozzi, the American Transcendentalists, Thoreau, Emerson and Alcott, the founders of "progressive" education Francis Parker and John Dewey and pioneers such as Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner, among others, all insisted that education should be understood as the art of cultivating the moral, emotional, physical, psychological and spiritual dimensions of the developing child and promoting the growth and development of the whole personÂ - the idea of aÂ holistic education. (Dufty and Dufty 1989,Â Lovat and Smith 1990,Â Beare 1989,Â Boomer 1982,Â Eisner 1982)This gave birth to a perspective known as holism. The concept of holism refers to the idea that all the properties of a given system in any field of study cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its component parts. Instead, the system as a whole determines how its parts behave.
Significant forward motion was accomplished by the first National Holistic Education Conference that was conducted with The University of California, San Diego in July 1979, that included 31 workshops. The Conference was presented by The Mandala Society and The National Center for the Exploration of Human Potential. The title was Mind: Evolution or Revolution? The Emergence of Holistic Education.
Holistic education is often used to refer to the more democratic and humanistic types of alternative education. A holistic way of thinking seeks to encompass and integrate multiple layers of meaning and experience rather than defining human possibilities narrowly. Every child is more than a future employee; every person's intelligence and abilities are far more complex than his or her scores on standardized tests.
Holistic education is based on the premise that each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the community, to the natural world, and to spiritual values such as compassion and peace. Holistic education aims to call forth from people an intrinsic reverence for life and a passionate love of learning. This is done, not through an academic "curriculum" that condenses the world into instructional packages, but through direct engagement with the environment. Holistic education nurtures a sense of wonder. There is no one best way to accomplish this goal, there are many paths of learning and the holistic educator values them all; what is appropriate for some children and adults, in some situations, in some historical and social contexts, may not be best for others. The art of holistic education lies in its responsiveness to the diverse learning styles and needs of evolving human beings. "We are creatures of both reason and emotion, mind and body, matter and spirit" (Elaine Rileyâ€Taylor, 2002).
Education with a holistic perspective is concerned with the development of every person's intellectual, emotional, social, physical, artistic, creative and spiritual potentials. A core element of Holistic Education is to appreciate spirituality as a key element of the human being. ( Peter Schreiner 2010.)
Multi-Dimensional Perspectives of Holistic Education
Cognitive/Academic:Â Thought processes, the capacity to reason logically.
Social:Â All learning happens in a social context of shared meaning.
Emotional:Â All learning is accompanied by an emotional state which can greatly affect the learning outcome.
Physical:Â All learning occurs in a physical body. Mind-body harmony is an important element in the quality of learning.
Spiritual:Â The total and direct experience of universal love that establishes a sense of compassion, fraternity and peace towards all beings.
Moral: basic moral values necessary to live.
It seeks to engage students in the teaching/learning process and encourages personal and collective responsibility. Holistic education aims at helping students be the most that they can be. It helps the students to develop critical and reflective thinking skills and encourage them to care about the world around them.
Robin Ann Martin (2003) describes this further by stating, "At its most general level, what distinguishes holistic education from other forms of education are its goals, its attention to experiential learning, and the significance that it places on relationships and primary human values within the learning environment."
There are separate bodies of literature on spirituality in education, eco-literacy, multiple intelligences, whole language, and cooperative learning that address more specific aspects of holistic education. Holistic thinkers often draw from the work of theorists from the early and mid twentieth century including Alfred North Whitehead ("process" philosophy), Carl Jung (archetypal psychology), Sri Aurobindo (integral philosophy), Gregory Bateson (cybernetics), andÂ Ludwig von BertalanffyÂ (systems theory) among others. Most recently, a school of thought known as "spiral dynamics" has become prominent in the holistic literature (Beck and Cowan, 1996). Other holistic thinkers, like Ken Wilber, use the term "holarchical," indicating that reality is essentially comprised of wholes within wholes (Wilber, 1995). Even the "Montessorians" or "Progressive Educators" are clearly part of an emerging holistic movement that is broader than any one constituency. Integrated Teaching, Cooperative Learning, and Community Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approaches also follow holistic principles.
