Data Presentation and Analysis Overview

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of a group of boys to arts-based literacy instruction. This chapter presents an analysis of the data gathered from the participants and documents that were reviewed. As such, the chapter scrutinizes the data and discusses the multiple themes which emerged. Additionally, it presents some of the experiences of the boys in this study and the types of literacy activities which appeal to them. The chapter concludes with a summary of the major findings of the data gathered.

Findings and Discussions

Preamble

The presentation of the data is guided by two research questions which guided this study. Hence in response to the questions, several themes were used which represented the perspectives of the participants and the observations made. In addition, tables and narratives were used to further explicate and analyze the information garnered. Data relating to research question one will be presented first, followed by presentation and analysis of information in response to research question two.

Research Question 1: How do boys respond to arts-based literacy instruction?

Data gathered from observations, interviews and viewing of documents confirmed what researchers have asserted; that is, students in general enjoy and will participate in activities that infuses the arts (Bleach, 1998: Cornett, Jenson, 2003; Ontario Education, 2005: Pavlou, 2006: Petrash 2003). The arts-based activities which were observed during the study included role-play, drawing, dancing, writing and reciting poems and dub-poetry. Daily reading of various forms of literature were also observed; these took the form of read aloud, echo, choral and independent reading. One of the major themes which emerge from the data is the emotional engagement of the boys. The arts-based activities promoted a level of interest, eagerness, enjoyment and cooperativeness among the boys; these responses were also engendered by the teacher's attitude.

Interest

Table 4.1 below, gives an idea of the boys' overall reading level which is a clear indication that the boys are 'at risk' and would be more likely to exhibit disinterest and frustration in school activities.

Students' Name

Pre-test Results

Ackeem Richards

Below Pre-Primer

Robert Campbell

Below Pre-Primer

Kimani Stewart

Primer

Renaldo Brown

Pre-Primer

Shawn Lewis

Pre-Primer

Ezra Powell

Below Pre-Primer

Sheldon Smith

Primer

Eric Jones

Pre-Primer

Jevaughn Henry

Below Pre-Primer

Timothy Clark

Below Pre-Primer

Albert Dunn

Below Pre-Primer

Mark Gonzales

Below Pre-Primer

Table 4.1 shows the Mico Diagnostic Reading Pre-test Results for the boys in the study

The data show that the twelve boys who participated in the study are functioning four and more levels below their grade level. The Mico Diagnostic Reading test further reveals that seven of the boys' overall reading level is at the below pre-primer level, while the remaining five boys are functioning between the pre-primer and primer levels. This number further confirms the views held by researchers about the overwhelming number of boys who are having difficulty with reading and literacy in general. (Bleach, 1998; Clarke, 2007).

Many of these students become frustrated and view school as punishing and unsatisfying (Slavin, 1996, as cited in Evans, 2001). Also, due to their challenges with reading and their consistent failure in school, they are more likely to experience learned helplessness (Superville, 1999). The following statement by one of the classroom teachers also corroborates the views and findings of these researchers, "These boys cannot read well and as a result of this they disrupt the class. Many of them just can't do much or don't want to do any work and they don't come to school regularly" (T. Peart, personal communication, December 3, 2009). Notwithstanding, the teacher did not specify that she tries to cater to their literacy needs in her classroom; she indicated that they go to the reading room for instructions in Reading. On the contrary, the boys' attitude indicated that they had an interest in the activities presented by the reading teacher.

The purpose of the Reading room is well known among all the students in the school and from experience, some students are embarrassed to go to this facility for instruction. However, most of the boys in this study enjoyed going to the reading room and expressed enthusiasm in the activities presented by the reading teacher. Evidence of the boys' interest was displayed in their attendance to the sessions. For each lesson observed, I usually ensure that I am present in the room before the students arrived. The participants in this study are timetabled after the lunch break. Ninety percent of the students in the pull out programme are boys and many of them attend school irregular due to many social ills (C. Gross, personal communication, November 23, 2009); however, as long as they were in attendance, most of the boys could be found in the room for their class. They were observed reading, talking or just waiting for the bell to indicate that lunch has ended. On many occasions students from other classes would converge in the room reading, playing or talking with the boys.

