Curriculum Management Development Quality and Accountability

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The main aim of the essay is to look at the various teaching contexts, from colleges, training, and businesses, and the types of courses that are taught within lifelong learning, including quality assurance, national policies, and initiatives used. How curriculum design is implemented in each of the teaching contexts, this will also link into how education is funded within the Lifelong Learning sector.

Over the last three years my teaching background is Music Technology; this involves teaching learners to use Cubase and Reason Music software, within this context it covers taking an initial idea and developing it into a song structure and adding instrumentation to create a song. Once the song is completed the learner will mix the song to their taste (dependent upon the learners' choice of genre). The final stage will be to master their production (getting an equal level for their track or tracks to be played on various media such as CDs, Radio or clubs).

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Within the role as teacher; I have attended regular meetings with the Trafford college Music Base manager and NVQ Stage one Course Coordinator. Within the meetings quality assurance is discussed in line with, Trafford College Teaching Training & Learning policy this covers: Teaching/Training and Learning Standards, Managing Learners and Learning, Managing inclusive Strategies, Assessment and Feedback, and Learning Standards and Attainment Standards. I have also been involved in the college initial assessment of potential learners, induction, and assessment planning processes. Learners selected must have suitable qualifications or the ability to cope with the demands of the course, any boundaries learners may have their learning can be discussed, and strategies put in place to help the learner's throughout the course.

Quality assurance and curriculum design

Contexts in which the Curriculum is delivered in Lifelong Learning

Teaching in the lifelong learning sector includes various sectors as follows:

Further Education (FE) offers education and training with a wide range of learners' from 6th form colleges to adult education. This is often someone looking to improve their literacy skills, or a worker who wants to gain a qualification in their area of expertise, FE also caters for learners at degree level. These are what are called franchised courses; learners opt to study for Degrees in Further Education as they are comfortable carrying on their studies in the same environment they completed their GCSEs NVQs. Part time and day release courses are frequently offered - in addition to full time courses. The sector includes further education colleges, 6th form colleges, and special colleges.

Teachers are employed in a wide range of subjects and can also be known as lecturers, trainers or tutors.

Assessor/quality assurance - assessors support and assess people working towards vocational qualifications, ensuring that evidence submitted meets the national occupational standards required to achieve a vocational qualification. The quality assurance role includes supporting and working with assessors to develop assessment procedures and facilitate good practice.

Funding

The majority of College funding comes via the Learning & Skills Council (LSC).

There are three main funding streams as follows:

• Adult Responsive (AR) - funding direct to the College from the LSC under the Adult Responsive funding stream - directed at both unemployed and employed adults

• Employer Responsive (ER) - funding direct to the College from the LSC under the Employer responsive funding stream - directed largely at NVQs in the workplace for employed adults

• Project - funding from publicly-funded projects. Organisations which control such public funding for projects include the LSC, Job-Centre Plus (JCP), Local Authorities, Regional Development Agency (RDA), European Social Fund (ESF).

Higher Education

Beyond secondary and further education sits Higher Education (HE), where secondary and further education (FE) students can take their study to the next level. Typically, this is the time when students will look to define their future career aspirations and pinpoint courses that will enable them to pursue their career of choice. Whether you work as a lecturer, in administrative support or as a lab technician - just a handful of the careers available - you will be playing a vital role in delivering academic and research programmes that nurture future teachers, doctors, vets, archivists, accountants and other professionals.

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Working in universities, university colleges and colleges of HE, the choice of subjects offered within HE is huge. Traditional academic subjects, such as pure sciences or mathematics and English literature now sit comfortably alongside more vocational subjects, such as business studies and management, architecture, media studies, and so on. What's more, the focus although still very academic also encompasses teaching key workplace skills, such as teamwork, communication and ICT.

What are Skills for Life?

Skills for Life (SfL) qualifications have been designed specifically to help people who want to develop useful skills that can be applied in everyday life. They can help to boost self-esteem, employability and potentially provide the springboard for individuals to move into other aspects of further education.

