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In the 21st century society is filled challenges and opportunities, business will be conducted with shifting borders, become more and more cooperative and also education. Beaulieu (1998) mentioned that the collaborative of higher education, organizations, government, and industry can work together. In form of establishing education programmes that provide training and learning opportunities also promote cooperative members of the targeted population in community to increase placement in selected industries.
We all know that there are no any angels appeared in cooperative partnership, everyone tend to look after themselves and their own interest first. Without central authority, it should involve some mechanisms or some situations facilitate cooperation happen in the world of egoists (Axelrod, 1984).
In natural sciences actual behaviors have already performed, then we investigate and formulate. But in economics mainly on the belief that future interpretation before or influence economics behaviors (Shackle, 1938). How economics performs eventually depend on how people think. Therefore the decisive role is the ideas of people in all cooperative members. Decision-making is based on anticipating the actions of competitors rather than predicting trends in the market (Nash, 1950).
Gray (1985) comments "collaboration is initiated through appreciation of the interdependence which exists and the need for joint appreciation among stakeholders of the nature and substance of their interdependence".
This research is based on the efforts of (1) an education institute working with (2) an organization and (3) the government to improve the living quality of individuals in (4) a community. The purposes of this research are:
Encouraging cooperative partnership of academia, government and industry to benefit underserved community.
Outlining successful criteria in cooperative partnership.
Providing an example of how cooperative partnership benefits to cooperative members.
Cooperative theory and strategy
There are two choices in cooperation: cooperate or not cooperate. When should cooperate? When should not cooperate? That is the question.
Smith (1776) comments self-interest is the only driving force for individual action. He believes there is "The Invisible Hand" to rule the free market. The problem is people lack of understanding of the nature if coordination and cooperation, as a result in collusion and monopoly.
Nash (1950) expanded the study and created the framework for cooperative game and non-cooperative game theory. Economist and sociologist use game theory model to investigate cooperative problem.
Game theory is a formal study of decision making where parties, more than one party must make choices that potentially affect the interests of the others. This theory is a formal study of conflict and cooperation in which participants must choose between individual benefit and collective benefits.
From the example of Myerson's Card Game, the essential elements of a game are (Slantchev, 2009):
Players: The individuals who make decisions.
Rules of the game: Who moves when? What can they do?
Outcomes: What do the various combinations of actions produce?
Payoffs: What are the players' preferences over the outcomes?
Information: What do players know when they make decisions?
Chance: Probability distribution over chance events, if any.
"Prisoners Dilemma" is an example in game theory to show individuals may or may not cooperate, depending on their best interest. It is explained by researchers Davies (1999), Axelrod (1984) and Campbell (1983) advanced the problems of competition and cooperation. A classic example of Prisoners Dilemma: A situation where two prisoners have been arrested on the suspicion of having robbed a bank and held separately in two different prison cells and not permitted to communicate. In the game, each of them has two choices, confess and not confess. If they both cooperate and trust in each other, with both being set free in reciprocity, or to cheat in self-interest that implicating the other one in relation to a payoff. The game became a non-zero sum game where the two prisoners may either assist or betray each other.
When "the game" is iterated, completely obtains other players' information and past performance, and no much players involved, it is usually found out cooperation is worth to do (Nash, 1950). On the other hand, if the game will not be iterated (there will be end), lack of other players' information, and involve a lot of players, as result cooperation is hard to reach.
A close study on Axelrod (1984) in his book, The Evolution of Cooperation, discovered under Iterated Prisoners Dilemma the victory strategy is Tit-for-Tat. In this book indicated people cooperates do not need to apply any mandatory rule or under any government. Davies (1999) argued Tit-for-Tat strategy should cooperate on the first move, Axelrod (1984) explained that is to replicate the previous move of the other party, to treat other partners in a same way as they treated before. Tit-for-Tat strategy need a clear conditions and rules by negotiating and understood by all cooperative partners.
According to Laszlo (2004), trust and honesty in relationships, is "not a homogeneous phenomenon. In economic relationships different trust structures are at work, including distrust, negative trust and lack of trust." The main idea mentioned that a distorted trust structure considerably reduce economic efficiency. A relationship in trustworthy is important between partners in cooperative education which rely on mutual partnership obligations being met by all partners.
According to the analysis of Hobbes (1640 - 1660), altruism is included the following points:
Altruism must be put into action, in other words, only the good ambition without practice, does not meet the standard of altruism.