In a pedagogical context the Dutch scholars Wardekker and Miedema (2001) use these terms to characterize two models of education. In the transformative view of education, the acquisition of knowledge and skills, and of norms and values as modes of being, knowing, feeling and acting are not taken in the dualistic subjectâ€object way but in a holistic or transactional way. Learning is aimed at the growing capacity or the growing competence of students to participate in culturally structured practice. The idea of dialogue and participation is fundamental. The core focus of the learning process is not the transmission of knowledge, skills, values and norms but rather the transformation of these into a heuristic base for acting.
2.0 HOLISTIC EDUCATION IN TEACHING OF ENGLISH
Language is central to education and language teaching requires more than the teaching of language. According to Stern (1992), there are four main content areas of language teaching:
1. The study of the target language
2. The study of the target culture
3. Communicative activities
4. General language education.
It is unfortunate that English language teaching has only remained at a very superficial stage.
As Littlejohn (1997) points out: For a long time, much of English language teaching has been on the margins of education, indeed, some teachers will actually say that they are only responsible for teaching the language, and not for the general educational development of the student. This, however, is an illusion. Whether we are aware of it or not, students will always learn more in their language classes than just language. holistic education proposes that all subjects have a role in helping young people develop morally and spiritually.
There are a host of cultural and socio-emotional needs that must be addressed in addition to learning English in order for English Learners to be thriving, successful students and adults. (Bhattacharya)
Holistic education in teaching of English includes the teaching of language and teaching of literature. It includes the teaching of four skills viz. Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. It is not confined to teaching of language but it aims at developing the emotional, cognitive, psycho-motor, spiritual and moral aspects of an individual to help him to grow at his fullest.
Features of a holistic approach to English / literacy teaching
Integrating all four skill areas: reading, writing, speaking, listening
Integrating Cognitive, Social, Emotional, Moral, Spiritual and Psycho-motor dimensions
Linking text, sentence and word
Using digital and multimodal approaches alongside traditional methods of communication
Using authentic real-life resources, approaches or situations
Making links with literacy / language use outside the classroom
Using diagnostic and formative assessment information to inform planning
Possibly integrating ICT
3.0 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY
Mahatma Gandhi said, "By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man's body, mind and spirit". The similar thought was expressed by Rabindranath Tagore, "The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence".
(i) POTENTIAL THRUST TO HOLISTIC EDUCATION IN NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION POLICIES
If we observe these aspects in educational context, we see that these dimensions were focussed in Vedic era also. Development of all round personality, including the infusion of piety and religiousness and promotion of social efficiency and welfare were the aims of education. Achievement of social and national integration and cultivation of social, moral and spiritual values (The Indian Education Commission on Educational Aims ,1964-66), commitment to democracy and the values of equality, justice, freedom, concern for others' well-being, secularism, respect for human dignity and rights which are based on reason and understanding (National Curriculum Framework, 2005), a continuous process of self-discovery, of learning the truth about oneself (Position Paper on Aims of Education, NCERT 2006) have been accepted and recommended time and again by various commissions and reports.
'UNESCO Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty first Century' states four pillars as foundations of education and fundamental types of learning in the reorganization of the education for the twenty-first century. (1) Learning to Know (2) Learning to do (3) Learning to live together and (4) Learning to be.
The National Curriculum Framework 2005 mentions that the teacher's own role in children's cognition could be enhanced if they assume a more active role in relation to the process of knowledge construction in which children are engaged. A child constructs her/his knowledge while engaged in the process of learning. The physical activity of moving, exploring and doing things, on one's own, with one's peers or in the company of adults, and using language - to read, to express or ask, to listen and to interact - are the key processes through which learning occurs.
POSITION PAPER on Aims of Education, NCERT 2006 solicits that Teaching should be in the conversational mode rather than in the mode of authoritarian monologue. It is in the conversational mode that the child is likely to grow in self-confidence and self-awareness and will more easily establish connections between the teachings and his own experience.
Being accepted by educationists, policy makers and practitioners the questions arises here is 'how to impart such kind of education?' this is not achievable through traditional or direct methods of teaching. It requires enriched and advanced approaches and methods of teaching to draw out the best in child: his body, mind and soul, as Confucius Says, I hear and I forget. I see and I believe. I do and I understand.
