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Firstly, i am extremely grateful to Allah who gave me the courage to complete my research thesis. After that i have been indebted in the preparation of this thesis to my supervisor, Sir Touqeer Haider and Miss Zehra Raza, whose patience and kindness, as well as their academic experiences, has been invaluable to me. I would like to express my gratitude to my instructors who helped me during the whole of my project. They also offered me valuable suggestions in the academic studies. In the whole of final project, they have spent much time to help me and provided me with inspiring advice. Without their patient instructions, insightful criticisms and expert guidance, the completion of this project would not have been possible.
I would also like to thank my family for giving me the strength to believe in myself and conduct this thesis with great courage. There also has been a constant source of support of my family - emotional, moral and of course financial - during my postgraduate years, and this thesis would certainly not have existed without them. The informal support and encouragement of many friends has been indispensable. I would like particularly to acknowledge the contribution of my friend Ahmad, who really helped me out in filling of the questionnaire from all of the universities. Lastly, i would also like to thank my aunt Miss Sara Khawar and my teacher Miss Fareeha for checking my questionnaire for errors.
The research reported in this thesis was on "Analysis of the determinants of quality of teaching: A Case study of private autonomous Universities in Punjab". The purpose of research was to study determinants of quality of teaching and to suggest the measures to improve and enhance the quality of teaching for the improved students achievements and stronger educational sector. The secondary data was collected with the consultation of literature on the internet. The primary data was being collected through a survey questionnaire. The Stats graphics software was used in order to run the multiple regression analysis. The data was interpreted graphically with the help of pie charts, scatter plot and histogram. The results show that Student Evaluation, Teacher's Perspective, Government Role and Institutional Views have a significant relationship with the Quality of teaching.
Quality of teaching as it reflects is considered as a very important phenomenon if we study the educational sector of an economy. It contributes a lot in regard to the prosperity of any economy around the world. There are multiple indicators of educational quality which do not necessarily operate in uniform fashion. We will describe the distribution of educational quality around the world and point out that even in nations with full enrollment and high educational expenditure the impact of investments varies considerably. In the future attention would be diverted on the quality of higher education. The enhanced local governance has in some rural communities in Punjab, undoubtedly impacted positively on teacher's levels of motivation and their status. Working conditions and salaries are potentially important in determining the quality of instruction, though the extent of their influence depends on the effectiveness of district personnel decisions. There is little evidence that the more highly paid teachers are systematically more effective.
Higher education is very essential for active participation in the knowledge societies which in turn accelerates economic growth. Quality education is a prerequisite to gain access to knowledge which guarantees economic development. This makes the condition of higher education in Pakistan a very crucial issue. The Higher Education Commission is committed to quality assurance and enhancement of higher education institutions. To achieve world class standards, quality assessment and continuous improvement are the necessary ingredients. The university quality assessment is primarily concerned with the institutional issues rather than programme issues. HEC has developed procedure and guidelines for quality assurance and its enhancement.
The concept of "good teaching" being promoted in university settings is basically in relation to the exploration through conducted interviews with professors and exchange professors. Institutions were asking questions related to the academic structure, purpose of higher education, role regarding students, professionals, role concerning teaching, rewards for good teaching, assessment of students, and faculty development.
Quality of teaching can be determined through the factors like leadership, quality of faculty, quality of students, curriculum, infrastructure facilities, research and learning environment, governance, strategic planning, assessment procedures and relevance to market forces.
An efficient and effective high quality higher education system which is internationally recognized and a well established national Quality Culture are vital for economic growth in developing countries. A quality higher education system is essential to the successful development and functioning of an open and democratic civil society. Higher education is expected to provide the social norms of communication and interaction such as philosophical thinking and reasoning to promote the sovereignty of its individuals, and to eliminate all kinds of social-class ethnic conflicts and gender or religious biases. The standards of quality of higher education need to be improved significantly to achieve goals of competitiveness with international standards and to create the foundations of a Knowledge Economy and Compatibility.
It is making concerted efforts to improve the quality of education and to move university education to meet the international standards in the provision of high-quality teaching, learning, research and service. A more focused and precise approach is being developed for the best results and for consistency in the process of the Quality Assurance &Enhancement in higher education in the country. It reflects the effort to sensitize higher education institutions to the changes taking place internationally and bring higher education into complete harmony with the shifting paradigms at leading, institutions around the world. The purpose of the teaching evaluation process is to improve teaching. It is best realized when instructors incorporate student and peer evaluations into that process. In the absence of feedback, instructors would have to rely exclusively on their own inferences about the quality of their teaching. It is important to note that professional learning in relation to the quality of teaching is not achieved by adopting a simplistic formula of training and development or by focusing chiefly upon student outcomes. Quality can neither be defined as a theoretical nor a practical phenomenon. Both theory as well as the practice factor is considered to be the essential part of quality of teaching.
In defining quality of teachers there is also a need to recognize that the quality of the programs depends to a large extend on the quality of the work of academics who deliver them. Academics can interpret and apply intellectual standard in different ways and some academics teach more effectively than others. The quality of staff implies acceptable social and financial status, a will to reduce inequalities such as those relating to gender, a concern to manage staff in accordance with the merit principle and provide them with the in-service training they need, in order to fulfill their role in a changing society; the establishment of incentives and structures to encourage researchers to work in multi disciplinary thematic projects, thus breaking with the habit of exclusively solitary scientific work.(UNESCO,1998).
Development of quality is basically a holistic art that accounts for all of the aspects in terms of quality like faculty development, research, students, curricula management, governance, accreditation, recognition of the qualifications in specific and harmony with the national needs and societal impact in general.
From the world's perspective the conducted research would be important as it would create an easy access to the educational system for all of the people around the globe. It will be beneficial for the world firstly, for the ease of creating a system that generates new knowledge, secondly to contribute toward the economic prosperity and global competitiveness of a country and lastly, for the empowerment of the citizens within a country. It will also help in the provision of a high-quality instruction while making improvement in the efficiency of the educational system in order to be more reasonable with the help of parents, students, government and institutes that are responsible for their sustainability.
Furthermore, it provides with the workplace skills in accordance to the changing economy. The universities functioning worldwide will consider processes as a feature towards accountability and strong quality assurance that reflects a shift in relation between the universities and the government. The significant role of this research is to assist the countries on the key issues that are being configured in universities around the world. They highlight the fact that there is a need for the nations to be globally competitive. There is also a very vital need regarding to the accessibility of the education and also to improve the inefficiencies within the education system. It also will enhance the need to embrace new technologies and new innovative models for teaching and research around the world especially in the less developed countries of the world. Moreover, this research will also help in the adoption of continuous innovation and quality of improvement required in the less developed countries.
In the international perspective this research will be beneficial as it will lead more towards international compatibility, sketches out a process of sharing information, help in the provision of feedback, enhance the building of capacity, strengthen the partners and most importantly develop the some common set of academic standards that will be followed. The Quality management at university level is shown in figure 1 in the appendix that clearly explains the whole process that is carried out during the quality management process.
The emphasis is being given to quality assurance if we talk of the quality of education in Pakistan. This research will prove to be very useful for the higher education in Pakistan as it will ensure and enhance the quality of teaching which is of central importance and the key responsibilities of the higher educational institutes. Government on the other hand will also make an effort to further take this matter under serious consideration. There is a serious tension going on within the universities regarding the approaches of quality of teaching. They will easily choose between the accountability and the enhancement of the quality. Universities would also get help in getting the assured about the quality of teaching as they were previously choosing the approaches depending on the social, economical, political, cultural, and developmental context of every university. This research will also provide the answers related to the approaches towards quality.
In addition to the above mentioned points the research will also help in emphasizing the role of education that plays a significant role in the national prosperity in Pakistan. This role of education in our country is also highlighted by educators, policy-makers, students, teachers and government stake holders in Pakistan. It will be a good help in the promotion of the vision of quality through its curriculum and textbooks. A lot of work is and should be conducted in the future regarding teacher training and education. Pakistan faces a very serious challenge in regard to the quality assurance in higher learning institutions. The HEC agenda basically focuses on the quality of knowledge that is being imparted within the institutions.
The institutions in Pakistan mainly have to focus on the quality element of higher education. Their aim is to develop an ultimate Quality Culture in which the quality is considered as the major focus and a integral part of all the academic practices.
Purpose of the study was to investigate the views of the students and teachers regarding the determinants of the quality of teaching