Altruistic behavior goal orientation, and its goal is to enhance the well-being of others, if the actors in the pursuit of their own interests, inadvertently or the way for others to create a number of benefits, in other words, the interests of others is just a secondary or incidental to such the behavior is not altruistic behavior.
In the altruistic behavior, intent more important than the result, he is mean to help the person, but the long-term results but instead against that person, this does not detract from seating behavior altruistic.
Altruistic behavior will inevitably result in the possible damage of the actors.
Altruism is unconditional and the actors cannot expect any return.
Taylor (1982, 1987) advocated the foundation of community is social order in anarchy, each members in community interdependency in directly and complexity. He believes that government has destroyed constitute conditions in community, Altruism should act in an appropriate position, government enforcement action involved may reduce or destroy.
Support Relation Theory
American psychologists and behavioral scientists, Likert (1961) proposed a corporate style of leadership theory. This theory is production-centered leadership style and the results obtained in the comparative study of human-centered leadership. Support relations theory is that support is a two-way relationship. Leaders consider the situation of subordinate employees, ideas and hope to help the workers to strive to achieve its goals, the workers from which to recognize their value and importance. Leaders of the leadership of the workers of this support can inspire subordinates workers to take the attitude of cooperation, trust, and support the work of the leader.
Likert (1961) support relations theory introduces several leadership principles:
The principle of mutual benefit and mutual support. Leadership support subordinates to achieve its objectives, so as to stimulate subordinates to adopt a cooperative attitude of the boss, to support the organization's goals.
The group decided principle. Decision-making and management take action groups, on the one hand, the leadership of a group action in the leadership bodies, on the other hand in the lower layer is the same groups decide issues through the middle and lower income groups to discuss, enhance loyalty groups.
The principle of high standards. Group goal setting high standards, the realization of the vital interests of the groups within the groups, depending on the goals of the group.
Guanxi in Chinese society
"Guanxi" (which is pronounced gwan-see) literally means "relationship" or "connection", is describing that a basic dynamic in personalized networks of influence, and is a central idea in Chinese society (Thomas; Guthrie and Wank, 2002).
Tsang (1998) pointed out: Guanxi means good connections, it often said to be an advantage for doing business. However this advantage is difficult to sustain, because guanxi can be disrupted by something as simple as staff mobility.
The fundamental problems of cooperative theory and strategy, theoretically those individuals know what the way of preferences and behaviors of others. Further, the problem is in the so-called "common knowledge", because everyone, not only must know the preferences and behaviors of others, and they must know that others also know my own preferences and strategies to success in cooperation. Therefore, the basic theoretical issues of cooperation can be considered to be in a given environment, a person must be at least having a little knowledge of the thoughts and desires of others, to be able to conduct of others to produce the overall concept in a long term and sustainable cooperation.
Cooperative Wealth Accumulation
What wealth is?
Wealth comes from the Old English words "weal" means "well-being" and "th" means "condition" which came together. "Wealth" means "The condition of well-being". Broadly, economic development is a process of innovation that increases the capacity of individuals and organizations to produce goods and services and thereby create "wealth" (Powers and Powers, 1988).
Ancient economic thought, Xenophon (430 - 354BC): wealth is something of value in use. He believes that the actual useful things, such as horses, sheep, and land are wealth. Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) further pointed out: "The real wealth is by the ...... use value constituted." Discussion of the nature of wealth, he believes the items use and exchange of two properties, the commodity exchange is the only value in use for the purpose of the laws of nature, belongs to the family management, without limits in pursuit of monetary value of the unnatural and unreasonable. See, these two definitions is basically limited useful in terms of wealth, that is, the value in use.
The economic thoughts of physiocracy, Francois Quesnay (1694 - 1774) argues that: "The wealth of a country, not by the total amount of monetary wealth to make the decision";" Wealth is a source of subsistence". "Crop as a commodity point of view, monetary wealth and physical wealth." Quesnay abandoned mercantilist concept of wealth, while he in turn wealth definition confined to agricultural.
Graham (2004) argues wealth is not money. He comments that wealth is a very basic concept that is "something you want", for example food, house, car, electronic devices, and tourism and so on. You can have a lot of wealth, but not necessarily money. If you have a magic pocket, pulled out from the inside of the car, dinner, and even servants to wash your own clothes, or any of the things you want, you do not need the money. Another extreme case is that if you live in the Antarctic season of ice and frozen ground, what you have more money in the bank also meaningless.
