Data collection used in the survey research

Published:

Survey research needs the collection of comparable data from all members of a sample, thus researcher must provide same questions and ask all participants. To gather data researcher can use two different way see fig. 1.

Figure 1 Data collection way in survey research

As show that in fig. 1 , there are two forms to collect data in every survey research, questionnaire and interview (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 2009). Each has two options; therefore, there are four different ways to data collection (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).

Mailed questionnaire

Directly administrated (live)

Personal interview (through face-to-face)

Telephone interview (Ary, et al., 2009; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009)

The questionnaire and interview use the question-asking approach. These instruments can be used to get information and data about facts, attitude, feeling, purpose, and so on (Creswell, 2007). In questionnaire finds information through the participants written responses to a list of question. An interview is an oral, in-person answer and question between researcher and each respondent as individually way (Gay, Mills, & Airasian, 2009). Questionnaire and interview have some strengths and weaknesses that researcher must to think about these before deciding which form of instrument to use (Ary, et al., 2009; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009; Gay, et al., 2009). Questionnaires are more appropriate for huge populations, interviews are really only suitable for small population but do, given the interactive nature, allow for a richer and more probing question format (Burton, Brundrett, & Jones, 2008).

Mailed Questionnaires

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Professional

Essay Writers

Lady Using Tablet

Get your grade
or your money back

using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

A mailed questionnaire is a type of data collection in survey in which the researcher mails a questionnaire to each person in the sample. It is a suitable way to achieve a geographically dispersed sample (Ary, et al., 2009). The mail facilities collecting data quickly, often in as short time as 8 weeks from the first mailing to the conclusion of data gathering (Creswell, 2007).

A mailed questionnaire is economical and cheap because it involves only duplication and mailing expenses (Creswell, 2007) and also researcher can be accomplished alone (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).

The weakness of mailed questionnaire is that the individual surveyed may not be personally invested in the study and may decide not to return the instrument. Also, because the researcher does not have a means for explaining question, participants may misinterpret items on the survey (Creswell, 2007). Another weakness of this way is less opportunity to encourage the cooperation of the respondents or to provide assistance (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009).

Electronic Mail

Electronic mail (e-mail) is becoming more popular. Dillman, Smyth and Christian (2008) founded that this way have the strengths of prompter returns, lower item nonresponsive, and more complete answers to open-ended questions. E-mail survey have been used most effectively on university with faculty and students, with companies and their employees, or with other populations having universal e-mail access, and also speedy results (Gay, et al., 2009).

The main weakness is that not everyone has an e-mail address (Ary, et al., 2009), and also possibility of multiple replies from single members (Gay, et al., 2009).

Directly Administrated to a Group

This way is used when all of the sample in a certain place as a group and researcher can access to all or majority of respondents. The main strength of this way is high rate of response (typically reach 100%) (Ary, et al., 2009), and other one is low cost factor and the researcher can explain the study and answer any question (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009)

The weakness of this way is that there are not many types of surveys that can use samples of individuals that are collected together as a group (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009). Gay, Mills and Airasian (2009) believes that for this way administrators must be trained.

Personal Interview (through face-to-face)

Its including one-on-one and group interview (Creswell, 2007). In one-on-one interviews researcher conducts a face-to-face interview with an individual respondent and record responses to closed-ended questions (Fraenkel & Wallen, 2009). One-on-one interviews are helpful for asking sensitive questions and allowing interviewees to inquire questions or offer comments that go beyond the original questions (Creswell, 2007).

Interviews lead to a high response rate because the interviews are planned in advance and sample participants typically feel obligated to complete the interview. Researcher has more managed over the current and sequence of questions (Creswell, 2007). It is sometimes significant to ask a exacting question after some other questions have been answered. With questionnaire it is not possible to prevent respondents looking ahead to see what is coming, and determining their responses in the light of that. However, this way does not protect the anonymity of the participant as questionnaires do. Researchers may also prejudice participant answer, either knowingly or unknowingly through comments or body language. Also, not all interviewees are comfortable disclosing about themselves during the interview. The chief weakness of this type of interview is more costly than direct, mail, or telephone survey and also need a trained researches or interviewers. There is difficult to analyze data obtained through interviews.

