Delivery Mechanism In Hospitality Management Education Education Essay

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This paper is an attempt to identify the ways to strengthen the delivery mechanism of Hospitality Management Education in India by applying the implications of sound pedagogical theories. The elements like human resources, materials and methodology-applied act as foundation of efficient delivery mechanism. In order to reinforce these foundation elements, it becomes essential to provide some pedagogical scaffolding to them. These pedagogical scaffoldings, consisting of findings of various teaching-learning theories, propose many instructional strategies that can be utilized for enhancing the efficacy of Hospitality Management Education.

In Indian context, the curricula of various courses of hospitality education are developed by the academic or professional institutions with the inputs of regulatory bodies like AICTE, NCHMCT and also of industry experts. But in the absence of efficient delivery mechanism, even the best of the curricula formulated fails to yield the desired results. The various 'pedagogical theories' suggest suitable remedial measures for the same. Theories provide theoretical framework to explain various concepts and also suggest the reasons behind various phenomenon. These are formulated after thorough observation with the help of inductive and deductive reasoning. Research in the field of psychology has provided greater insights about the teaching-learning process and has resulted into the formulation of many pedagogical theories. Findings of various teaching-learning theories are now being utilized for design, development, delivery and evaluation of instructional system. This has lead to the improvement of the whole process of education. The important findings of these theories bearing direct impact on hospitality education are identified in the paper and effort is made to analyze the rationale behind the present delivery mechanism with the purpose of its improvement.

Key-words: delivery mechanism, hospitality management education and pedagogical theories

Mr. Rajiv Mishra is Assistant Professor in Hospitality & Tourism and Mr. Kulwinder Pal is Assistant Professor in Teaching Methodology, Sikkim Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

E-mail Ids:

Rajiv Mishra : [email protected]

Kulwinder Pal : [email protected]

1. Introduction

In the last twenty years, 'Hospitality Management Education' experienced an impressive growth worldwide as reflected in the variety of programs offered by the increasing number of hospitality education providers. As the quantitative expansion is always followed by the emergence of many qualitative issues, the quality of hospitality education programs has also been severely questioned by the industry stakeholders including hospitality industry experts and hospitality industry employers recently. In response, issue of quality in hospitality programs - how to enhance it and evaluate it - has been placed squarely on the contemporary agenda of many hospitality education providers (Kaissi, Chahine & Jammal)

A study carried out by the Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Association of India (FHRAI) would cause concern to the industry on the question of the current status of hospitality management education. Of the managers interviewed, about 20 per cent thought the quality was poor and that it is further declining; there is lot of emphasis on theory and not on the practical side of operations. They also complained that the quality of faculty in most institutions is poor; teachers are out of touch with the modern needs of hotels. One complaint of the faculty members was that the quality of industrial training in hotels was not up to the mark. (Seth, 2005)

Competition, the use of information technology, focus on quality, innovation, and intellectual capital are few aspects that describe today's environment not withstanding the environment of tourism and hospitality industry. Advent of globalization and its diverse implications are putting a lot of pressure on hospitality education providers to improve the environment of hospitality education by subjecting it to various changes and developments (Shayya, M.). This paper stems from the above fact to develop the topic of strengthening delivery mechanism of Hospitality Management Education with relevant pedagogical theories by paying regard to theoretical as well as practical approaches to teaching and learning. The paper stresses the need for a paradigm shift in teaching and learning methods and strategies from traditional didactic styles that mainly use lecturing to more dynamic student-centred and proactive learning approaches as well as innovative teaching techniques.

2. Context of the Study

The paper explores the present status of Hospitality Management Education in India with a view to analyse the deficiencies of its instructional system. Findings of globally well established as well as well evolving pedagogical theories will be explored to reach at efficient strategies for strengthening the delivery mechanism of Indian Hospitality Management Education to bridge the emerging skill gaps among hospitality professionals.

3. Objectives

This paper is an attempt to accomplish the following objectives:

To explore the prevailing scenario of Hospitality Management Education in India.

To identify the requisite skills among Hospitality professionals in the present era of globalization.

To investigate the pedagogical world to find out relevant theories suiting the present Hospitality Management Education system.

To enlist the suitable pedagogical findings to be utilized for strengthening the delivery mechanism of Hospitality Management Education.

4. Review of Literature

Before analysing the present status of Hospitality Management Education in India, it becomes imperative to keep in mind the historical perspective of Hospitality Management Education in India.