Adam Smith (1723 - 1790) studied the money will not only understand the value of social wealth, but also understand the value in use that material wealth. He pointed out that: "A person is rich or poor, depending on the extent of the necessities of life; he can enjoy the convenience goods and entertainment goods"," People are used to initially acquire all the wealth in the world, not gold or silver, but labor."
Karl Heinrich Marx (1818 - 1883) developed wealth concept becomes relatively complete and clear. He critically inherited the results of previous studies, formed on the basis of the relative scientific concept of wealth. His understanding of the wealth of social wealth, and the wealth of society comes down to the products of labor. Should be, this concept of wealth is relative to the social and economic conditions at that time. But in today's society, the traditional labor component of the socio-economic and material composition appeared very profound change Marxist concept of wealth to explain the rise of the current and future economic factors, there are still some blind spots, which is Marxism in the traditional capitalist economy system under difficult to foresee.
Coleman (1997) defines "Social capital is defined by its function. It is not a single entity, but a variety of different entities having two characteristics in common: They all consist of some aspect of social structure, and they facilitate certain actions of individuals who are within the structure".
Market value and can be used to exchange currencies or commodities can be seen as wealth. It includes physical and physical assets, financial assets, and can generate income personal skills. When these things can be exchanged in the market for goods, services or money, they are considered to be wealth. Wealth can be divided into two main types: tangible wealth refers to capital or non-human wealth; intangible wealth, that human capital. This is considered to be typical of western economics wealth and common definition, or the definition of the wealth in the economic sense.
Cooperative Education Framework
What is education? This problem in the education theorists has different opinions. Following the major controversies of the education sector to expand the nature of education, the educational theory of community education essentially never stopped. Then the essence of the meaning of what is it? How should we understand the nature and essence of education?
The Needs of Education
Education system originated in the need of productive labor.
Education originated in the need for social production and life.
Needs and education originated in the social life of human physical and mental development needs. Both in social life and production needs to explore the origin of education, including the well-known Labor Origin.
Progressivism is the prevalence of the last half of the twenty century in a philosophy of education in the United States thought to have a considerable impact on the United State school education. Francis Wayland Parker (1837-1902) promoted that personal development is the starting point for social progress, and is up to the purpose of social progress. Personal development can promote social progress, and conversely, social progress also helps the personal development of the individual and society but interactive.
Finally, not only consider the needs of human life, but also concerned about the needs of the development of the human beings. But regardless of the "single need to say" or "double, only as to promote educational development of external power, and the impossible as education in their own internal attributes.
Work force and higher education in cooperative education
In the twenty-first century, worker loyalty was repaid with a lifetime job with a single firm, is gone forever (Goleman, 1998; Lewis, 2000; Tulgan, 1995). Rather, young workforces find they need skills to manage their own careers.
In United State, cooperative education did not flourish until the 1960s when the federal government provided funding for new program development, federal funding was gradually reduced and by 1996, it was discontinued (Howard, 2004). Cooperative education programs have been decreased and the number of students placed in cooperative education jobs is about 250,000 each year, which has not decreased (Pettit, 1998). Howard (2004) discovered that "the primary reason for this interest is cooperative prepares students to make smooth and intentional transition from college to the workplace by providing them opportunities to explore the world beyond the classroom".
The Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS), United State, Department of Labor, report challenged schools, parents, and businesses; it identified the following five categories of competencies that lead to successful form school to work (SCANS, 1991):
Resources-Identifies, organizes, plans, and allocates resources
Interpersonal-Works with others on teams, teaches others, serves clients, exercises leadership, negotiates, and works with diversity
Information-Acquires, organizes, interprets, evaluates, and communicates information
Systems-Understands complex interrelationships and can distinguish trends, predict impacts, as well as monitor and correct performance
Technology-Works with a variety of technologies and can choose appropriate tool for task
Cooperative learning through team members actively through cooperation, with individual performance and group achievements and efforts capability, and its phase for individual learning and competitive learning, aimed at providing a common cooperative learning environment, and thus reach cognitive, emotional skills such as goal. (Hotkevich, 1990; Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1987 & 1990):
According to the student's learning ability, gender, race and socioeconomic background of students assigned to different groups, to enable students to learn from each other through the heterogeneous composition, and knowledge of a variety of perspectives.
It means students can be perceived to own and group students is drifting to the community, solidarity, his success depends on the success of the entire team, and every member within the group should make joint efforts to complete the task.