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

Comprehensive

Writing Services

Lady Using Tablet

Plagiarism-free
Always on Time

Marked to Standard

Order Now

In group interview the researcher sets or extends a survey instrument, convenes a small group of member sample who can reply the questions on the instrument. It provide for communication between interviewees, gathering of wide data, and participation by all persons in a group. A weakness of this way is that they necessitate the researcher to find consensus on questions so one score can be marked for all individuals in the group. As well, some individuals may control the conversation, leading to responses that do not reflect the agreement of the group (Creswell, 2007).

Telephone Interview

The telephone interview has become more popular, and resent research point that it contrast favorably with face-to-face interviewing. Its main strength is lower cost and quicker conclusion, with relatively high answer rate. It can be carried out over a relatively short time span with group scattered over a large geographic area. This way is useful to reach people who would not interested an interview, but who might be willing to talk on the telephone. Another benefit is that respondents have a greater feeling of anonymity- and hence there may be less interviewer bias and less social desirability bias than with personal interviews.

The main weakness of this way is that there is less chance for establishing rapport with the respondent than in a face-to-face situation. Another disadvantage is that home without telephones and those with unlisted numbers are automatically excluded from the survey, which may bias results. Other limitations of this way happen from new technology (Ary, et al., 2009). It also involve extensive expense for the telephone calls, and people often dislike them because of their prior personal experience with calls from survey firms asking for information (Creswell, 2007).

Table 1. Comparison of survey data collection methods

Method

Strength

Weakness

Mail

Cheep

Can be confidential or anonymous

Easy to score most times

Standardized items and procedures

Response rate may be small

Limited to respondents who can read

Possibility of response sets

E-mail

Speedy results

Easy to target respondents

Other advantages same as mail

Not everyone has e-mail

Possibility of multiple replies from single participants

Other disadvantage same as mail

Telephone

High response rates

Quick data collection

Can reach a range of locations and respondents

Requires phone number lists

Difficult to get in-depth data

Administrators must be trained

Personal administration

Efficient when respondents are closely situated

Time consuming

Administrators must be trained

Interview

Can probe, follow up, explain questions

Usually high return rate

May be recorded for later transcription and analysis

Flexibility of use

Time consuming

No anonymity

Possible interviewer bias

Complex scoring of unstructured items

Administrators must be trained

(Source: Creswell, 2007)2- A survey instrument may have reliability even if not valid, but the instrument is not valid without the reliability (Discuses)

Reliability and validity is a main issue when it comes to study, in fact validity and/or reliability guarantees answers of research questions (Hebert, et al., 2009).

Kimberlin and Winterstein (2008) define reliability and validity as below:

"Reliability refers to consistency and/or repeatability of the measurement; in other words, consistency can relate here to the questionnaires being clear and well define in order to not confuse the respondents and repeatability here means that if searchers have findings from a group they should be able to do again the survey and get exactly the same results. Validity refers to the level to which the measurement procedure actually measures the concept that it is intended to measure".

The picture below (fig 2) shows us the relationship between reliability and validity; it gives us a good picture of this relationship. As the fig 2 shows, there are four type of relationship between reliability and validity

the measure can be reliable but not valid

the measure may be valid but not reliable

the measure are not reliable and valid

the measure are both reliability and validity

Lady using a tablet
Lady using a tablet

This Essay is

a Student's Work

Lady Using Tablet

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Examples of our work

http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/Assets/images/rel&val1.gif

Fig 2. The relationship between reliability and validity

Validity is the level to which the explanations of the outcomes or findings are warranted, that depends on the test's intended use. The validity of instrument relies on reliability. If the questionnaire cannot be reliable, there is no debate of validity. But even reliable questionnaires may not be valid if they are employed for conditions they were not designed for. A good example of a questionnaire that may have high reliability, but low validity is a standardized questionnaire that is used over and over in hundreds of companies. These questionnaires are marketed aggressively using assure of "industry norms" to compare your results with. Validity is not a characteristic of a exacting instrument, attached to it in a way that makes sure it will always produce accurate information no matter where or when it is used. If we want validity, we have to be able to show validity in our condition; it is not built into the tools (Kimberlin & Winterstein, 2008).

