Are Customer loyalty and online grocery shopping linked in anyway

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How customer loyalty and online grocery shopping in anyway are linked or affected by one another? The broad problem area or issue that this student wanted to address was to find a correlation between customer loyalty from the early stages when grocery stores where moving to the online market place, and how, if any way they are linked. They will also provide research into the area that is online grocery shopping and customer loyalty, to establish a link between the two and to examine the reasons as to why people choose to shop online rather than in store.

Keywords

o Customer Loyalty

o Grocery Shopping

o Online Grocery Shopping

o Attitude to shopping online

o Links between customer loyalty and online grocery shopping

o Customer loyalty schemes o Shopping Rewards schemes

o Internet shopping

o E-loyalty

Literature Search

RE Anderson, SS Srinivasan - Psychology and Marketing, (2003) E‐satisfaction and e‐loyalty: A contingency framework. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [Cited by 331]

SS Srinivasan, R Anderson, K Ponnavolu - Journal of Retailing, (2002) Customer loyalty in e-commerce: an exploration of its antecedents and consequences. Elsevier Science Inc. [Cited by 467]

MA Morganosky, BJ Cude - International Journal of Retail & …, (2000) Consumer response to online grocery shopping. MCB UP Ltd - [Cited by 116]

Lisa O'Malley - Marketing Intelligence & Planning (1998) "Can loyalty schemes really build loyalty?. MCB UP Ltd [Cited by 91]

Literature Review

Compare your references to the ones chosen by the student

In comparison with the references that I found through my literature search, there is a wider gap between my sources and that of the topics discussed by the author of my chosen project. The main distinguishing area was the keywords that were used to perform my literature search. I personally believe that the gap between both our results, was that my references where very generic given information about that particular topic. Whereas the students references where extremely narrow and very close to the issues being discussed, the majority of the references were in line with their point of view.

Are any the same? What is different?

The references that I found where very different to that of the student, the majority of my references were studies into the key topic areas for example 'e-loyalty' and 'customer satisfaction'. Unsurprisingly none of our references matched, the majority of my results were for that specific topic as I saw fit.

Look up some of their references ... How good are they?

The references chosen by the student were very well chosen I believe as they were relevant to their research area. However in my opinion the quality of the references could have been better. Having found some of their journals through Google's Scholar, they were not highly rated in this topic area. That leads me to question some of the points raised in the report.

The majority of references I believe were mainly in support of their view. This is what I would expect from this type of topic. However I believe it would have been a much more compelling report if we were given an opposing view as well, therefore making their arguments interesting. During the chapter where the student was explaining the history of the Internet, all there references in that paragraph were in support of the points being raised which is what would be expected when a topic is being explained.

Can you judge the quality of their references?

I personally believe that the quality of the references obtained by the student was of exceptional quality, they were relevant to the point that was being made. I personally followed up a few of their references and the three that I followed were of extremely high credibility. For example the journal Lewin, C (Editor). (2004). Research Methods in the Social Sciences. According to Google Scholar, had been cited by other readers and writers 89 times, since it was published in 2005, this is a very good indication that the source and authors views are highly respected on this field of topic also contributing to the credibility of the sources used in this article.

For Comments Please Refer To Original Post on Victory

Subject: WK 4 - Research Ethics Topic: Learning Journals Group 5

Author: DERICK AGYEPONG BOATENG Date: 08 January 2011 13:13

How the research was carried out? (E.g. survey, interviewing)

In my chosen project, Primary research was used both in the form of a survey to measure public opinion of online grocery shopping and also of a personal evaluation of Tesco's web based grocery shopping site. This questionnaire was sent out to an estimated 300 respondent's via an e-mail link who attend the University of Portsmouth Computing and Maths department. Some questionnaires were also sent to friends and family members of the researchers - but the exact amount is not disclosed.

Did it involve human subjects? (Did people get involved?)

Yes the survey included human subjects, the survey contained a total of 12 questions, in which respondents gave background details first (sex and age group) in order for the researcher to build up a profile of the respondent's. They then proceeded to answer questions based on online grocery shopping experience and habits. This was a quantitative study containing structured questions with a selection of pre-set answers. This type of research allowed for a standardised set of data to be collected from the respondents which could be easily analysed to look for potential patterns and trends in the answers given.

Do you think that all the ethical issues were covered? Were there any ethical dilemmas that you think were not adequately addressed?

I believe that the student covered all the ethical areas in the survey; they also completed an ethical examination which was mentioned in the report but not included. I presume that the email provided the subject with enough details about the survey and also what their information would be used for. I am assured that no ethical boundaries where crossed in the execution of this study. From the report no minors where sampled in the survey as their opinions would not be relevant to the topic being investigated.