Group students need each other face-to-face interaction and assistance through this arrangement, not only to help each other understand learning will have a positive impact.
The success of the group is to define the success of each individual within a group, rather than only to represent the success of a member of the group, that each person has the responsibility for team performance.
In addition to academic tasks, each person in the group should use the interpersonal / social skills, including trust, communication, mutual acceptance and support, to strengthen team interdependence extent.
Cooperative learning is a team cooperative qualification process, each team member to use the social skills and the contribution has ability to fulfill the objectives of the group together.
Above, can be found in the cooperative learning is a heterogeneous grouping, stressed the positive interdependence, group interaction among members of the emphasis on individual performance, but also attach importance to the results of performance of the group as a whole.
Comparison of cooperative learning and traditional learning group:
Cooperative learning paradigm
Traditional learning paradigm
Emphasis on personal performance
Teacher observation and intervention
Small groups to review performance
No phase relationship to be complementary to each other
Do not stress individual performance
Since the responsibility of
Social competence born not to attach importance to
Teachers ignore group operation
There is no group to review
(Source: Johnson & Johnson, 1988)
Grubb (1996) argues vocationalism is rampant. He describes five different strands of the new vocationalism:
"A Nation at Risk" that suggests that courses offered in schools should be more employment related because the mainstream academic courses are vaguely seen to connect to future employment.
It is an argument that the changing economy requires new skills of its workers and therefore new approaches to teaching. It suggests that teaching methods should focus more on contextualized material.
It addresses to the deficiencies of the "old vocationalism" that needs to be broadened to accommodate today's needs.
It focuses on the emerging school-to-work program in "new vocationalism." It reemphasizes the integration of academic and vocational education while adding a work component to provide a different form of learning.
It is to integrate vocational education into academic education by clustering, career academies, occupational high schools or magnet schools.
The New Political Agenda in United Kingdom
In the mid-1970s, British regime concerned with equality and equality of opportunity. Successive governments had little interest in adopting policies that endeavored to compensate for class inequalities. Interest in gender and ethnic inequalities remained vigorous and in many new areas, policies were developed to combat these problems. However, many of these were localized, in particular schools whilst central regime made no real concerted effort to stop these problems.
Education and the New Right
This new wave of mentally conceived from the Labor Party of 1979 in British was surprisingly in tune with the new right. Although they did not believe in equality of opportunity, they liked the conceptions of promoting economic magnification. Employers were telling them that education was not meeting their desiderata, and component of the reason why there were so many unemployed was that they were unemployable. They did not have the skills required.
The main objects were to produce:
By encouraging competition
Raising standards by market competition
Education Reform Act (Government Education Reform Bill, 1988):
Testing and Attainment Targets
There were introduced for 7, 11, 14 and 16 years olds in the hope that standards would rise as schools competed against other.
National Curriculum was introduced
Each pupil was required to study, Maths, English, Science, History, Geography, Technology, Music, Art, Physical Education, and a foreign language. This was intended to ensure that pupils concentrated on what the government saw as essential subjects.
The Act emphasized Parental Choice
In theory parents had the right to choose to send their children to the school they wanted. This would help encourage competition. A policy of open enrolment compelled every school to recruit pupils up to the maximum, which could be accommodated in their buildings.
The act allowed the setting up of CTC's
These City Technology Colleges would be inner city and concentrate on specializing in technology. They would be sponsored by private industry so that the state would not have to pay the full costs of building the colleges and would be independent of the LEA's. CTC's would cater for the 11-18 year old age group and would compete with existing schools.
Existing schools were able to opt out of LEA control
Schools are funded by central government. The Opting out category created the Grant Maintained Schools, which were self-governing. By Feb 1984, 814 out of 24,000 schools had opted out.
The act gave greater autonomy to the schools
How they spent their money. LMS (local management of schools) gave the responsibility for managing school budgets to headteachers' and governors, thus reducing the power of the LEA's.
Under the new system of formula funding
The financing of schools was largely based upon the number of pupils. This was intended to reward successful schools with more money.
Due to economic, political and social environment changes, human resources development in a country or region is crucial in achieving a comparative advantage in the highly volatile and intensely competitive. Change and Hsu (2010) proposed a development framework for tourism and hospitality education:
Source: Change and Hsu (2010)
This model is in the shape of a house, with each of the four walls representing a different aspect of the system, here the determinants for the development framework of this study:
Administration and management: administration management; expansion of the tools of the profession and information; financial management; strategic development of departments.