3- Explain the theoretical reasoning underling your research purpose.

The creation of quality culture and following implementation of the TQM in each school need cooperate of all role players (principal, teachers, students, and parents) in school, but the role of principal is more prominent than another one. In this regard the principal's role in the TQM culture implementation will be address as motivational, defining and documenting policies, objectives and commitment to quality (Rampa, 2004).

To success implementation of TQM culture require leadership role (Kowalski, 1997; Van der Linde, 1998; Vazzana, Elfrink, & Bachmann, 2000). One of the principal ability is develop strategies what will lead school to reach of the vision. So it's necessary to define how TQM meets customer needs and another hand meets customer needs related to improving the quality of life. Steenkamp and Van schoor (2008) climed that the quality of work life imply issue like: Safe work environment, attending in decision making, having chance to advancement and growth in terms of structured career path. Some of the quality of work life elements can improve school culture quality and eventually COTL are safe and healthy environment, development and training of teachers and principal, belonging and being accepted into the culture of a school, having relationship between teachers goals and those of a school facilities, teaching and learning media, cooperation all of role players, and ect. These elements that maintain above are related to motivation in workplace and TQM. So the researcher looking for finding the implication of these elements to schools and improve COTL.

Research show that different people need lead to different reacts in the same situation (Hillard, 1990; Kahn, 1998). This is where the Hierarchy of Needs Theories enters the equation. The Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Maslow, the Motivation-Hygiene Theory of Hezberg, Theory of X and Y of McGregore and Theory of Needs of McClellan are examples of this theory (Everard, Morris, & Wilson, 2004). These set of theories shown in fig 3.

Hygiene Factors

Motivators

Fig3. The Interrelationship of Theories and Motivation

In education, TQM has been motivating some academic departments at university and school as instructional leadership, that refer to the visionary leader's ability to influence a group or person regards achieving the goals (Abolghasemi, McCormick, & Conners, 1999).

4- The quality models cited in your proposal are drawn from the industrial sector. Explain how these models related to your conceptual framework.

TQM is a management philosophy that launched in manufacturing and business and then developed over the service sector and particularly education. Researches show that by adapting aspects of the TQM to fit their own needs, education organizations experienced a better ability to manage the process of quality, and maintain and enhance development. Educators believe that by applying TQM in education can enhance the performance of schools especially improving the quality of culture of teaching and learning in school. For achieve this goal researchers explore the notion of TQM in terms of its philosophy, principles, culture and implementation of TQM at school. So they try to identify how TQM has, and can be, conceptualized in an education system regarding Deming's fourteen points in education.

Deming's Fourteen Points in Education

TQM relied on that workers want to do their best and manager can enable them to do by constantly improving the system in which they work. TQM principles can apply to every organization, such as industry, Business Company, corporations, service organizations, universities, and elementary, secondary and high schools. Deming's philosophy provides a framework that can integrate many positive developments in education such as team teaching, and outcomes based education.

The issue is that words such as: learning and curriculum are not create in Deming's 14 points. Some of Deming's terminology needs to translate to schools as well. For example, principals can be considered management. Teachers are employers of students or managers of them. Students are employees and also they are customers, and the knowledge they acquire is the product. Parents and society are the customers (external) too. With these translations made, we can see many applications to schools (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008).

