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Decision making theories
Making decision can be accounted as a result of psychological method moving towards the selection of a flow of an activity amongst many choices. Final choice is produces in every decision making process. Opinion of choice or an action can be the output.
In most of our daily activities, decision making is involved constantly. Generally there are many decision making theories. Hence the difficulty is to segregate the most significant one theory, which engages in our basic activities and are based on excellent analysis.
Some of the most important Decision making theories:
Scientific method has been found the most dependable method of making choices, since it is the entire process of inventive problem solving and decision making.
Scientific method (SM-14) is the best analyzing procedure for making any decision. It consists of eleven cerebral stages and three supportive elements.
Process of complex decision making is used by a well-trained decision maker:
* Short method for making decisions (SM-4)
* For the entire method of inventive decision making use Full model formula (SM-14)
* Exact characters of “sciences” are the skin texture for making decisions.
Decision making under certainty:
When there is only choice of one occasion for each verdict then the word of decision making under uncertainity is used. Hence, for each action there is only one result.
Example, there is only one possible event for the two possible actions: "Do nothing" at a prospect outlay of $3.00 for each element meant for 10,000 units, or "reorganize" a capability at a prospect outlay of $2.80 for the similar units. A decision matrix (payoff table) would look as follows:
Note there is only one possible result for each action as there is only one state of nature in the payoff table (with certainty). Most desirable outcome that is to “reorganize” is the resulting in decision the selecting it.
Decision making under uncertainty:
Humans and machines both have the capabilities of making decisions but these were depended on the research effort which has the potential to fundamentally change. Straight forward and natural way is expected when the ability to deal with the uncertain information is required like: improving the planning quality, enabling additional responses to unpredicted events, situation of awareness is being provided by the new levels and allowing an improved perceptive of existing options. To make a better decisions in less time and with lower costs the enhancements should be made to the decision making process which enables it.
Decision making process under stress
Reducing the un-ambiguity is the process of decision making. Within the organization reasonable choice has to be made because the doubt about the changes has done. In general, rather than eliminating uncertainity is reduced. With total certainity only few decisions are made because knowledge of all choices is seldom possible. Since, there is always a certain level of risk in every decision. If uncertainity is not there, then there is no making of decision.
Loss of concentration is the main problem characterized while thinking process is under great stress, new information cant be perceive, actions will lack initial planning, making decision will be hasty, short term memory hampered. These symptoms are still based primarily on speculations according to the psychological explanation. Temporary damage of the hippocampus (part of brain responsible for learning and memory) is one the reasons for the above symptoms.
There is always a greater chance that we will react in the way we have trained if we intend to develop a set of reactions for more specific situations. For example a policemen, while catching an armed criminal he will always feel stress, not considering his level of experience, skill and how intrepid he is. However he wont forget how to fire, what grasp has to be applied and how handcuffs should be put. Till date we have not come across to such a case that a policeman with years of experience has forgotten his skills due to stress. Only after diligent and prolonged training such efficiency may be achieved.
Examining the Condition
Preparing for the plan
Handling conflict is a complicated procedure which builds emotions which are severe. Use the following techniques:
* Be quiet
* Fight Should be avoided
* Be Positive--avoid being violent and reactive
Personal strengths and weaknesses
In order to make an interview effortless you should be well prepared for it. Be attentive towards the organization's goal and the proposed work. These are divided into three main divisions:
* Mechanical skills: It consists of the knowledge based competence which is acquired by you like- extra and unique guidance taken, technical experience, knowing different languages, computer competence, your educational qualification, etc
* Personal skills: these are the integral abilities of yours like- being friendly with everyone, reliability, good employee in the team, target oriented, etc
* Soft skills: It contains the qualities that are attained from the previous exposure in some different jobs like- managing groups, handling conflicts, logical competence, managerial skills, etc
Every profession requires a mix of the job would need a good mix of the preceding strengths and based on the investigation on the company and job, real strengths, should give the closet package possible. You should be well prepared in order to support the answer with particular examples:
Weakness sometimes will be proved as Strength if set properly. The answer is be set with the affirmative part, when trying to decrease the quality.
For instance, you can state:
‘Every now and then I am much more worried about the information but later realized that delegations resolve the problems so I make use of this very frequently'.
Weakness should come out as a problem which is almost solved not a critical and hopeless trait that cannot be helped.
