This chapter includes three sections, which are discussion, limitation of study, and future study. The purpose of the discussion is to interpret the results that are to explain, analyze, and compare them. The discussion states whether or not the results fully support the hypothesis, do not support the hypothesis, or support the hypothesis. Discussion also explains the research findings and the study in a broader context and suggests research projects that could be done to follow up on the study. Therefore, this chapter will explain the results of the research findings with the data collection.
Discussion on Findings and Results (Reasons)
After getting the data analysis from SPSS, this part will discuss about the finding and results. The discussion will start from demographic and continue by independent variable (language proficiency, language conflict, acculturation and motivation to learn and interaction potential), correlation analysis and one-way ANOVA analysis.
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Among respondents of my research, the female is the majority respondents. Through the feedback of my respondents, I can know that female is more willing spends time in order to help in questionnaires. Second, the highest average of age of my respondents is 21-23 years old. This means that the students who are willing to give helping hand in education study is between this average of age since they know the importance and difficulties of study. While the lowest average of age of my respondents is 24-27 years old. Some of them are undergraduate and some are extend their education in the university.
Next, there are four types of races of my respondents which are Chinese, Malay, Indian and other. Among my respondents, Chinese are the most. In addition, the most of the nationality from my respondents is Malaysian. This is because the research is doing in the university in Malaysia. The highest average of religion of my respondents is Buddhist. This is because most of students in this university are Chinese.
Nowadays, most of students know the importance of language use especially which has different ethnic group of students in the university. In the reliability analysis, the value of conbrach's alpha shows that most students know the language proficiency is very important in the university. This is because the students can reduce the language conflict between each other in the different ethnic groups. Therefore, from the descriptive analysis, the value of minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, and variance shows that most students agree that the language proficiency is important between ethnic groups in university. The language proficiency's mean is the highest in descriptive analysis. This is leading the students able to understand and improve the language skills between each other in ethnic group. Besides that, the language proficiency also will lead the student to share idea and opinion between ethnic groups in university.
In the reliability analysis, the value of conbrach's alpha shows that most students agreed the language conflict will occur between ethnic groups in the university. This is because some student cannot express the meaning, idea, and so on to another people. Sometimes, they may get the wrong messages or misunderstand from the student. This will lead to the failure of language use in university between ethnic groups. In the descriptive analysis, the result shows that the value of mean is the second highest in the analysis. This is because some of the students may face communication problem between each other by different ethnic group. Some of them do not know to speak well in Malay or English or both. They may misunderstand the explanations and ideas during discussion. Consequently, some of them may feel it is difficult to communicate with other ethnic groups in the university.
Acculturation and motivation to learn
In the reliability analysis, the value of conbrach's alpha shows that most students acceptable toward the acculturation and motivation to learn between ethnic groups in the university. This is because the student can motivate themselves to get the spontaneous with the other group members. In the descriptive analysis, the difference between the minimum and maximum is bigger which means that there are some of the students agree with the questionnaire and some are not. Acculturation and motivation to learn may improve the knowledge of different cultures. Besides that, it can motivate group members between each other by the diligent studies and practices. The acculturation and motivation to learn can accelerate learning by the degree of acculturation in different ethnic groups. In addition, it also leads the student's acculturation and motivation to learn when doing intercultural communication.
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In the reliability analysis, the value of conbrach's alpha shows that most students agree the interaction potential is important. This is because the students can share their different cultures knowledge between ethnic groups in the university. In the descriptive analysis, the mean result is the second lowest in the analysis. This is because some of the students agreed that the interaction potential is complicated while some are not. Some students think that they will interact with the same racial only in the university. Therefore, the interaction potential may improve their intercultural communication between ethnic groups in the university. The interaction potential also can enhance the teamwork between group members during social interaction and share idea between each other.
The results show that not all the hypotheses were accepted. In the correlation analysis, the direction of the correlation interprets how the two variables are related. If the correlation is positive, means that the two variables have positive relationship means that as one increases, the other also increases. If it is negative, the two variables have negative relationship, means that as one increases, the other will decreases (Archambault, 2000). Therefore, my research showed that interaction potential have negative relationship with the efficiency and effectives, teamwork spirit and improvement of the intercultural communication which means that these independent variables increase and the efficiency and effectives, teamwork spirit and improvement of the intercultural communication will decrease.