1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service (continuous improvement)

Schools can be constantly improved by setting long term goals and objectives for the school system as a whole. This is a strategic function that needs to be pursued by all role players involved in the school (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008). Secondly, as the most fundamental purpose of schools the realization of learners' potential, fulfilling this mission requires promoting innovation, research and constant improvement of teaching. In this case, constant educator development activities have to be modified to enable the delivery of a new total quality teaching. Lastly, the school's goods and objectives must be defined clearly and in measurable terms. To improvement these goals successfully, schools need to develop operational indicators of quality learning outcomes because the primary purpose of schooling is academic performance although not necessarily exclusive (Figure 4). All these activities must be seen to as contributing to the total system (Rampa, 2004).

School:

Society

Parents

Students

Knowledge

Teachers

Principals

Customer

Employee

Product

Management

EmployerTQM:

Fig. 4 Relationship between TQM and School

2. Adopt the new philosophy

The new philosophy must be one of intolerance of poor service and complacency, and this require a rethinking of school's mission and priorities, with everyone in agreement on them (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008).

Davies (2003) claimed that new management approaches may include modify the COTL and also new teaching and learning strategies and that aim at the success of every learner. Existing methods, materials, and environment may be replaced by new teaching and learning strategies where success for every student in the goal that lead to improve culture of teaching and learning (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008).

3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality

Educators need to focus on designing successful, quality, high-level performance into teaching process from the start. By doing this, the teaching process can be monitored continuously and adjustments made as needed, such as whole school evaluation. Educators act as facilitators who support the learners during each step of the teaching and learning process to achieve success. These activities lead to a changing system, which in turn affects permanent solutions. Ultimately the evaluation of learners' forms part of the ongoing teaching rather than consisting of annual testing only (Rampa, 2004).

4. End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price alone.

The lowest offer is often the most cost efficient, schools must to move toward only one supplier for any time and expand long-term relationships of loyalty and trust with that supplier (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008).

5. Improve constantly and forever activity in the company, to improve quality and productivity.

The focus of improvement efforts in school, under Deming's model, would be on teaching and learning processes. Based on the recent research findings, the best strategies would be attempted, evaluated, and refined as needed (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008). Management has an obligation to continuously look for ways to reduce waste and improve quality. Waste can be regarded as time spent on unfocused or less effective teaching strategies. Schools need to add value to learning experiences, which require regular team discussion and analysis of every significant process and method that affect outcomes and results. There is always a need to refine processes and procedures to become even more effective. Hence a climate should be created in which principals, teachers and students are empowered to continuously evaluate and improve their own productivity and services (Rampa, 2004).

6- Institute training on the job

Training of teachers is needed in three areas. First, there should be training in the new teaching and learning processes that are developed. Second, training must be provided in the use of new assessment strategies. Third, there must be training in the principles of the new management system (Lunenburg & Ornstein, 2008).

7. Institute leadership

It is responsibility of principals to initiate quality improvement processes. They must know what they have committed themselves to undertake what action has to be taken. In this regard, respect for persona and confidence determine leadership style within a school. Another dimension is that principals must change fundamentally and transform their attitudes, mindset and basic paradigms before TQM can become a reality. This is because TQM requires leaders who are respected, trusted and committed to that vision and how can communicate the vision convincingly and consistently throughout the school (Rampa, 2004).

8. Drive out fear

Principals generate fear by instituting unnecessary regulations and procedures and relentlessly emphasizing testing and accountability. Fear in the working environment inhibits people's productivity, accuracy, innovation and risk taking, collaboration, joy and labor, and may even cause role layers to cheat. Because fear is counterproductive and destructive in the school and reduces performance, it is therefore important to eliminate or to at least reduce it to an acceptable level. Thus, a sense of security becomes the basis on which an educator's motivation is based. Fear should therefore be replaced with sincerity, loyalty, productivity, caring, respect and confidence (Rampa, 2004).