Service and resource acquirement: education policy and law; bursaries from the government or industries; providing technological and academic service charges; monopoly transfer techniques.
Teaching and HR fostering: specialist student skills; improving teacher skills; course planning; internship systems.
Academic research and development: industry-university cooperation; R&D mechanisms; inter-school and international strategy allies.
The fundamentals of the framework are representing the three common goals for tourism and hospitality in higher vocational education: (1) Practical Human Resources developments for industry; (2) Technical Research and Development of diverse industry, e.g. university and education institute, and (3) Innovative managements of diverse cultural knowledge (Change and Hsu, 2010).
University and Higher Education Institution in Hong Kong (Public Funds)
There are eight government-funded, internationally recognized universities in Hong Kong which offer Associate, Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctoral degrees. They and other institutions also offer post-secondary diplomas, certificates, and vocational training. The Hong Kong government has been steadily increasing opportunities for further study, and 66% of Hong Kong students now pursue some form of post-secondary education (STUDYHK, 2012).
Hong Kong Government's policy objectives are to (Education Bureau, 2012):
support the progressive increase in post-secondary education opportunities (Currently more than 60% of our senior secondary school leavers have access to post-secondary education);
further develop Hong Kong as a regional education hub and provide multiple and flexible pathways for our young people;
provide around 14,600 publicly-funded first-year first-degree (FYFD) places (In the 2010-2011 Policy Address, the Chief Executive proposed to increase the number of FYFD places to 15 000 for each cohort from the 2012/13 academic year and double the number of senior year intake places progressively to 4,000 each year);
support the development of the self-financing post-secondary sector and promote the diversification of post-secondary education through various support schemes such as the Land Grant Scheme and Start-up Loan Scheme;
ensure that no qualified students are denied access to higher and post-secondary education due to a lack of financial means;
make available to working adults further opportunities for higher education through the Open University of Hong Kong;
assure the quality of tertiary education and ensure its relevance to the needs and development of the community; and
ensure that courses leading to non-local higher academic and professional qualifications are conducted by recognized institutions and professional bodies and have attained comparable standards and recognition as similar courses in the home countries concerned.
There are two types of higher education institution in Hong Kong, (1) Public and (2) Private. Public higher education institutions are funded by the Hong Kong Government (Public Funds), private are mainly self-funded.
For the 2010/2011 academic year, the UGC-funded institutions also provide around 2000 senior year undergraduate intake places for graduates of sub-degree programmes and students with other relevant qualifications. In the 2010/2011 academic year, the recurrent funding for the UGC-funded institutions from the Government and the Research Endowment Fund is $10,910 million and $675 million respectively (Education Bureau, 2012).
The University Grants Committee (UGC) is a non-statutory advisory body appointed by the Hong Kong Chief Executive to advise on the development and funding of higher education and to administer public grants to the eight higher education institutions. It also plays a major role in quality assurance and in promoting research. It comprises local and non-local academics, professionals and community leaders (Education Bureau, 2012).
Hong Kong has seventeen degree-awarding local higher education institutions including:
Eight institutions funded by the public through the University Grants Committee (UGC):
City University of Hong Kong (CityU)
Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU)
The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK)
The Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd)
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU)
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST)
The University of Hong Kong (HKU)
Eight private (self-financing) institutions:
The Open University of Hong Kong (OUHK)
Hong Kong Shue Yan University
Chu Hai College of Higher Education
Hang Seng Management College
Tung Wah College
Caritas Institute of Higher Education
Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong(THEi), Vocational Training Council
The publicly-funded institutions:
Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts
Vocational Training Council (VTC) is a statutory body established under VTC Ordinance (Cap. 1130) in 1982 to advise the Chief Executive on the provision of a comprehensive vocational educational and training system to suit the needs of Hong Kong (VTC website, 2012). The mission of VTC is for school leavers and working people to provide valuable refresher choose, to help them develop the right values â€‹â€‹and acquire knowledge and skills to fully equip their lifelong learning, enhance employability for the industry to provide valuable support to promote industry capability development.