4.1 Historical Perspective of Hospitality Management Education in India

The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set up in 1945 by Govt. of India   on the recommendation of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) to stimulate, coordinate and control the provision of education facilities which industrial development of the post-war period would need. At that time, AICTE's mandate basically covered only programme in Engineering and Technology. The growth of industries in the country just after independence also demanded the need for qualified professionals in fields such as Business Management, Architecture, Hotel Management, Pharmacy, etc. So, the Hotel Management or Hospitality Education also came under the ambit of AICTE. Hotel Management Education had a modest beginning with short programmes in Nutrition and Food Sciences which started in late fifties. Four colleges were established in four major metropolitan cities between 1961 and 1964. The National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology (NCHMCT) was set up in 1982-83 to which all the institutions of Hotel Management run by the Government are affiliated. (Hundred-thirteenth report On Technical education, 2001).

4.2 Present Status of Hospitality Education in India

Since the focus of hotel management is primarily on catering to the needs of guests the term 'hospitality industry' has now become popular (Warrier, 2008). The hospitality industry is defined as the activity of providing lodging fooding, beverage and recreational services, which not only include hotels but motels, restaurants, clubs, casinos, theme parks, rest houses, guest houses, hostels, hospitals, industrial canteens, ships and airlines, (Dutta, 2008). The industry is growing rapidly, thanks to the unprecedented advances in tourism and international business, and consequent travel which have enhanced the demands of hotels managed by competent professionals (Warrier, 2008). If we analyze the growth of professional higher education institutions in India, the institutions providing Hotel Management course have been increased from 41 in 1999/2000 to 70 in 2005/06, witnessing a growth of 70%. The ratio of private and public share has been 90:10 in 2003/04. (Agarwal, 2006)

In India, the National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology holds an entrance test for admission to the 3-year B.Sc. Hospitality and Hotel Administration programme, offered jointly by the Council and the Indira Gandhi National Open University. Selection to more than 30 institutes of Hotel Management and Catering Technology in different parts of the country, from Thiruvananthapuram to Srinagar, is made based on the ranks in this entrance test. The programme equips students with various skills, knowledge and attitude to discharge the supervisory responsibilities in the hospitality sector. It also involves laboratory work that enables students to acquire the knowledge and skills in the operational areas of food production; food and beverage service; front office operation; and house keeping. Further, it provides managerial inputs in hotel accountancy; food safety and quality; human resource management; facility planning; financial management; strategic management; tourism marketing; and tourism management. (Warrier, 2008).

For a qualitative assessment of the status of hospitality education in India and to obtain certain estimated data from the key players, the Federation of Hotel and Restaurant Association of India (FHRAI) conducted field interviews among the three key stakeholders - the hotel managers, faculty of hotel management institution and students. Following are some of the observations of the study:

Many managers from metropolitan cities observed that hotels and the current status of hospitality management education in India and faculty is poor or that it is satisfactory but needs tremendous improvement. According to them, a lot of emphasis is laid on theory rather than practical training of hotel operations.

On the complaints from the institutions on the quality of industrial training for students in the hotels, majority of the interviewed managers said that there are problems in this, and the fault lies on both sides. While many hotels consider such trainees as cheap labour and fill more seats than they can manage, some fault also lies with the institutions. They do not monitor the training and do not make sure that the students are sent only to such hotels which have a training department and have also earned a high reputation for imparting good industrial training in the past.

Many faculty members felt that hotels should co-operate more with the institutions in areas like curriculum development, guest lecturers and training of faculty members in the hotels. They appreciated some of the hotels who are inviting the faculty members for a brief exposure of about two weeks where they get to see the working in key departments of the hotel and also get exposed to latest trends in operations, equipment and procedures.