It is a method of continuing learning from individual action. The good thing about it is self-sufficient. Managers who are dedicated towards it will be benefited from involvement in the coaching workshops, training classes, have way in the permanent procedure which allows gaining knowledge from different circumstances encountered by them.
Areas of academic studies
It is encouraged to join in two activities while in academics-firstly promoting the campaign, learning, expertise and incorporating. Secondly- involve yourself to set up convenient educating surroundings, struggle for hygienic nature environment, and sponsor organization by strong recreations.
Applying personal profile in areas of academic studies
What does this new function demand?
The union opens delegate office for Vietnamese students and receives the State and Government's policies related to students, and also conveys students' proposals, petition and feedback to the State and Government.
How do you evaluate the current generation of students?
Now a day's students are energetic, positive, incorporated and eager to know about modern and new things. In order to build some qualities some may encounter few difficulties because of age and also not having ample amount of experience with them. Therefore, commonly youth and particularly students are necessarily should develop the will power in them to succeed in civilization and lifestyle.
At present, limitations on scientific research are major issues for some students. What supports can the union provide for students in this area as well as in employment for students in general?
According to a report from the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs, students are not dealing with unemployment as effectively as they could, sometimes they could do better in meeting employment specifications. In order to thoroughly deal with this matter, the Viet Nam National Union of Students needs to co-ordinate with MoLISA and the Ministry of Education and Training to support and assist students during recruitment consultancy and career orientation. In addition, the union will also enhance co-operation with the General Statistics Office and the National Centre for Socio-Economic Information and Forecast to provide students with more detailed information about job demands and opportunities.
In the time of international integration, would you advise Vietnamese students to spend more time on learning foreign languages?
Students should attentively realize the history, traditions and customs of their nation. Hence all the students can be proud being Vietnamese.
Students should also enhance their knowledge and should stay away from being out of date.
Learning and developing foreign language competence are important to communicate.
The brain-drain of leading Vietnamese students who have studied overseas is serious at present. What does the union plan to do in this area?
Union will develop an efficient data scheme for the Vietnamese students studying in foreign countries by cooperating with Vietnam's ambassador. For the students studying in foreign countries and working for the state enterprises and agencies, union recommended the government to increase the incentive structure and to prepare some policies which are suitable.
Wild cat strikes
It is a slow down or work planned to compel an organization in building concessions. Few collection of different style of strikes range from- strikes where employees all at once term it as sick-out to a strike where employees protest against an organization to draw attentiveness towards the reason for the cause. Labor laws and union protections have made strikes much less common in many different countries.
In a union current employees are very much organized, which bargains on behalf of protected employees. If a union seems action necessary it will call a strike. A protest is permitted legally in this situation the union authorizes it. Usually, union will notice that a protest is about to happen permitting the organization to take a decision either to compromise on request of union or to handle the strike.
A wild cat strike appears with no prior notice unlike as a regular strike. A wild cat strike lasts for a day in some situations. Rather to decide a major issue it deals with making a point. In few cases it'll last till the alleged problem is addressed.
In Britain it extends with the power stations, at present with 2,000 employees at 17 different sites walking in protest against the use of foreign contractors. Government called a mediator which is independent and can claim that British employees are illegally disqualified from manufacturing and construction projects.
On very worse terms and conditions employees were brought to the place to get placements in front of British employees based on discarding the situations and circumstances.
The different decisions taken will distort the purpose and now it should be introduced in new directions to put it together for better understanding and clarity to people which cannot be damaged.
It is the process to create a meaningful experience of the world which is done by interpretation of organisms and awareness among them. Generally awareness deals with the sudden, moderately untreated result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the sense organs (eyes, tongue, skin etc) Observing on either side, it describes better an individual's experience of world which usually consists the sensory input process. Practically, sensation and perception are virtually impossible to separate, because they are part of one continuous process.
Perception of Theories
Two major Theories:
Bottom-up: From a set of ancient features, perception builds hierarchically to our inner representations.
Top-down: Perceptual exposure is subjective by the high-level process where perception proceeds with primitives' like- knowledge and framework.
These theories depend upon concept that, from a perception builds upward from a foundation of primitives to a representation, our cognitive system can use.
It occurs without the involvement from advanced process of cognitivism.
Three main theories:
Perception is a direct outcome of stimulus energy affecting receptor cells. Higher cognitive processes are not involved here.