(ii) THREE FOLD INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES ARE ACHIEVABLE THROUGH HOLISTIC APPROACH
The most comprehensive taxonomy of educational objectives by B.S. Bloom is a convenient way to describe the degree to which we want our students to understand and use concepts (Cognitive domain), to demonstrate particular skills (Psycho-motor domain), and to have their values, attitudes, and interests affected (Affective domain).Â Bloom's Taxonomy can be used in an iterative fashion to first state and then refine course goals. But we must ensure that our curriculum, instructional methods, and classroom assessment techniques are properly aligned with course goals.
the present study will help in achieving the three fold instructional objectives proposed by B.S. Blooms along with the spiritual development of students.
The present study along with the three fold objectives of B.S. Blooms also includes the spiritual aspect.
Cognitive Affective Psycho-motor Spiritual
(iii) A FOCUSING AREA OF RESEARCH
The forces of change unleashed by electronics-led communication revolution, the invasion through satellite channels on our cultural heritage, the erosion of the family and the increase in the number of divorces and consequently of single-parent families and latchkey children highlights the need for building up a strong component of value based education. Value education needs to be participatory rather than sermon-based and it should support and strengthen the holistic development of the learners' personality (Updating Curricula in Education: A Framework ,UGC).
"The five universal values represent the five domains of human personality- intellectual, physical, emotional, psychological and spiritual are correlated to the five major objectives of education namely knowledge, skill, vision, balance, identity" (81st report on value based education, presented in Rajya Sabha on 26 February 1999. National Curriculum Framework , NCERT 2000)
Around 80 per cent of school heads have expressed that rote learning is the prime reason for lowering the standard of students in schools and that developing high order thinking skills in students is the need of the hour. Holistic curriculum and the aims of all round development of personality would remain ivory towers without a concrete plan to impart such curriculum. The present study will provide a teaching model to achieve these aims and to impart this kind of curriculum.
The researcher has chosen to develop this model in teaching of English as this is her area of interest and area of specialization and this is the thrust research area of the department as well. So this study will contribute to the growth of both, the researcher as well as the department. Development of a teachers' training model will help in promoting this approach wider and farther.
(iv) INTEGRATION OF LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY AND PEDAGOGY
The highest function of education is to bring about an integrated individual who is capable of dealing with life as a whole (Radhakrishnan). As teacher educators this is our responsibility to develop innovative methods and models of teaching and impart education through such innovative methods which helps in the all round development of our future teachers.
J. Krishnamurti in India, John Dewey in the U.S., Francisco Ferrer in Spain, and A.S. Neill in England devised practical methods and radical theories that challenged basic assumptions about schooling, teaching and learning (Miller, 1997).
Though there has been substantial output in the field, but more in terms of designing the curriculum. There is dearth of such models which are required to implement the holistic curriculum. The present research is directly concerned with this. this will fulfill the two fold purpose of language teaching and holistic development.
Thus committed and persistent efforts are urgently needed to develop such teaching strategies and models which help to provide such kind of holistic education.
STATUS OF HOLISTIC EDUCATION
"There is a substantial consensus among educationalists that transformation needs to happen in five broad areas - student thinking, classroom dynamics, learning ambience, technology integration and teacher empowerment - to effectively address these challenges," ( Chitra Ravi, founder and chief executive officer of EZ Vidya, India's leading research companies, focusing on delivering quality and holistic education in schools) EZ Vidya has brought 21st century education in over 700 schools across India. Manthan Vidhyashramâ€¦â€¦.A school for holistic education, Aurobindo Educational Foundation and Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya are the leading schools that are providing holistic education.
Schools in New England, East-Central, Midwest, The South, West, Canada (Ontario) are providing education for the holistic development of the students.
4.0 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
DEVELOPING A TEACHERS' TRAINING MODEL BASED ON HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR TEACHING OF ENGLISH.
5.0 DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
(1) HOLISTIC APPROACH
"Holistic educationÂ is a philosophy of education based on the premise that each person finds identity, meaning, and purpose in life through connections to the community, to the natural world, and to humanitarian values such as compassion and peace".
This definition is given by Ron Miller, founder, JournalÂ Holistic Education ReviewÂ (now entitledÂ Encounter: Education for Meaning and Social Justice).
Holistic Approach in the present study means approach that will focus on the cognitive/academic, emotional, moral, spiritual and psycho-motor aspects of learning.