Hotel managers said that institutes have a theoretical curriculum and many of the things they taught are not in keeping with modern trends in hotels operations. Some of the students also feel that the institutes should revise their curriculum, add more practical hours and also buy some new and latest equipment being used in the hotels. (Status of Hospitality Management Education in India, 2005)

4.3 Requisite Skills in the Present Scenario

Those hospitality professionals who have the right temperament and aptitude to meet the personal requirements of guests, and the strength of technical training in the diverse aspects of hotel management have fine professional prospects in India and abroad. Fine communication skills, pleasing behaviour, politeness, ability to remain composed even under tension, willingness to work anytime during the day or the night, and expertise in the different aspects of the industry are necessary for success (Warrier, 2008). Although these qualities may seem simple they are constantly being put to the test due to the request of the people served by this very demanding industry. (Dutta, 2008)

According to Miranda (1999), five of the most important skills needed by college graduates as ranked by hospitality recruiters are: employee relations, leadership, guest services, staffing, and conflict management. Hospitality managers today need to work harder in handling new areas of specialization and in processing information at a more sophisticated level than did their predecessors. Umbreit (1992) proposed that in future six specific areas of expertise will be required to adequately prepare graduates for successful careers in hotel and restaurant management; which are: Leadership Skills, Human Resource Management, Service Marketing, Financial Analysis, Total Quality Management and Written and Oral Communication (as cited by Davies, 1995). Hospitality Education providers must ensure that graduates are enabled to respond in the new hospitality workplace of the present era. (Miranda, 1999)

Considering the concerns about quality issues and the increased array of skills required in the present global hi-tech world, it becomes apparent to improve the delivery of Hospitality Management Education in India. Various pedagogical theories suggest a way forward for meeting these challenges. Before discussing the findings of these theories relevant to Hospitality Education, corresponding review of literature provides a strong foundation ground to reach at any conclusion.

4.4 Analyzing Pedagogical Theories

According to Webster's online dictionary, pedagogy includes the activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that impart knowledge or skill. Teaching and learning are the two complementary processes of any pedagogical system. Some of the important theories of teaching and learning are discussed below in brief.

4.4.1 Theories of Teaching

How we teach is shaped by our own explicit or implicit beliefs about how students learn. Our personal theory of teaching and learning will be expressed in the language we use when referring to teaching and learning, the expectations we have of students as learners, the processes we put in place for teaching and learning to occur, the tasks we assign to students and the ways we assess their learning. Dennis Fox (1983) has suggested a number of such theories which he classified by means of various metaphors for teaching and learning such as transferring, shaping, building, travelling and growing.


Teachers subscribing to this theory see knowledge as a commodity which can be transferred and use language such as 'imparting knowledge' or 'conveying information' to describe the teaching/learning process. The traditional lecture is a perfect manifestation of the transfer theory in action; the teacher's job being to transfer the required knowledge to the students. The process should be successful if the material is 'well-prepared, effectively organised and imparted' and the students are very receptive.


Fox's second theory involves Shaping rather than transferring. Teaching and learning involve a process of shaping or moulding students, their thinking and skills, to a predetermined and often detailed specification. Typical verbs used to describe the process include 'produce' and 'develop'. Teaching/learning activities often involve demonstration by the teacher followed by practice or development exercises with the student following a similar procedure or applying the given principle.


A hybrid theory combining elements of these two is the Building Theory in which students' brains are analogous to building sites and words such as 'build' are frequently used in relation to 'concepts' or skills. With this model teaching involves not only delivering the materials; it also involves building the structure according to a predetermined plan.


In addition to these relatively simple models, Fox suggests two developed theories of teaching. The first of these he calls the Travelling Theory. Here, learning is construed as a journey through the subject-matter terrain. The role of the teacher is to be local guide and words such as 'guide', 'lead' or 'point the way' are typically used to describe the process. One principle inherent in this model is that the guide, while expert, is still open to new discoveries, knowing that the countryside is continually changing and that there is always something new to learn. Another is that however knowledgeable the guide may be, exploration is essentially a personal endeavour which the learner must do themselves.


Fox's final model is the Growing Theory in which the student's brain is seen as a garden tended by the gardener teacher. Fox does not suggest descriptors for this model, but they would include words such as 'nurture' or 'foster development' or 'promote growth' of the student in relation to the subject. (Regan, 2007)

4.4.2 Theories of Learning

Merriam (2001) argues that the knowledge base of learning comprises a myriad of theories, models, sets of principles and explanations. Explanations of what happens are called learning theories. Learning theories provide us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe and also suggest where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions. Wikipedia identifies three main categories or philosophical frameworks under which learning theories fall: behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism.


Behaviourism believes that learning in human beings occurs only when there is observable change in their behaviour. Accordingly, only overt behaviours are the indicators of learning, as they can be observed and measured. These theories ignore the effect of thought processes going on in the mind. According to these, we learn things because we get conditioned to them by repetitively doing and getting reinforcement for them and not by using our cognitive or mental abilities.


Cognitivism is based on the belief that learning is an internal process and, cognitive/mental activities, although less observable than overt human behaviour, are important to learning. These cognitive abilities involve thinking, memory, sensation, perception, attention, conceptual understanding, problem solving, metacognition (awareness about one's own mental capabilities) etc.


Comparatively more recent than the earlier two groups, the constructivist theories assert that, based on their own perception and personal interpretation, learners construct their own knowledge and understanding. Each learner is unique and brings his/her own unique experiences and contexts to learning new things. Therefore, learning is meaningful only when the learning contexts and materials are based on the learner's cognitive structure and socio-cultural context (Panda, 2008).

In addition to above theories, the concept of Experiential Learning is also catching a wider attention now a days, particularly when we are mainly dealing with adults who use their experience to create and construct knowledge. In a way, this concept is an off shoot of constructivism with emphasis on andragogy (teaching of adults). According to this, adults have their own concrete experience, based on which they make their own observations, reflect, generalize and test (Srivastava, 2007). Experiential learning is a general term used to describe academically related work experience which gives learners opportunity to utilise their work related experiences in the construction of further learning.

5. Discussion

Various pedagogical theories as elaborated in the review of literature lead us towards the discussion on applying their implications for Hospitality Management Education.

5.1 Teaching Strategies suitable to Hospitality Management Education

A challenging, competitive, and continuously changing environment which surrounds the field of tourism and hospitality management definitely requires the teacher to be an inspirer, guiding the students to be their own self-guides. Accordingly, the travelling, growing and building theories would be more logical to consider today than the transfer and shaping theories as they pose a predefined approach of shaping a student rather than a proactive, student-centred and flexible approach which is rarely satisfied in the latter theories.

Teaching in the field of tourism and hospitality should involve research methods and student-centred learning approaches. A student in this field is expected to know how to apply rather than how to 'memorize' theory; likewise, a teacher in this field ought to be more than a lecturer as the transfer theory denotes. A paradigm shift from traditional, mainly 'lecturing' teaching approaches to learner centred strategies, is deemed necessary.

Contextualized learning and problem-solving techniques are basic approaches for teaching human resource management. Among the major techniques which can be used in this subject is the case study approach as it aims at developing students' analytical skills, and helps the student gain more interest in research based methods.

In the field of tourism, stimulating interest in research among students is necessary. Here comes the role of utilization of slides and websites which contextualize research within a global capacity.

The use of group cohesion and interaction through focus groups is of equal importance. An example of how group interaction is satisfied is group assignments and projects.

Other basic teaching techniques including questions & answers, discussion, brainstorming exercises, presentations, work groups, role playing, interviews, educational trips or visits and simulation aim at encouraging creative thinking. (Shayya, M.)

5.2 Instructional Implications of Learning Theories

Various implications of different theories of learning applicable to the field of education in general and hospitality education in particular, are discussed below:

5.2.1 Behaviourist Theories of Learning

Learners should be clearly informed of the objectives or outcomes of learning, so that they can set the expectations for themselves and assess their performance.

In order to promote learning, learning materials must be sequenced properly according to various maxims of teaching like simple to complex, concrete to abstract, known to unknown, knowledge to application etc.

The learning needs to be structured in succession of steps so that the learners would master each step in sequence until the entire sequence is learned.

Immediate feedback should be provided to the learners after each assessment activity to reinforce their achievements and to suggest them, if any corrective actions are required. The responses that are rewarded or reinforced properly are likely to be repeated by the learners.

5.2.2 Cognitivist Theories of Learning

Learners must receive the information in the form of sensations before they can perceive and process the information. So, such instructional strategies should be used which exploit maximum sensory inputs. These are very much crucial for the subjects like 'Food & Beverage Production'

Students should be asked some questions in the beginning to test their previous knowledge regarding the topic. This will help them to recall the pre-requisite knowledge, get motivated to learn further and organise the new knowledge with already existing knowledge structure in their mind.

Various items of a lesson should be organized into an information map providing overview of the lesson.

The processing of the information could be improved by using Mnemonics. Mnemonics are strategies used by learners to organize relatively meaningless input into more meaningful images or semantic contexts. For example, VIBGYOR reminds us the various colours of the rainbow.