On one particular occasion, four students barged in, one after the other; one girl and three boys. One of the boys had an ice-cream in his hand and another had an half finished bag juice. They came in and sat at their places. Another student reported that they had not marked their names in their classroom. The students were reminded by their teacher not to eat in the resource room and to get their names marked before coming to the sessions. Shortly after all twelve students filed in the room and greeted us in a chorus; only nine boys and two girls were present. Clearly, this is an indication that the students showed interested in coming to the classes. The boys' perspectives testified to their interest. During a focus group interview, the boys were asked about the activities that were presented and their views about them (See Appendix E). The following responses were given:

" Teacha teach us how to do maths and language arts" [Ezra]

"Miss tek time wid we miss and she waa wi learn" [Renaldo]

"Yes, plenty, plenty of fun, nuff to read" [Sheldon]

"Miss, we say poems, read books, write letters" [Jevaughn]

Interestingly, one participant indicated that he felt ashamed going to the room. When he was asked why he felt that way, he shook his head and said, "Mi a learn miss." (E. Powell, personal communication, January 5, 2010). Chapter Two has highlighted some of the behavioural challenges boys display and their learning preferences. Clearly, if their needs were not being catered to, they would not have displayed this kind of interest to be early for reading instructions. This is a clear indication that most of the boys were motivated to come to the reading room.

The students' interest was also evident during a session in which C. Gross questioned the students about a previous lesson on safety. Following a discussion about ways in which they can be safe, the students were issued coloured coded cards which represented places where they should be safe. They were required to draw a picture depicting safety in the places the colours represented; these were on the street, at school and in the home. A level of competitiveness developed as the boys argued about whose picture will look the best. "Mi caa draw beta dan yu, yu nuh", remarked Jevaughn; the others muttered about their ability to draw. Following the activities the students were engaged in a discussion about their pieces and were scaffolded as they wrote draft sentences and letters about the topic (See Appendix F for students' work).

It is also important to note that not all the activities were welcomed by the students or stimulated interest. Observations, interviews and review of documents recapitulate the nexus between students' reading and writing performance. Reading and writing are inextricably linked; as such, performances in one of the processes usually determine performances in the other (Cramer, 2001). In some instances, some of the boys became agitated during writing time; during one of these activities, the students were asked to write one sentence about safety. The responses were slow in coming and almost immediately, Ezra, Albert and Mark were playing 'kicking' under the desk. The boys' shoes were off and they were busy kicking each other shoes back and forth. After realizing that the students were not responding adequately, the reading teacher said, "Okay students, give me your sentences so I can write them on the board". While the teacher wrote, the 'kicking war' increased. However, when it was time for them to role-play examples of being safe and unsafe, all the boys were willing to participate. Although it is important for these students to be able to express themselves in writing, the teacher was aware that they were still not able to construct the sentences within the given time. As such, through scaffolding, they were able to instruct them orally. Clearly, the boys preferred discussions, and other activities which require movements and active engagement rather than passive engagements (Bleach, 1998; Clark, 2001; Ontario Education, 2005).. The comments in Evaluation two of the teacher's lesson plan also allude to the boys' challenges with writing, "The students mastered identifying sentences but had challenges to write them. I will continue to do sentence construction using 'controlled talk' procedure about things they know" (reading teacher's comment in lesson plan). A closer dissecting of the data reveals that the teacher was keen on the learning styles of the boys which have guided her decision to use 'controlled talk' hence bridging the gap between their home language and the Standard Jamaican English [SJE].

Eagerness

Despite their challenges in literacy skills, the boys were also eager to learn and participate. This level of excitement was evident during many observations. In one instance after Miss Gross had finished reading aloud the story Baked Time, the students were asked to draw pictures reflecting their favourite part of the story and share a similar experience (See Appendix F). Immediately, the students went to work, they fussed about pencils and sharpeners, but when it was time for presentation, all of the boys exclaimed, "me firs Miss". Sheldon shared his experience about his mother baking pudding and he got a chance to 'lic out de pan". The students laughed and everyone wanted to comment and share at once. I laughed too as this brought back memories of baking time as a child. I noted in my notes that absolutely every child, boy and girl was focused and participated throughout the entire lesson. What was also interesting was that the teacher encouraged the students who were seated to ask the presenter questions about their picture. Each interviewer stood and asked questions. Ezra asked most of the questions which ignited a lot of laughter and excitement. Ezra' attends school poorly which affects his performance. The following were some of the questions asked:

"So did your mout wata when you smell the sweet baking?"