9. Break down barriers among staff areas

Any organization including schools cannot afford t have role players straining in different directions. Collaboration among groups, not competition, is the key to success. Role players of a school are successful and achieve through establishment of cross-functional and cross-departmental teams. The strategy of cooperative teaching enables educators to be more productive together than they can be in isolation, and they thus enrich learning environments. Cooperation also enhances collegiality; consequently cooperative learning may be regarded as a valuable strategy for enhancing learner's learning skills (Rampa, 2004).

10. Eliminate slogans and exhortations

Educators often perceive slogan as signaling that a principal not only does not understand their problems but also does not care from slogans. Consequently slogans, exhortations and targets created by principals should be replaced with data and know-how, and by allowing teams to improve the quality of their work. It is because slogans assume that role players could do better, but are not willing that the focus should rather be on fixing the system and processes rather than on the role players (Rampa, 2004).

11. Eliminate work standards that prescribe numerical quotas

Although quotas promote the achievement of numerical goals, which are simply symbols of reality, they do not enhance quality. Hence effective schools need to seek quality, not symbols. As the traditional assessment of learners has been over-emphasized it is important to bear in mind that test and examinations do not necessarily reflect a learner's progress. Schools should de-emphasis marks and marks and emphasis life-long learning instead (Rampa, 2004).

12. Eliminate barriers to pride of workmanship

The fundamental belief is that role players want to do a good job. Poor performance by educators is not a result of laziness or irresponsibility but rather of management's inability to dispel fear and find ways to ensure that educators are allowed and equipped to do their best work (Rampa, 2004).

13. Institute a vigorous program of education and improvement

The only way in which a school can grow and prosper is if its role players continue to grow and learn. This means schools should view the continuing education of its educators as a good investment. This requires school principals to develop programs that enable educators to upgrade their knowledge, skills and excellence. The result is that educators, who are well trained, are more vital, interesting, inquiring and up-to-date in their field. They will in turn transfer such qualities to the work environment and are more likely to find quality solutions to teaching problems and will make learning a more interesting experience for learners. Thus the training of educators should also be regarded as an investment in quality education for learners (Rampa, 2004).

14. Everybody must work to accomplish the continuous transformation

As the principle f cooperation and teamwork has become the key to accomplishing culture change in schools, teams are then critical in schools because teaching is highly inter-functional. Therefore, cross-functional groups need close involvement in the school processes. Lastly, role players must be involved in quality improvement in such a manner that they contribute to the school culture change (Rampa, 2004).

It becomes evident from the above that Deming's fourteen points can, to some extent, be applied to schools. Some of the aspects discussed above are crucial for the conceptualization of management in schools. Given that the principles of TQM have emanated from an industrial environment, role players should be alerted to the dangers of a mechanistic application of them in schools. Hence a critical look at how these principles are applied to schools will have to be adapted to make them suitable and fitting for a school milieu where focus is teaching, learning and the provision of related services for continuous improvement of teaching and learning culture.

5- By referring to your research framework and research questions, list the appropriate titles of tables of data that you shall use to illustrate and explain your findings for each research question.

Table1. Instruments Used in Study

Table 2. Categories of Respondents for the Pilot Study

Table 3. Reliability of the Instruments

Table 4. Types of Data Analysis Conducted

Table 5. Distribution of Principals, Teachers and Students based on the Schools in Sample

Table 6. Distribution of Principals Respondents based on Demographic Characteristics

Table 7. Distribution of Teachers Respondents based on Demographic Characteristics

Table 8. Distribution of Students Respondents based on Demographic Characteristics

Table 9. Distribution of Principals' Age and Experience

Table 10. Distribution of Teachers' Age and Teaching Experience

Table 11. Distribution of Students' Age

Table 12. Distribution of Principals' Gender

Table 13. Distribution of Teachers' Gender

Table 14. Distribution of Students' Gender

Table 15. Distribution of Principals' Qualification

Table 16. Distribution of Teachers' Qualification

Table 17. Distribution of Students' Dropout rate and Reasons

Table 18. One way ANOVA Results of improve COTL Regard Location of Principals (Research Question No.1)