In your opinion, do you think that failure to address any ethical issues reduced the credibility of the results from this Project? (Gave readers an excuse to discount those findings?).

I personally do not believe that credibility of this project was any affected by any ethical issues that may have arose. The manner in which the student created the questionnaire for example, once a respondent had entered their age the system would determine whether they were of legal age to participate in the questionnaire before proceeding. This was vital in ensuring that minors did not accidentally participate in the study without parental consent. There was no reason from the project report that would indicate to readers to question the findings. However there are issues that I believe should be raised about the reliability of the results obtained. To me personally the targeted group does not appear to be the typical grocery shopper. I think it would have been a much more captivating if the questionnaire was made available to supermarkets to allow their customers to provide their opinions as well giving a much wider scope of participants and ensuring that the results are justified.

For Comments Please Refer To Original Post on Victory

Subject: WK 5 - Research Design Topic: Learning Journals Group 5

Author: DERICK AGYEPONG BOATENG Date: 13 December 2010 12:27

The purpose of this research is to investigate why e-waste is a growing concern.

Suggest ONE research approach (methodology), a research question, a research method and a sampling strategy which would allow you to research this question successfully.

To begin, I started by doing a very general search as to what e-waste is and to familiarise myself with the problem being investigated. I quickly came across statistical evidence that this issue is much bigger than what I initially thought. Below is a quick snippet of the issues that I came across.

"Thirty million computers are thrown out every year in the US alone, and many are dumped in India and China. Some 70% of the heavy metals in landfills come from electrical equipment waste."

Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/3307815.stm

From this initial search I was able to quickly decide that a questionnaire would be the most suitable method of carrying out the research. These questionnaires can be given to both consumers to gain an understanding of their view points and how this issue affects them. The second group that the questionnaire could be given to, would be those in industry, including a sample from manufacturing, suppliers and also retailers, this would provide a suitable understanding on how this issue affects all those concerned.

Some example questions that could be posed in the questionnaire could include:

1. How do you dispose of faulty items?

a. Throw in general waste

b. Dump at land fill

c. Find suitable recycling scheme

d. Donate to charity

2. Would you be more likely to use recycling schemes if they were free or little cost to you?

a. Yes

b. No

c. Maybe (Please give reason)

These questions would be aimed at consumers, it would be ideal to have different types of questions for those other sectors that are also being investigated to truly understand the impact this issue is having on the environment and also a suitable solution that could be implemented to reduce the impact.

Consider your own Study Project Report:

In the project that I'm critiquing, the researcher used a fixed Research Design. The researcher specified in advanced what methods were going to be used to collect qualitative data. These included a questionnaire to test both aspects of the primary research and also a personal evaluation of the Tesco.com website.

Unfortunately in my chosen project, there was no mention of any variables, but from my consideration I can identify two dependant variables. The first one would be age this would be dependent on the respondent's gender, from the results included in the report, it fair to say that the majority of the respondents were males, which were dependant on the subject's age, which was between 18 and 30.

There was no sample questions attached to my chosen project; however from what was discussed and also the results, I can build a picture of the type of questions asked in order to receive those results. There does appear to be use of both nominal and numeric data types to receive the answers that was gained from the survey.

Subject: WK 6 - Research Design 2 Topic: Learning Journals Group 5

Author: DERICK AGYEPONG BOATENG Date: 04 January 2011 02:24

How much consideration did the author give to choosing a Research Design at all?

I believe that the author of my chosen research didn't take that much time in order to choose their research design, as I presume that once the objectives were determined, it would have been straight forward to conclude that a survey would be the most efficient method of collecting qualitative data that can be easily analysed at a later stage.

However I do believe it was a good idea for the researcher to also include a personal evaluation of an existing online grocery store which at the time appeared to be doing well. I presume that there must had been some thought however no evidence or discussion took place in the final report, as to what areas to investigate and what the primary goal to be achieved from this private study.

Do you have any evidence that the author considered any choice of design?

From what I have read in this project there is no discussion from the author, considering a suitable research design. However in the Methodology part, the researcher did discuss very briefly what methods were going to be used to produce concrete results, from which they could base the report upon.

Did the author use a Flexible Research Design and, if not, do you think that there were possibilities for qualitative research that were missed? Give reasons for your answer.

The researcher of my chosen project used a flexible research design, this is evident in the type of research used, they utilised both questionnaires and also personal evaluation into research question.

However I do believe that an opportunity to capture qualitative data was missed by the researcher, I believe that this would have given the project a much more compelling evidence to support their final conclusion, for example the research shows that 72% of respondents would consider using online supermarkets in the near future - it would have provided the reader with a much more in depth analysis if we were provided the opportunity to find out what the respondents opinions on what might change in the near future for them to consider using online supermarkets.