Models of teaching were identified and described for the first time by Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil (1980). They defined a model as: "A model of teaching is a set of inter-related components arranged in a sequence which provides guidelines to realize a specific goal.Â It helps the designing instructional activities and provides an environment carrying out these activities in order to realize the stipulated objectives".Â
Â Operational Definition:
A teaching model can be considered as a type of blue print for teaching. It provides structure and direction for the teacher. In short 'Models' are perspective teaching-strategies designed to accomplish particular instructional goals. It is an implementation that brings together information, resources, learning activities and instructional strategies intended to facilitate desired teaching-learning goals. Based on the components proposed by Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil the present study incorporates two additional elements:
(i) Focus - refers to the goal or objectives of teaching
(ii) Syntax - involves a description of the process and structure of the teaching-learning activities employed to achieve the goal. It may also indicate certain principles to guide the teacher.
(iii) Social System - indicates student teacher roles, their relationships and norms of inter- personal behaviour.
(iv) Support System - specifies the resource material needed for implementing the lesson and indicates ideational as well as material resources.
(v) Content - Selecting and organisation of the subject matter (based on the prescribed content) to suit the focus of the lesson.
(vi) Evaluation and Feedback - This includes formative and summative evaluation and appropriate feedback (within the lesson and as follow-up.)
(III) TEACHER TRAINEES
Students of Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) degree programme who are being prepared as prospective teachers at secondary level by university departments or colleges are considered as teacher trainees in the study. The study is specifically concerned with the teacher trainees who offer English as one of their methodologies of teaching.
6.0 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of the study:
1. To develop a paradigm for Holistic Education in the context of Teaching of English.
2. To develop a Teacher Training Model
based on Holistic Approach in teaching of English.
3. To develop teaching-learning material based on the Holistic Model.
4. Trying out the Effectiveness of the Model on teacher trainees of English in the following
7.0 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
The first three objectives are related to the development of the Teaching Model, hence need not be hypothesised.
The fourth objective is related to the empirical try out of the model and the hypothesis related to this objective is as following:
1. There will be a significant improvement in the holistic development of students in the following domains as a result of teaching based on Holistic Model:
8.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The present research is a qualitative Research and also includes elements of quantitative research. Descriptive Research during the Model Development phase and Experimental Method during the Try-out phase.
9.0 PROCEDURE OF THE STUDY
The model will be developed in accordance with the following phases:
Phases of Model development
1. Developing a Paradigm for Holistic Education in English
This will be done in three steps:
A. Establishing Essential principles of holistic education
B. determining sub-dimensions of each domain of holistic approach.
C. Survey of literature
D. Discussion with Experts & Experts' opinion.
2. Developing the Model
A. Specification- Specification of the six elements of the model development will be done on the bass of survey of available material, model lessons and material of recognized institutes.
Six elements of Model Development:
3. Social system
4. support System
6. Evaluation & Feedback
B. Experts' Opinion
C. Modification and finalization of the first draft.
3. Development of Teaching-Learning Material
A. Lesson Plans
B. Teaching Aids
C. Student Activity Material etc.
4. Try out of the Model
Parallel Group Pre-Test Post-Test Design will be followed.
Teaching based on Holistic Model
5. Feedback And Finalisation
Feedback will be collected from students and with the help of experts' opinion the model will be finalized.
10.0 VARIABLES OF THE STUDY
Independent Variable: Teacher's Training Model Based on Holistic Approach
Dependent Variable: cognitive/academic, emotional, moral, spiritual and psycho-motor aspects of learning.
Controlling Variables: Medium of Instruction in previous Education, Previous Qualification, Achievement level, General environment, content etc.
11.0 THE STUDY SAMPLE
The study will use the following samples in the two phases of research, i.e. Model development and Experimental try out of the model. The sample for each phase is given below:
(A) For Development of Teachers' Training Model based on Holistic Approach.
(i) Experts in English Language Teaching and Holistic Education 05
(ii) Teacher educators (drawn from various teacher education institutes in the Agra city) 10
(iii) Teacher Trainees of English (drawn from various teacher education institutes in the Agra city) 200
(B) Sample for Model Try-out
(i) Teacher Trainees (B.Ed. students who have opted English teaching method) 50
25= Controlled Group
25= Experimental Group
11.0 TOOLS FOR THE STUDY
The following tools will be used to evaluate the various dimensions of holistic development
12.0 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES