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This dissertation presents designing new instructional design model for Learning Objects in order to achieve the quality standards of electronic content. This dissertation focused on:
Introducing guidelines for designing interactive educational programs.
Developing effective tools and technologies to build interactive educational environment.
Identifying new criteria's (AAUF) Model to measure the quality of educational programs.
Using clear methodology to design a motivating and interactive Learning Objects based upon integrating an interactive multimedia.
Examining the effectiveness of educational software used in primary schools in Kuwait based on the newly developed criteria's (AAUF) Model.
The researcher mentioned in chapter (2) a concept of E-learning and E-content and offered different models for designing the Learning Objects. Chapter (3) presented HCI concept and focused on the most important factors of usability to be used when designing a new instructional design model.
A new instructional design model (AAUF) was presented in chapter (4) The model is a combination of (ADDIE) Model that focus on the instructional design stages and the (ARCS) Model that focus on the importance of adding the motivation when designing learning objects. In addition, elements of usability have been added to the model in order to design easy to use and interactive Learning Objects measured in all design stages.
A case study was applied in chapter (6) to examine educational software based on newly criteria's (AAUF) Model and measure the usability of the educational software.
Based on the objectives of this research, the outcome of the study can be summarized as follows:
- Instructors found that the educational software achieved its educational goal and objectives, however there was lacking in designing the learning objects, it is noticed that the Learning Objects criteria are "partially available" in the educational software.
- The researcher introduced a new design criteria's (AAUF) Model, a checklist of the Model is provided in appendix (1).
-This Model is believed to be an important tool for designers to ensure the existent of usability factors according to the various development stages of any educational program.
The researcher introduced new design criteria's (AAUF) Model, and urge researchers to use the model for courseware evaluation, this will help to provide recommendations for model improvement.
Recommendations and model improvements from various researchers may bring Â an international evaluation criterion for developing educational software to the HCI community.
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Courseware: is educational material intended as kits for teachers or trainers or as tutorials for students, usually packaged for use with a computer. Courseware can encompass any knowledge area, but information technology subjects are most common. Courseware is frequently used for delivering education about the personal.
IEEE LOM: The IEEE Standard for Learning Object Metadata is an internationally recognized open standard (published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association) for the description of "learning objects".
LCMS ( learning content management system ): a related technology to the learning management system, in that it is focused on the development, management and publishing of the content that will typically be delivered via an LMS.
Learning portal : Website that presents learning and training goods and services from several sources.
LMS (Learning Management System): a system that manages the E-learning environments such as providing teaching environment, hosting online courses and tracking learning activities.
Infrastructure: is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function.
Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.
Instructional Design as a Process: Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
Instructional Design as a Science: Instructional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity.
Storyboard: a large board on which a series of sketches of shots or scenes are arranged in sequence for outlining the action of a film, video, etc.
subject matter experts: is a person who is an expert in a particular area or topic.
Appendix 1: EI-ADDIE MODEL
Instructional Design Checklist
Analysis stage :
Determining the general objectives of producing programs.
Defining the educational authority whose deliver the educational courseware.
Providing the integrated information about the courseware (such as : courseware name, the general objectives of the courseware)
Dividing the courseware for educational units in cooperation with an expert of the educational subject.
Defining the characteristics of the learners
Defining the estimated time for education.
Defining the educational environment
Defining the system's requirements (e.g.: tools - devices - programs â€¦. etc)
Distribute the tasks and determine the functions.
Determining the educational objectives for each unit
Defining the educational returns
Preparing the contents of the courseware
Determining the applied strategy for evaluation
Defining the special requirement for multimedia
Producing drafts for the educational stories considering the following criteria:
Including the educational stories with multimedia (E.G: texts, fixed images and graphics, video shots, voice)
Using the situations, proverbs that is suitable for the customs and traditions of the country.
The content of the educational story shall targeted the educational objectives.
Considering the recency of the topics that is included in the educational stories' content.
Using samples that is matching with the actual reality.
Selecting the realistic examples that is familiar to the learner
Selecting a proper educational environment and close to the learner environment.
Verifying of the stories and being free from the educational mistakes.
Reviewing the educational stories and depending an expert of the subject.
Designing a diagram for the interface of using considering the following criteria:
Defining the links that connected between the parts of the courseware.
Determining the browser tools that is used for moving among the contents of the courseware
Defining the links that is used to move for specific pages.
Providing a content that demonstrates the main words .
Providing a guidance page
Providing a page for references and sources.
Getting the approval from the produced authority for the program to execute the work.
Upon finishing the production of the educational software, it is needed to be verified from providing the following:
Using unified design for all the pages.
Presence of a map for the educational units.
Unifying the shapes and the places that is used for displaying the images and graphics
fixing the browsers' tools place in all of pages.
Containing the pages for a button that is used for main page.
Using the browsers' tools by the images as can as possible.
Using the main, specific and fixed links in all pages that is discriminated by different colors.
The function of each icons or button shall be clear for each user
Selecting colors for the texts that is differentiate from the background color.
The educational units:
Providing a variety of screens for each educational units (the educational objectives - explanation - exercises- tests)
Clarifying the educational objectives in each of the educational units.
Educational environment :
Drawing characters that is suitable for the traditions and customs of each country.
Selecting backgrounds that is parallel to the real environment of the learner
Consistency between the contents "images , drawings and texts " with the learners' characteristics.
Using only one style for writing the titles.
Selecting some of texts shall appear in a clear way on the screen.
Selecting colors for these texts that is differentiate from the background color.
graphics and fixed images:
Selecting images that express about the educational content
Selecting suitable and linked colors with the reality.
Considering the consistency of the images' shapes.
6. Sounds :
selecting a clear and matched sounds
The simultaneity of listening sounds with the texts
Fitting the speed of sound with the learners' characteristics.
Selecting suitable sounds for the negative and positive promotion
Adding volume control to stop or adjust it.
The suitable time for shooting video.
Consistency of the video shot with the text.
Fitting the speed of sound "comment" with video shot.
Selecting suitable video shot with the educational situation.
Adding video control to stop it or to adjust it.
The interaction and the educational control:
The availability of the selecting among the several patterns of interaction between the learner and the courseware content.
Providing the courseware with special record for each student to enroll the data and the times of his entry and the period of each time.
Providing the courseware with interactive method to receive the enquiries and make a link between the instructor and his learners.
Delivering a list of the students' name and their e-mails to interact with each other.
Provide the learners an area to publish what ever they want from thoughts or suggestions for their colleagues and the instructors without any need for email
Controlling the instructors for the sequence of contents' demonstration.
Providing a sufficient time for the learners to give his response
The accuracy and safety:
Being the courseware free from any repetition mistakes.
Being the courseware free from any designing or programming defaults
Giving the directions that is insist on the secrecy of learner's data.
Each student should posses a record, no one can enter to these data accept him.