From the hypothesis testing, the research shows that there is a relationship between gender and teamwork spirit. Female is majority respondents from my research. This is because female have the talent to motivate and enhance the friendship between different ethnic groups in the university. In addition, female can cooperate well with the group members and able to achieve the teamwork spirit. The second hypothesis testing shows that there is a relationship between nationality and the improvement of intercultural communication. Through the data collection, we can know that all the respondents hope to improve their intercultural communication between ethnic groups in the university. Improve the intercultural communication able to reduce the misunderstanding and language conflict among different ethnic groups in university.
The next hypothesis testing shows that there is no relationship between language proficiency and efficiency and effectiveness. The data collection shows that the increasing for language proficiency will decrease the efficiency and effectiveness. This is because if the students improve their language proficiency then it will less affect to the efficiency and effectiveness in different ethnic groups. Next, another hypothesis testing shows that there is no relationship between language conflict and efficiency and effectiveness. From the data collection, the language conflict does not increase the efficiency and effectiveness in the university. The students may face the misunderstanding and conflict between different ethnic groups in university. Moreover, the hypothesis testing also shows that there is no relationship between acculturation and motivation to learn and efficiency and effectiveness. This is because most of the students prefer to use their own language between their communications in the same ethnic group so it does not affect the efficiency and effectiveness of the university.
There is a relationship between interaction potential and efficiency and effectiveness after the hypothesis testing. In the university, the students can share their knowledge, experiences, and ideas between different ethnic groups. For example: they share their country economy and the places that they had travelled before between each other. From the next hypothesis testing, the research shows that there is a relationship between language conflict and teamwork spirit. In the university, some students lack of language adaptation. Therefore, it will occur the misunderstanding between different ethnic group members. This will lead to language conflict which can affect the teamwork spirit. Besides that, the hypothesis testing also shows that there is a relationship between interaction potential and improvement of intercultural communication. The students able to improve their experiences and knowledge especially they can get different cultures information and current issues around the world during their communication with different ethnic groups.
The hypothesis testing shows that there is a relationship between races and teamwork spirit. The students can share their idea and opinion during the discussion which will improve the teamwork spirit. For example: during the group assignment, all of the group member can share their own idea in other to complete the assignment. In addition, there is a relationship between age and efficiency and effectiveness after the hypothesis tested in this research. The youngest students are more lack of concentration and stability in work if compare with the elder students. The last hypothesis testing shows that there is a relationship between religion and the improvement of intercultural communication. This is because different religions have their own culture background. This will lead to more understanding about their cultures among different ethnic group when they able to share between each other.
5.3 Limitation of study
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This research analyzed in Multimedia University, thus the results may be directly to the Multimedia University in Melaka only but not among the universities in Malaysia or any other foreign countries' university.
Beside that, this survey had been done by passing the questionnaires to friends in MMU; go to different faculty to request MMU students to fill up and so on. Some of the questionnaires can not take back from the students due to students forget to pass back after class, or they rushing time and keep the questionnaire in the bag. Some of the students also simply tick up the question in the survey, such as, they just tick whatever number they like in the age or whatever in the questionnaire. This means the responds was not 100% accurate from the students themselves.
In addition, there is a high cost in photostat the questionnaires. It is a quite big amount to the students. It also needed consume a lot of time to distribute questionnaires to all Faculties' students in MMU (Melaka Campus). Sometimes, it needed a few weeks to collect.
In the future research, the study will be focusing on the factors that influence the language use by different ethnic groups in the university within Malaysia so that the improvement and the development of university performance can be achieved. It is suggested that the scope of the study will be extended to the universities of whole Peninsular Malaysia and possible to Sabah and Sarawak. This can better represent the university within Malaysia. In addition, this can help to increase the numbers of respondents.
Furthermore, it is expected that more critical factors that influence the language use by different ethnic groups will be determined and analysed. For researchers who also conduct similar survey, they can use this survey as a reference to better understanding about how the intercultural communication is affected by language use in university for different ethnic group.