Learning materials should provide variety of activities suiting to the different styles of learning so that learners can choose the suitable activities according to their learning styles.

Learners should be provided opportunities for utilising their metacognitive abilities in the form of self check questions, collaborating with other learners and reflecting on one's own learning.

5.2.3 Constructivist Theories of Learning

Learners should be kept active throughout the learning process with the help of meaningful activities so that learners can create personalized meaning of the concept.

Learners should be provided opportunities to construct their own knowledge by utilising various types of interactions like learner-teacher, learner-learner, learner-content etc.

Learners' critical thinking and inquiry should be promoted by asking them thoughtful, open-ended questions in discussion group, and they should also be encouraged to ask questions to each other.

Time and opportunities should be provided to the learners to reflect and internalise the knowledge. They can maintain a learning journal to enhance reflection and processing of information.

Meaningful examples, assignments, projects etc should be provided to help the learners to apply and personalise the knowledge. (Ally, 2008)

5.2.4 Experiential Theories of Learning

Learners should be encouraged to directly involve themselves in the experience, in order that they gain a better understanding of the new knowledge and retain the information for a longer time.

Learning should be supplemented with the provisions of activities such as internships, practical, on the job training etc. It provides a bridge between learning in the classroom and learning on the job.

Activities like team work, project work, which would involve the learners to experience the application of the concepts learnt, should be planned.

5.3 Future Perspective of Teaching-Learning Strategies for Hospitality Management Education

Some of the futuristic trends in Hospitality Management Education gaining attention now days are being discussed below in brief:

5.3.1 E-Learning Strategies

This is one of the novel topics that require a separate research. E-learning involves the use of internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance. It can also be defined as instruction delivered on a computer by means of a CD ROM, internet or intranet. E-learning aims at empowering students to become genuine partners in learning (Shayya, M.). E-learning is frequently technology-led rather than theory-led. By drawing upon the elements of environment, learning activities, multisensory exposure, emotions and forms of intelligence, it appears that e-learning design can be used so as to offer learners more holistic learning support. The fusion of e-learning, underpinned by the theories of experiential learning, should enhance the integration of pedagogy and technology. Carefully applied, experiential e-learning (E2 learning) offers multiple permutations for stimulating and deepening learning. (Beard, Wilson & McCarter 2007)

E-learning for tourism and hospitality graduates helps develop interpersonal skills, acquire challenging knowledge through knowledge networks, become ICT and information literate, and develop an attitude towards continuous professional development.

5.3.2 Learning through Benchmarking

This requires seeking best practices by comparing performance in order to improve it. Benchmarking reinforces student-centred learning and problem based techniques in tourism and hospitality education. The concept of learning can still take further connotations through benchmarking for hotel management organizations to exploit competitive advantage (Shayya, M.). Many institutes of international repute and instructional strategies adopted by them could act as benchmark for professionals related to hospitality education in India.

5.3.2 Specialized Internship

Wolff (1997), found that one of the best ways for the education system to keep up with the industry's demand is specialized internships. The internships enable concept attainment while exposing students to response-based work environments and industry methods. Most of the recruiters think that majority of the skills are best learned in on-the-job setting and the industry should assist hospitality education in developing curriculum content (Miranda, 1999). Specialized internship provides opportunities to individuals who want to master the area of their interest, thereby bringing learner-centered and contextualized focus to the hospitality education.

6. Conclusion

We cannot tie hospitality management education to one particular pedagogical theory. From a pragmatic point of view, educationalists find what works and use it. We must allow circumstances surrounding the learning situation to help us decide which approach to teaching and learning is most appropriate. On the basis of above discussion, we can draw out some of the pearls from the vast sea of pedagogical findings that can enhance the qualitative splendour of Hospitality Management Education.

6.1 Curricular issues

Institutions and industry should consider the following:

Hospitality educators need to evaluate and review the curriculum to enable the graduate to meet the expectations of industry and the process of globalization.