Table 19. One way ANOVA Results of improve COTL Regard Location of Teachers (Research Question No.1)

Table 20. One way ANOVA Results of improve COTL Regard Location of Students (Research Question No.1)

Table 21. T-independent Results of improve COTL Regard Gender of Principals (Research Question No.1)

Table 22. T-independent Results of improve COTL Regard Gender of Teachers (Research Question No.1)

Table 23. T-independent Results of improve COTL Regard Gender of Students (Research Question No.1)

Table 24. Mean and Standard Deviation of Principals Perception about TQM elements have been implemented in her/his school (Research Question No.2)

Table 25. Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers Perception about TQM elements have been implemented in her/his school (Research Question No.2)

Table 26. Mean and Standard Deviation of Students Perception about TQM elements have been implemented in her/his school (Research Question No.2)

Table 27. Multiple Regression Results of Principals Perception about Elements of TQM Can Improve the COTL (Research Question No.3)

Table 28. Multiple Regression Results of Teachers Perception about Elements of TQM Can Improve the COTL (Research Question No.3)

Table 29. Multiple Regression Results of Students Perception about Elements of TQM Can Improve the COTL (Research Question No.3)

Table 30. Relationship between Applying TQM and Principals' Perception about Improve COTL (Research Question No.6)

Table 31. Relationship between Applying TQM and Teachers' Perception about Improve COTL (Research Question No.6)

Table 32. Relationship between Applying TQM and Students' Perception about Improve COTL (Research Question No.6)

Table 33. Relationship between Character Traits of Role Players and Principals' Perception regard Implemented TQM Principles (Research Question No.4)

Table 34. Relationship between Character Traits of Role Players and Teachers' Perception regard Implemented TQM Principles (Research Question No.4)

Table 35. Relationship between Character Traits of Role Players and Students' Perception regard Implemented TQM Principles (Research Question No.4)

Table 36. Mean and Standard Deviation of Principals Perception of resistance for implementation TQM (Research Question No.5)

Table 37. Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers Perception of resistance for implementation TQM (Research Question No.5)

For more Information:

Conceptual Framework of Research

Gender

Location

DV: COTL

Research Questions

What efforts have been made to improve COTL regarded gender and school location?

How many of TQM elements have been implemented in Iranian schools?

Which elements of TQM can improve the COTL?

Is there any statistically relationship between the character traits of role players and improving COTL when implemented TQM principles?

Is there any resistance for implementation TQM in Iranian schools?

Is there any statistically relationship between applying TQM and Improve COTL?

6-How important is this research? What problem is it trying to resolve? How will it contribute to the body of knowledge in this field? How will the MOE of the Islamic Republic of Iran, schools, students and community benefit from its finding?

Today, the improvement of quality in some areas such as industry, manufacturing, health, and education is considered as a necessity (Singh, Grover, & Kumar, 2008). In education, some factors such as the budget reduction, the low level of the graduates' knowledge and skills result, weak students, ignoring the student's examination skills, school dropouts and failures and unmotivated teachers, in the fact that people and governments persist in extensive reconstruction or improvement of the educational systems (Tong & Han, 2003). Some of this attention can be spotted in the world attitudes toward self-regularizing schools management, increasing teaching hours, and valuing the principals' creativity. In these conditions, the management scholars in education regard the concepts of total quality management (TQM), with some minor changes, as a major tool for reconstructing the educational systems. In practice, the application of TQM models may have considerable effects on school performance particularly to improve culture of teaching and learning (COTL). The results of the present research can reflect the significance of the study.