VTC provides vocational education and training through its member institutes including (VTC website, 2012):
Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE)
Hong Kong Design Institute (HKDI)
Youth College (YC)
Chinese Cuisine Training Institute (CCTI)
Technological and Higher Education Institute of Hong Kong (THEi)
Institute of Professional Education And Knowledge (PEAK)
School for Higher and Professional Education (SHAPE)
Pro-Act by VTC
Hospitality Industry Training and Development Centre (HITDC)
Maritime Services Training Institute (MSTI)
Integrated Vocational Development Centre (IVDC)
Yeo Chei Man Senior Secondary School
Shine Skills Centre
Hospitality Education in Hong Kong
The Hospitality industry is one of the major economic value drivers in Hong Kong, along with logistics and financial services. According to the Hong Kong Tourism Board (2012), in the whole of 2011 visitor arrivals of about 4,192 million people, an increase of 16.4% over 2010, a record high. Mainland visitors were about 28.1 million passengers, an increase of 23.9% compare with last year.
The Hong Kong government invest in hospitality education in higher education, has acted a main role in providing the human resources need for the long term and fast growing hospitality industry in Hong Kong. Higher education in hospitality certainly acts a critical role in preparing future employees and also executives for Hong Kong, mainland China and destinations around the world. There are many programmes are available in Hong Kong, and categorized according to funding modes, degree offered and modes of study (Lo, 2006).
Hospitality education evolve into a wide range of programmes at different levels of study offered by government funded institutions, self-financed education units, private companies, corporations, organizations and associations.
Sub-degree programmes include those leading to a qualification at Associate Degree (AD), Higher Diploma (HD) and Professional Diploma (PD) levels (Education Bureau, 2012). Generally, AD programmes include more emphasis on general education, while HD and PD programmes are more practical, professionally oriented.
School of Hotel and Tourism Management, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and Department of Hotel, Service and Tourism Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE) offer government funded HD programmes in hospitality related disciplines. All students are required to complete a professional experience program that have to work in hospitality industry on industrial attachment or placement for an extended time period, at least 90 hours to 400 hours of cumulative work experience, before their graduation (Student Industrial Attachment Programme, 2012; Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education, 2002; School of Hotel and Tourism Management, 2012).
Undergraduate and graduate programme
There are only two institutions offered government funded undergraduate programmes, they are School of Hotel and Tourism Management, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and Business School, the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK). Both universities offer government funded postgraduate programmes, which are Master of Philosophy (MPhi) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programmes (Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2012; School of Hotel and Tourism Management, 2012)
Top-up degree programme
Not all students benefit from mainstream education that offers a relatively demanding academic programme that leads to university. Large numbers of sub-degree programme graduates from different public and private institutions, force large demand of top-up articulation degree programmes. Hospitality industry practitioners are also seeking chances to promote their academic qualifications, due to the trend of education inflation in Hong Kong.
Four Major Cooperative Partners in New Vocationalism
I proposed a cooperative business partnership conceptual model in pervious chapter; the new vocationalism model consists of four major cooperative partners: Government, Academia, Industry, and Community.
Perspective of Government
The Hong Kong government anticipates a close connection between industry and Vocational Education and Training (VET) that helps productivity through upgrading labor markets to fulfill knowledge-based economy. The government expects the demands of labor markets to become more equipped with knowledge and skills, adapting to technological change, to invent new techniques, and shape a much capable workforce. Cooperative education helps improving regional productivity in Hong Kong.
Hong Kong Government (2012) initiates subsidizing several education institutions and schemes: VTC, Project Yi Jin, Construction Industry Council, and Reimbursable Courses under the Continuing Education Fund (CEF), Workplace English Campaign, and Financial Assistance Scheme for Designated Evening Adult Education Courses.
Government launches Qualification Framework (QF) to promote lifelong learning. QF is a seven qualifications system, covering the academic, vocational and continuing education sectors qualifications, through quality assurance and qualifications recognized under the QF and courses.
On the source of funding, there is a strong guarantee of funding of vocational education in Hong Kong is mainly funded by the Government. In academic year 2005/2006, for example, normal as $ 28.3 billion, which the government subvention 1.78 billion, accounting for 62.7%, not including tuition income of 900 million and interest and other income.
Long working hours and expensive tuition fee, Workers how to learn?
The Government believes that the qualifications framework helps to enable people to develop refresher blueprint to upgrade their skills and life-long learning. However, the grassroots workers did not have equal opportunity to enjoy the right to continuing education. Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (2010) mentioned employment of the 40-hour weekly working hours exceed international standards as high as $ 650,000, over sixty hours the more seventy-three million people, 80% of employment and 20% respectively of the total. So in terms of occupational health and safety of employees pose a threat to the work hours, workers in particular and no spare time to enjoy the rest and family life, let alone have time to continue to participate in vocational training.