As we have seen some exemplars we accumulate all examples of the objects. We measure an object that is perceived to group of exemplars unless we search a match.
We accumulate prototypes rather than storing some exemplars, that is like an average object. We measure an object that is perceived and prototypes till we get the match.
these theories conceive unreliable degrees of influence of higher cognitive processes on what we actually perceive.
Example for this theory is effect of situation on perception, like the effect of word superiority.
Model of human behavior
Clear communication and understanding is obtained when personality and behavioral style differences fall in the same way. You can work with people much more efficiently if you are having a structure to understand the differences. DISC human being behavior model is an easy and powerful model for developing this understanding.
This lens shows an overview of the DISC human behavior model.
In the DISC model, the full range of normal human behavior is defined by a circle divided into quadrants as described below.
Split a circle in half in horizontal manner. Outgoing or fast paced people are represented by upper half. Reserved or slow-paced people are represented through lower half.
Now split the circle in a vertical way. Task oriented people are represented by left- half. People-oriented people are represented through right-half.
The model description will complete by joining these two circles.
Conflict often comes from a clash of styles
In the similar way the C-type individual's slow rate, frequent questions and lack of people concern can irritate I type individual.
The attempt to comprehend behavioral style information will help to solve conflicts, obtain good results and creates stronger associations by supporting you as an effort made to interact with individuals in such a way which meets their requirements and expectations.
Constructive and Defensive behavior:
To understand constructive way of thinking first it is very essential to understand the emotion. People realize their feelings are in such a way where they react to the situations robotically. For people like this an incident happens and an event happens, and then with this incident their emotions are triggered.
For Example: many individuals are treated in a way, which according to them is inequitable, they react with anger. When they become angry, they will be able to decide whether to show the anger or not. Most of the individuals will not realize that their feelings will be affected in a way where they encounter a situation but not a situation itself.
The difference between the thoughts preceding emotions and emotions preceding thoughts is former is more attentive and aware of the situations while the later is not.
Most individuals are attentive of their conscious as it is divergent to their pre-conscious; because of this we repeatedly have impersonation about the things which are false. But it will raise a question of what exactly interpretations are? The finest way to explain interpretations-these are the feelings which are automatic, and where you will not be aware of it.
Defensive behavior is a method that most of us make use of it to protect our self-respect. It can be used to hide our personality or feelings which we may not want it to be exposed.
It exceptionally deals with guarding against the actual or predictable threat of disapproval, damage to an individual's personality.
Ultimately defensive behaviors turn out to be a “knee jerk reaction”. You will not realize about emotion of an individual and few matters when you may become defensive. It can become emotionally critical at the time when defensiveness becomes regular way of life.
To understand in-built defense mechanism, you should first be aware of it. Few common signs of defensive behaviors:
* Avoiding speaking about few topics
* Being defensive at the time of new challenges
* Thinking in a negative way
* Thinking that it is impossible to understand you by any individual
* Very self-critical
Always find difficult to pay attention to an individual opinion.
If you feel you may get defensive, you can try few things given below:
*Take a deep breath and look at the situation clearly and without emotion. Slowing down that “knee-jerk” reaction can allow you to think clearly.
*Don't allow someone to push your “hot buttons.” Take a minute to gain control to think and react logically. See if the other person will sit down and talk with you unemotionally.
*Walk away to clear your head and allow the defensiveness to cool down. Give yourself time to form a cool and rational response.
*Try not to become negative or pessimistic about yourself. Negative self-talk will only make matters worse. Say to you something like, “I am good at handling situations like this is a positive and logical manner.”
Defensiveness does not serve you in positive ways. Often, defensive behavior will hurt you emotionally and physically more than it is having an impact on the other person/people.
Action learning helps every individual to educate themselves and to be trained amongst each other reflecting on how real life problems are addressed, and he assumptions on which their actions are based. In future Action learning concepts applies to new situations where action learning concepts have not been applied before.
Norman W. Edmund, Decision Making Theories viewed on December 20th 2009 http://www.decisionmaking.org/decision-making-theories.html
Decision Making viewed on December 22nd 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_making
Jeremy Gottlieb, Theories of Perception, viewed on December 15th 2009 http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/85-211b/perception2.html
The DISC Human Behavior Model, viewed on January 02nd 2010 http://www.squidoo.com/discmodel
Action Learning viewed on December 22nd 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_learning