"Where yu was when yu smell the baking?"

"What kind of pudding your moder bake?"

"Di you tempted to steal a piece of the pudding when it was cooling?"

"A hope yu help har tidy the place up?"

The questioning by Ezra sparked another lively discussion as he was trying to determine where in the yard Sheldon was and how far the scent traveled. The questioning started a discussion about their senses and safety in the home. Their ability to make connections with previous lessons taught by the reading teacher about the tongue and the senses was also impressive. During the observation, I asked myself if these boys were the same students who are labeled as non readers and disruptive. I was impressed at their level of questioning and their attempt to code switch as they interviewed their classmates. I also noted that this was an indication that they were aware that there was a time and place for the SJE. The responses of the boys corroborate the views researchers held which state that boys prefer open discussions and would be more motivated when they are actively engaged and instructions are aligned with their learning styles (Bostrom & Lassen, 2006; Bleach, 1998; Clarke, 2007; King & Gurian, 2006; Ontario Education, 2005). The nontraditional approach the teacher used in discussing the story stimulated the boys; this confirms the view that out of school experiences or instruction that do not reflect school literacy appeal to boys ( Bleach, 1998).

Enjoyment/ pleasure

For many of the boys, the activities were pleasurable and were linked to their daily experiences. Tapping of the desk and 'riding' a rhythm seem to be most enjoyable for these boys, as it was a reflection of their cultural and everyday experiences. It was clear that the students were now familiar with the routine and frequent fun-time. After a read aloud in one session, one of the students asked, "Miss wi a go dramatize again?" His question was one of expectation. As table 4.2 indicates, the boys showed more pleasure and participation in activities which required active engagement.

Activities observed

The boys' response to the activities

Arts-based activities

Students participated in read aloud activities

3

Students participated and completed drawing

3

Students were willing to role play

3

Students engaged in constructing/ chanting dub-poetry

3

Writing tasks are attempted

2

Students participated in discussions

3

Students cooperated with each other

3

Students were willing to construct poems

2

Students show interest in arts-

based activities and attempted given tasks

3

Table 4.2 shows the boys' overall response to arts-based activities

Key: 1: lowest level of response; 3; representing the highest level of response

The table further outlines that the issue of writing was less favoured and was a challenge for most of the boys; although they were scaffolded by their teacher, the responses were less energetic even when they were simply transcribing sentences from the whiteboard.

Although the students did not exhibit signs of frustration during writing, they were clearly experiencing challenges. The following evaluations were made by C. Gross in her lesson plan about the students' writing attitude in other sessions:

"The students enjoyed drawing the pictures of the story and spelling orally. They were not able to write correctly the words given. The focus was on one word 'party'. 80% of them spelt it correctly.

80% of the students wrote poems related to furniture in the classroom. It was interesting to read the poems about the table:

The table is wood.

The table is strong.

The table is long.

It is also noteworthy that in responding to the needs of the students, the reading teacher, used the students' drawing to bridge the writing gap. Therefore, some students drew and labeled, while others wrote one simple sentence (See Appendix F). In highlighting the value of drawing in developing writing skills, Cramer, (2001) asserts that when writing and drawing are connected, students' writing improves and success in reading is achieved. Additionally, when asked why they enjoyed the activities, the emerging theme was that of fun. Ackeem, Sheldon and Renaldo replied, "Yea!, they are fun" . The other boys agreed. Their sentiments were also evident in their responses as they put rhythm to the poems, The fuzzy teeth beat (Case, 2008), I wish I had (Carter, 2007) and Sue Sue taken from Level Two of the Primary high interest reading material, published in 2000 by the MOE. The reading teacher got a drum that was at the back of the room and gave to one of the boys to beat. Even the students who were not able to read the lines were catching on after a while; some of them were even using context clues by supplying a word that rhymed with the previous end word. For example:

My teeth are white.