Unclear ladder system for non-mainstream qualification holders
According to the QF will cover three doctoral degree educated within mainstream education and vocational education sectors. Originally unified seniority level or enhance the attractiveness of vocational education, but the status of mainstream education in political fears QF will ultimately become the academic qualifications led not only to strengthen the mainstream in order to reduce the resistance to the implementation of the hegemony of education, but will also reduce the lack of formal qualifications who advanced opportunities.
Perspective of Academia
Public higher education institutions attract students to apply their progarammes in their institution, in right number or the right mix of students, to ensure a constant steam of income to finance operations. Therefore, institutions become progressive in terms of marketing themselves to prospective students. In past time, marketing was a jargon of the business world, nowadays it alien to higher education institutions.
The need to provide value for money to the students and to be responsive to their needs has necessitated higher education institutions in general and marketing units in particular to look beyond marketing paradigms and customer approach in the higher education sector (Ramachandran, 2010). The attitude is towards to the commercialization of higher education; branding and reputation enter into a relationship with institutions, supplementing relationship market efforts and drawing all constituents closer together (Beneke, 2011).
Fombrun (1996) introduces the notion of reputational capital, which he defines as a form of intangible wealth that is closely related to the concepts of goodwill or brand equity. Fombrun (1996) asserts that an institution stands at a competitive advantage against its rivals if it has a relatively large amount of reputational capital.
Perspective of Industry
Industrial professionals seek a source of renewed knowledge for sustaining the economic and social advantage. This helps to maintain competitive advantage by continuous renewal of knowledge, market information, technological skills and management.
In between an educational institution and an industry in which education and training is jointly developed and delivered for the principal benefit of employee and employer, for a negotiated fee (Hase, 1997). The education partner provides educational facilities, skills and services to the industry for a negotiated fee. In return the industry, generally represented through its professional association, receives a custom designed academic program developed specifically for its purpose, to enhance the capability, quality systems and competitiveness of its members' organizations (Breen and Hing, 2001). It also provides a stable workforce for industrial operational needs.
Cooperative education partnerships appear to have the following potential benefits for industry (Breen and Hing, 2001):
Industry legitimacy through enhanced professionalism
Professional status for the industry and its participants
Improved public perception of the industry
Maintaining an advantageous position through controlling abstract knowledge
Improving industry competitiveness through enhanced professional standards. Benefits for Universities The common purpose of higher education institutions is to develop new knowledge, to convey existing knowledge and to contribute to the social good by applying knowledge to important issues (DeBats and Ward, 1998)
Perspective of Community
Community partnerships can follow several different partnership models including recruitment, training, work-based learning, post-placement support and corporate philanthropy. The most common way in which businesses partner with faith based community organizations is to recruit qualified workers. (Walk, 2009) Work-based learning primarily entails on-the-job training and some of the employee's wages can be paid for by funds from the sponsoring organization.
Cooperative business partners provide funds to the community organization so they can provide employment and training services which may increase the overall skill level of the labor pool (Soukamneuth and Harvey, 2007).
It creates a communication platform channel to avoid frictional unemployment, which is lack of employment market information circulation, resulting in some companies not find the right employees in the short-term. Businesses can also realize substantial cost savings in recruitment and hiring through pre-screening and fundamental skills training being provided by the organization.
Cooperative Wealth Creation through New Vocationalism: A Conceptual Framework
Summary and Conclusions
The literature reveals human capital development, higher education in partnership with industry are actually active in today's new vocationalism environment. The Hong Kong government has participated in vocational education and training activities in the previous years. In fact, the workforce demographics are continuing change and staff training expenditures are rising.
There are many different VET programmes offered by government funded institution, self-financing institution: Sub-degree programme, undergraduate and graduate programme and top-up degree programme. Collaborative partnerships are in between local government, private businesses and community organizations, to improve economic development opportunities in community to provide the right equipped skills for local workforce and compete for the local marketplace.
This research seeks to input to the literature, identify their common knowledge ,the "expected outcome" in cooperative partnership - defining and measuring cooperative wealth inside higher education in partnership with industry through new vocationalism and cooperative business ownership in Hong Kong hospitality industry. To communicate and share information, the perceived and actual benefits shared between all partnerships members, then challenges that arose between how they were resolved.