The hospitality industry must work with educators to deliver the curriculum content that should meet the current and future needs of the firm, industry and individual career of their employees. It is strongly recommended that hospitality education should focus on the curricular content meeting the contemporary needs of industry, and industry should assist education to develop educational programming that could in turn limit training costs and operational costs. (Miranda, 1999)

It is also recommended that hospitality education should focus more on employable skills as part of their curriculum development. These skills are needed by graduates when entering the industry; hence these must be inculcated among students as part of the educational experience

6.2 Strengthening the Delivery Mechanism of Hospitality Management Education

According to Barron, Watson & McGuire (2005), educational providers are facing a number of key changes that are focusing attention on efficiency in relation to delivery methods. New opportunities offered by information technology could facilitate major change in delivery of education, providing greater flexibility for learning (Litteljohn and Watson, 2004). There should be flexibility of provision, choice and delivery mechanisms within a clear and transparent funding system. This should be done through effective partnerships of private, public and social sectors with greater coherence and collaboration at local levels. Some of the suggestions for strengthening various foundation elements of delivery mechanism are summarised below:

6.2.1 Effective Teaching and Learning Methods

The educators should use innovative, flexible and creative teaching methods and techniques like problem-solving, case studies, discussions, brainstorming, role playing, group work, projects etc. The program should ensure teaching and learning in electronic environment which highlights usage of Information Technology and multi-media. The link with e-learning cannot be underestimated as it can provide support and opportunities in new and innovative ways. With the use of technology hospitality administration will be able to serve customers quicker and more effectively.

The students should be engaged in activities that relate to the profession and inculcate various employable skills (collaborative, inter-personal, leadership, communication, IT skills etc). This requires proper provisions of internships, student organizations, community initiatives, student-projects, collaborative learning and technology enabled learning.

Internship or on-the-job training component should be strengthened with enhanced cooperation between the training provider and employer; and requires proper division of roles suited to individual circumstances. Work-based training should be flexible and responsive to trainee and employer needs alike with suitable opportunities for specialization.

Diversified delivery mechanism should be adopted by introducing multiple instructional strategies suiting the different learning styles to strengthen the learner-centred focus in hospitality education.

The continuous improvement in the delivery mechanism should be ensured by setting quality benchmarks.

6.2.2 Changing roles of Teachers

While acknowledging that learning is ultimately the responsibility of the student, Dehler, Welsh, & Lewis (2001) argue that the task of the educator is to create a space in which learning can occur. So, the role of educationalists and course providers in the learning process is also important. Technology has changed the perception of the teacher, now the teacher becomes a facilitator, a guide (Wolff, 1997). Wolff also adds "Not only does technology suggest a continuous improvement mode; it frees educators from the demands of so-called expertise to spend time investigating and suggesting solutions for the industry's challenges" (Miranda, 1999). Teachers should strive for continuous professional development by taking up online study or distance learning, attending workshops, seminars, conferences, summer schools or meetings (of learned societies), training programmes and also by taking up short term courses.

6.2.3 Physical Infrastructural Support

The delivery mechanism needs the support of proper infrastructure for its fortification. So the hospitality programs should provide the necessary facilities for experiential learning in food and beverage, housekeeping, property management or design etc. The laboratories should be well equipped with the required and up to date instruments and equipment. The laboratory sessions should be supervised by qualified instructors. The staff member responsible for the practical work should be available for students' enquiries. The program should have a carefully constructed, functioning, and monitored plan for the continued maintenance, replacement, modernization, and support of lab equipments and related facilities.

The program should ensure that the library collection reflects a systematically planned and current program acquirement and response to faculty recommendations. The references for literature review required for students should be available in the library. Internet services and an electronic library should be offered in the library for staff members and students. The books and periodicals present in the library should be well documented and an easy electronic search needs to be available.

Lecture rooms should be well equipped with the necessary tools for teaching (LCD projectors, computers and others).They should be comfortable for students and have adequate capacity.

A hospitality program should ensure that software packages & information systems related to the field of hospitality are properly offered. Adequate number of computer laboratories should be available for students. Wide bandwidth internet services should be made available for staff and students with proper intranet connections. (Kaissi, Chahine, & Jammal)

6.3 New Horizons for Hospitality Management Education

This paper stressed the necessity for a paradigm shift from traditional didactic teaching styles to more dynamic ones which focus on student-centred, contextualized, practical-oriented, skill based flexible forms of teaching-learning strategies with a purpose to equip the students to have a strong capital of professional skills and thus gain a cutting-edge advantage in today's competitive world.

E-learning strategies, structured & specialized internship with active involvement of all the stake-holders of hospitality sector, and benchmarking for ensuring continuous improvement are the emerging areas of interest in Hospitality Management Education which require further research and elaboration.