The Iranian educational system has been changes to reconstruction or improvement of educational system. Educational experts have always been looking for techniques and strategies to improve the quality of education and keep up with the world standards (Ministry of Education of the I.R. the Iran, 2008). Despite the great efforts to reconstruct the educational system (i.e. to turn the old system to a new one) and change the school structure in Iran, such as changing the school-oriented system to a student-oriented system (Ministry of Education of the I.R. the Iran, 2008), as a general goal, the school performance and particularly the quality of teaching and learning culture have not improved as expected and schools have been poorly function yet. Therefore, top executive managers in education believe that current structure needs to be change or modify (Mirderikvand, 2007). Improving COTL is one of the key important to improve school performance (Chisholm & Vally, 1996). So educators are in search of a solution to solve the educational issues (Cunningham, 2007) and are looking for a model or models to improve the school structure or culture to reach the improve the quality of education in Iran.

One of the models of the improvement of quality is TQM, which is regarded as a solution which focus on customer satisfaction and continual improvement (Tong & Han, 2003). The adaptations of TQM may hold promise for school performance (Rampa, 2004). This model has been applied and proved successful in some countries such as USA (in Alaska, Florida, and California), South Africa, India, Oman, and Kenya.

Some of TQM principles applied in the educational system of Iran include attention to new teaching techniques (problem solving and brainstorming), training teachers before teaching, emphasizing in-service training of the teachers and principals, using classes with the world standards, conducting correct evaluation methods, employing team and group work in classes, paying attention to teachers' knowledge and motivation, and organizing parents' associations (Kamali, 2009). Kamali said that although some or all of the points mentioned above have been applied in different educational regions in Iran, the influence of using all of these points has not been explicitly specified. Moreover, there is still lack of a comprehensive model that can cover all of those points (Kamali, 2009).

However, there are some school related problems that increase the cost of education; some of these issues include the cost of nonconformance, doing things wrong, lack of focus on teaching, lack of attention to the standards of performance, unmotivated teachers (Tong & Han, 2003), lack of standards for quality, lack of attention to class and school standard, an insufficient number of teachers with teaching certificates, misuse of funding, and lack of parents participations (Kamali, 2009). There are also some students related problems that increase the cost of education as follows: student dropouts, student failures in mastering one or more subjects, weak students, failure in passing a level (Tong & Han, 2003), ignoring the student's examination skills, crowded classrooms, lack of interest in the curriculum, lack of resources or materials (Kamali, 2009). Due to the huge size of the Iranian Ministry of Education in Iran, numerous human and financial resources are required to achieve the goals to improve school performance, all of problems that mentioned before increase the cost of education and waste educational resources, so it necessary to find solution for solving these problems (Mirderikvand, 2007).

Having checked with different databases such as Pro-Quest, and Emerald, the present researcher found very little literature focusing on the application of this model, especially in the province of Lorestan (research population), Iran. Therefore, this area is still open for more research. Hence, the present research tries to give direction to some attempts and centralize these strategies to application TQM in Iran. It will also express these strategies in the form of a TQM model that is suitable for the educational structure to investigate the degree of influence of those factors on improving school performance in general, and improve culture of T&L (COTL) by regarding student (as customer) satisfaction in terms of reducing waste school resources and increasing productivity, in particular to achieve for aims of TQM.

Improvement includes less wastage of school resources like time, energy, and money by producing students with desirable knowledge and skills. If schools feel it necessary to increase the quality of the teachers, the student's inputs and technological resources in the system, the quality of the output should depend on the efficiency of T&L practices. By applying TQM philosophy, improvement in quality helps to decrease waste and raise productivity hence keeping costs low and raising student satisfaction. The principles of TQM could be applied as a tool for enhancing the student's moral, raising productivity, saving time, empowering people at all levels, enhancing moral, and providing higher quality services to customers (Kumar, Choisne, Grosbois, & Kumar, 2009), and other hand, the MOE is one of the biggest organization in Iran, need many human and financial resources to achieve the goals to improve quality of education, and all of problems that mentioned above increase the cost of education and waste educational resources, so it necessary to find solution for solving these problems (Mirderikvand, 2007) so with applying TQM the cost of education and waste educational resources will be decrease.