My teeth are strong.

I want to keep them all life long.

Not long after, the students were out of their seats dancing and chanting parts of the poem with their teacher who was also on the floor. Similar chanting and drumming were observed in another lesson. During the recitation of Sue Sue, one of the girls pretended to cry while the boys walked around her and chanted in dub-poetry format the following lines:

Sue, Sue don't be blue

Do not cry, you'll get by…

The students are usually required to draw, write poems, or sentences about the lessons

(See Appendix F).

Although the students preferred the fun activities, they were also cognizant of their own literacy needs and achievements. Ackeem indicated that he was improving when he said, "I never know how to make the letter 'i' and 'p' teacher show me how to do it". Kimani, also shared his success, "I can write letter a little better and can put de address in de right place now". One of the participants also indicated that he uses decoding skills to identify difficult words. When asked if the reading teacher taught him to do that, he said, "Yes miss" (A. Richards, personal communication, March11, 2010). It should also be noted that at no time during observations the boys were the boys observed fighting or being overly disruptive. The data also suggest that the students' response was also a result of the ethos created by the reading teacher.

Teaching Philosophy

It would be difficult to present the responses of the boys to the instructions presented without alluding to another dominant theme emerging; that of the teacher's philosophy which underpinned the instructional approach for the pull out programme. C. Gross, who has been teaching for fifteen years, shared that her teaching philosophy is based on the constructivist theory of teaching and learning (personal communication, November 23, 2009). She further asserts that, "Every child has the potential to learn, but the teacher has a responsibility to create the atmosphere for the students to manipulate, to interact and to explore for themselves" (C. Gross, personal communication, November 23, 2010). From observations and the boys' responses, it was clear that they were motivated as the foregoing narratives of the students indicated. The students were constantly motivated and their successes, however small were celebrated. The reading teacher gives the boys positive feedback and reinforcements such as, Thumbs up! I know you can do it, Good job!. After a while the students themselves told each other, Thumbs up! as well. Responses from the boys such as, "Miss tek time with us because she wants us to learn" and their attitude towards the class are clear indications that the boys were highly motivated.

The data also support the views held by some researchers that the teacher's belief can motivate or impede students' achievement, especially boys who tend to be in need of more motivation than their counterparts (Bleach, 1998; Clarke, 2007; Evans, 2001). In addition, Ontario Education (2005) asserts that encouragement and stimulation are important factors in developing boys' reading and writing abilities. Not only was the reading teacher supportive verbally, but support and encouragements were exhibited in her actions. For all the lessons observed, she was an active participant in the activities; she not only modeled the activities, but participated in each of them.

Awareness of students' needs

The reading teacher was not only aware of the literacy needs of the boys, but the record and interviews further revealed that this awareness guided her methodologies and instructions. C. Gross indicated that she is aware that arts-based activities are therapeutic and boys tend to enjoy them (personal communication, January 14, 2010). She also indicated that she is aware that boys feel comfortable in doing the things they can do; as such, she tries to accommodate their abilities. When probed about her knowledge of the students, C. Gross admitted that she is aware that most of the boys she encounters over the ten years, exhibit similar learning styles; however, she hinted that she conducts an informal interest inventory with all her students (personal communication January 14, 2010). Anderson (2003) posits that one of the keys to educational improvement is to understand how students learn. Pajares (1992) as cited in Clarke (2007) posit that teacher's beliefs can inform instruction. Clearly, the intervention programme implemented by the reading teacher was guided by her beliefs and the data she gathered about her students.

Most of the reading materials selected was appealing to boys and girls. The boys looked forward to the read aloud sessions that usually initiate the lessons. Reading aloud is essential for struggling readers as it provides among other things a model for fluent reading (Padak & Rasinski, 2004). Students were also given the opportunity to read aloud and participate in echo reading. Therefore, there were no signs of frustration or embarrassment. Prior to one lesson, students were asked to volunteer and most of the boys responded, "Me miss, me miss". Of course, these books were easy readers and the students received support from the teacher who sat by their side. Hence this awareness has also guided the teacher in creating a learning atmosphere that has promoted interest, motivation and confidence among the students which is a key component in developing literacy among boys.