Comments Forward Comments

1 Author: THOMAS ELLIOTT Date: 09 November 2010 21:51

I see you have undertaken an indepth literature search and compared it with your allocated project successfully. I feel the key words you highlighted are of a high standard and after viewing some of the links you posted, they look very relevant to the subject area and also very reliable and if I were writing an essay on "online shoping and customer loyalty" and I got the same search results, I would not hesitate to use the links you have highlighted.

Out of interset what search engine did you use? CiteULike? Google Scholar?

2 Author: DERICK AGYEPONG BOATENG Date: 10 November 2010 11:44

Thank you.

I used both to be honest, picking the most relevant from both sources. But I believe Google Scholar was the most comprenshive with its wide catelog the biggest problem was digging through them all to find the 'golden nugget'

3 Author: THEO POWELL Date: 17 November 2010 15:50

Seems like an interesting study project to cover, with a lot of information out there to cover. With this being said how difficult did you find it to find the right type information, to help support your further research and analysis on the project?

4 Author: THOMAS ELLIOTT Date: 29 November 2010 23:03

Yes, i agree with you, out of the two Google scholar is, in my opinion, the most beneficial but I do feel the results brought up in both sites are either be too specific to certain subjects areas or on the other hand too broad and not focus down enough, therefore making both sites fairly tedious and tricky to use when searching for material when researching a specific topic area.

5 Author: DERICK AGYEPONG BOATENG Date: 08 January 2011 12:16

Thank you for your comments -

@Theo - It was quiet difficult at first if I was to be honest. I had to keep in mind the research objective and what was to be achieved, from that point I considered any information that would be necessary to accomplish this.

@Thomas - Yes that is an interesting point to raise, but I believe that if you combine both together you will receive a much more relevant results that can be of use.

Subject: WK 7 - Data Collection Methods Topic: Learning Journals Group 5

Author: DERICK AGYEPONG BOATENG Date: 04 January 2011 02:55

7.1

"Mixed Method is the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods to study phenomena. These two sets of methods can be used simultaneously or at different stages of the same study."

Source: http://www.uwex.edu/ces/tobaccoeval/glossary.html

The difference between Single Approach Design is that only one research strategy is used, such as sampling, data collection, or data analysis where as in Mixed Approach Design using a combination of two or more methods in sampling, data collection or data analysis.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multimethodology

7.2

Locate the section in your chosen Study Project for the Part 1: Assessment, where the author has chosen to start the data collection.

For my chosen project, the researcher used a mixed approach design, this is evident in their research design, their primary research was a questionnaire, this was used for it efficiency in obtaining relevant and precise information from the respondents. And a secondary research was a personal evaluation of Tesco's online grocery shopping service. The evaluation examined features of the website and how this could play a part in customer loyalty and retention.

I believe that this was an appropriate method for the research question that was posed. It allowed relevant information to be extracted from participants and was less time consuming than an interview. In my observation of this project, I believe that the application of the survey would have been more relevant if it was to be given to those in the category that would buy grocery shopping, those in the age of 30 - 50, who currently shop at traditional grocery stores to find out their opinion on how online grocery shopping will affect them, and if they will show loyalty to a specific brand. I believe this would have also supported the researcher's existing survey which was taken by mainly male students at the University of Portsmouth. I would consider the results obtained by the researcher as credible, because the right questions were asked to participants, from the typical age group that would be most likely to shop online. However with that being said, I still believe that this would have been a much more compelling project had the reader given both sides of the argument.

From the research project that I was critiquing, I believe the user mainly utilised quantitative research method. I personally don't think using only a Quantative method produced the most concrete results, for the specified topic area, had the researcher utilised triangulation in their research as to use multiple forms of research in the research design it would have allowed the results to be much more informative into the shopping habits and loyalty of participants.

I think that the researcher took the necessary precautions to ensure that all aspects of the survey was ethical, they mentioned completing an ethical reports, and assured readers that no minors would be involved in the survey, there is also evidence that they planned the most effective way to carry out the research before providing to participants to complete.

There are currently no concerns that I would raise in regard to how ethical the research was, all expected tasks and discussions that took place immediately extinguished any doubts that were raised.

I believe that the research strategy was appropriate for the aims specified in the introduction of the document; they were able to provide a firm relationship between the use of online grocery stores and customer loyalty; which showed a positive correlation between high customer satisfaction when using an online grocery store and high customer loyalty.

The use of interviews would have given this research topic a more in-depth understanding to attitudes of those who complete grocery shopping online and also those who don't and what their thoughts are for the future of online grocery shopping.

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