Table 4.3 shows the Mico Diagnostic Reading Post-test Results During the month of April, the reading teacher conducted a post test using the Mico Diagnostic test. Table 4.3 shows that 10 out of the 12 boys reading levels improved. Shawn and Ezra made no improvement, while the others made little or significant improvement.

Students' Name

Pre-test Results

Post test results

Ackeem Richards

Below Pre-Primer

Pre-Primer

Robert Campbell

Below Pre-Primer

Primer

Kimani Stewart

Primer

Grade Two

Renaldo Brown

Pre-Primer

Grade Two

Shawn Lewis

Pre-Primer

Pre-Primer

Ezra Powell

Below Pre-Primer

Below Pre-Primer

Sheldon Smith

Primer

Grade Three

Eric Jones

Pre-Primer

Grade Two

Jevaughn Henry

Below Pre-Primer

Pre-Primer

Timothy Clark

Below Pre-Primer

Grade One

Albert Dunn

Below Pre-Primer

Grade Two

Mark Gonzales

Below Pre-Primer

Grade One Although it is not conclusive that the boys' reading levels improved as a direct result of the arts-based instruction, observations and other data suggest that the boys' attitude and confidence level were heightened and may have contributed in the improvement in some of the reading levels.

Some of the boys' performance in school is also affected by irregular school attendance. Ackeem and Ezra are two such students (C. Gross, personal communication, February11, 2010).

Research Question 2: How does arts-based instruction cater to the literacy needs of boys?

Implement boy-friendly strategies

The foregoing discussions have indicated that most boys respond favourably to arts-based literacy activities. The data presented above show that the boys were enthusiastic about the activities and participated willingly. Also, the reading teacher used the activities as a spring board to strengthen the students' literacy skills. In a study conducted by Jones (2009) in an inner-city primary school, the boys' expressed similar sentiments about the arts-based which contradicted the negative reports of the class teachers. This is also an indication that teacher's attitude and perception about their students have implications for students' learning. An examination of the review of literature also revealed that every student exhibit different learning styles and that in many instances boys' literacy needs are misread or stereotyped. The literature also showed that most boys prefer when they are actively engaged in learning; this may be in the form of role-play, discussions, music or dancing (Bleach, 1998; Clarke, 2007). It therefore, implies that educators can accommodate the literacy needs of boys by developing and implementing boy-friendly strategies.

The literacy instructions employed by C. Gross included daily read aloud, drawing, role-play, writing, dub-poetry and extensive discussions before, during and after reading, among other activities. Various genres of literature were available for students to chose and students' efforts were celebrated by all. These are some of the activities and motivation that appeal to boys and are fostered in an arts-based environment. The teacher was instrumental in designing the arts-based literacy programme for the students based on her the students' reading levels and her experience and awareness of the literacy needs of the students. The following are some of the objectives of the arts-based programme:

Draw pictures related to literature and write about them

Draw pictures and place them in sequential order

Draw pictures based on their experiences to events to literature

Colour pictures and write poems related to objects in pictures

Dramatize situations related to literature

The reading teacher also admitted that she uses the arts to create an atmosphere in which the boys are less intimidated, but are empowered to express themselves (C. Gross, personal communication, February 11, 2010). The boys in this study viewed the role-play, the drawing and other activities as 'fun' and they were willing to participate. The implication is that educators need to create boy-friendly classrooms in which boys' literacy needs are catered to and students are motivated to learn. Jevaughn, Eric and Ezra were described by their class teachers as students who attended school poorly and did not do their work in class (T. Peart & S. Williams, personal communication, December 3, 2010). While their irregular attendance was confirmed by the reading teacher, all of these boys participated in the activities and completed tasks in the reading room. Although Ezra admitted that he was ashamed to come to the reading room, he was always volunteering to 'drum' the desk or be the leader in something. In one lesson when the students were asked to show safety on the road, Ezra volunteered to be the driver who hit the children down with his car. Boy-friendly strategies incorporate meaningful out of school experiences, some of which were implemented in the reading teacher's class. These included movements, drama, visual representation, choral and echo reading and read aloud. These activities help to keep the students energized and focused. Some of them were also used to assess their performance which is another unconventional strategy used by the reading teacher.

Unearth other abilities

Observing and reviewing of the boys' literacy tasks corroborate with the results of the Mico Diagnostic test. The boys were unable to identify basic sight words, construct simple sentences and struggled with other literacy tasks. Interestingly, all the boys indicated that they want to learn to read 'better'. In addition, one of the mantras of C. Gross is that every child has special abilities and can learn something (personal communication, November, 23 2009). As a result, the teacher engaged the students in activities that she knew will appeal to them and they were able to accomplish. Also, it was evident that she held high expectations for her students and believed they can achieve, "My philosophy is that every child has the potential to excel in literacy if the teacher considers the abilities, needs, experiences and interests in her planning and teaching" (C. Gross, personal communication, November 23, 2009). Researchers believe that teacher's expectation plays an important role in academic achievement and boys in particular may exhibit what is expected of them by their teachers (Clarke, 2007; Evans, 2001; Bleach, 1998; Bailey & Brown, 1999). The boys were not able to read or write confidently, which affect their self-esteem. However, they had other abilities that are necessary for literacy learning.

In unearthing the student's abilities, the reading teacher inherently enhanced their self-esteem. Most of the boys who could not express themselves clearly in words were able to do so in visual representations (See Appendix F). Ezra leadership qualities were un-earth during role-play activities. All the students were able to participate fully in the literature discussions as they critique and comment on the characters and the events in the story. It is imperative that students experience some level of success during learning; this will motivate them to take risks. Arts-based instruction creates an ethos in which students' differences, not similarities are accommodated and appreciated and their lived experiences are facilitated. This was evident in the reading teacher's class.

Facilitating boys' out of school experiences

Boys who struggle with their literacy skills, tend to find school uninteresting and frustrating (Bleach, 1998; Slavin 1996 as cited in Evans, 2001). The activities implemented by the reading teacher were related to the boys' experiential background. Various types of literature depicting themes were made available and read to the students. The Literacy 1-2-3 materials were used which is primarily based on the language experience of students. Rhythm from popular songs was chanted to read poems and unconventional school activities were included during instruction. Ontario Education (2005) asserts that some boys are avoiding school literacy rather than literacy learning. The data gathered show that the boys enjoyed the chanting and fun activities which did not resembled regular school activities. The reading teacher's learning environment epitomizes the definitions of literacy which are extended to include oral and aural abilities, social and cognitive skills and the culture and experiences of individuals.

The boys' ability to share with the class about baking, parties and other issues deriving from the literature read, among other activities was a result of the their lived experiences. Students were encouraged to create visual images within their experience and write about them (See Appendix F). From these images, students wrote about world knowledge that was meaningful to them. None of the students' work that was viewed indicated school experiences; they highlighted their mother washing, toys they like and ideas in their head that are framed from their experiences with the world. Naturally, this is how we all learn and by making connections to what we already know. The natural appeal of the arts made the expression of their experiences easier; although many of the students struggled during writing and reading, their teacher's motivation had already initiated a natural drive within them to try harder. The art forms which were introduced accommodated the boys' learning preferences and motivated them to learn.

Summary

The views, perspectives and responses of the participants were highlighted in the preceding chapter. The data indicated that the boys responded favourably to arts-based instruction and were emotionally engaged. As such, they showed levels of interest, eagerness and enjoyment in the activities. In addition, it was highlighted that the teacher's philosophy engendered some of the boys' responses. Finally, the data revealed that the boys' challenges with literacy learning were not a deterrent in taking risks and participating in the activities. The data indicated that this was due to the boy-friendly strategies, the unearthing of the boys' abilities and the facilitating of their out of school experiences. Chapter five presents summary of the findings and recommendations.

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