As an SfL teacher in England you would be providing support to people over the age of 16, including adults, who want to develop their literacy, language and mathematics skills. SfL Certificates are available in:

* Adult literacy

* Adult numeracy

* English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL)

As an SfL teacher you might work in one or a combination of establishments. These include FE and sixth-form colleges, adult and community learning, work based learning and offender learning.

The Libraries, Archives and Information Service (LAIS) sector covers those working in organisations whose primary purpose is lifelong learning. This includes public libraries and archives, higher education and further education libraries and archives, and national libraries and archives.

Librarians manage the day-to-day running of library services in a wide variety of public, academic and commercial settings. As well as public general interest lending and reference libraries, libraries can be found in any of the following environments: universities, colleges, businesses, museums, government departments, hospitals, prisons, legal practices and charities.

Archivists manage and maintain collections of archives. Obvious examples will be the records held at the Public Record Office and the British Library, but in fact archives can be found in any of the following environments: museums, libraries, NHS sites, charities, universities, businesses, local government and other government bodies.

Information officer - An information officer manages and develops the procurement, supply and distribution of information for an organisation or client in support of their needs or objectives.

Youth & community workers

Community learning and development covers staff working in community based settings. The area comprises seven key areas; community based adult learning; community development; community education; development education; family learning; working with parents and youth work.

Some of the key jobs in this area are:

Community development worker - work within communities to bring about social change and improve the quality of life.

Community education officer - community education roles vary widely, but typically involve an element of outreach work to increase participation in mainly informal educational activities.

Youth worker - youth workers promote the personal, educational and social development of young people, typically aged between 13 and 19 (although there are exceptions) and may also work with young people with learning difficulties up to the age of 25.

Youth support worker - these roles are similar to that of youth workers but at a more junior stage.

Youth work manager - activities will involve the management of youth work programmes and youth workers.

Work Based Learning

Work Based Learning (WBL) can broadly be defined as providing any sort of training that equips people with the skills to perform their jobs. You might work in the workplace itself, identifying training needs of employees and co-ordinating development programmes, or you might work for a training organisation that is contracted to provide instruction to employees and assess skills. You might also deliver Government funded training programmes such as Apprenticeships.

The key work areas include:

Training and human resources departments within commercial, industrial and public sector organisations such as retailers, manufacturers, financial companies of NHS trusts, National and specialist training providers, Private training providers, Further Education colleges, Third sector training providers, Universities, The armed forces and other uniformed public services, Prison, probationary and pupil referral services.

The majority of the work force are specialists in their chosen field or sector, for instance engineering, catering, construction, hairdressing, IT, insurance, agriculture or horticulture. There are specialist instructors for more generic topics like health and safety, communications, general management, sales and marketing. The list is quite extensive, making work based learning a good career choice for people who possess commercial and sector specific experience and who want to try something new.

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Some of the jobs available in this sector are:

Training manager - A training manager organises and manages training programmes within an organisation.

Training officer - A training officer organise training for staff within companies. This can involve delivering training in-house, or arranging training events through external providers and consultants.

Teacher/tutor/trainer/instructor - A teacher, tutor, trainer or instructor (other names are also used) delivers training programmes. They may also develop programmes, and carry out many similar tasks to a training officer

Training assistants - provide support to training managers and training officers in the organisation of training.

Assessor /Quality Assurers - support and assess people working towards Vocational Qualifications, making sure that they meet the occupational standards needed to achieve the qualification.

Career Guidance

Career guidance is the term used to describe the support and assistance given, and the techniques used, to enable people to assess their abilities, search for learning and work opportunities, and implement decisions affecting their careers.

Career Guidance covers staff involved in services and activities intended to assist individuals of any age and at any point throughout their lives, to make educational, training and occupational choices and to manage their careers. Such services may be found in publicly funded specialist provision, schools, universities and colleges, in training institutions, in public employment services, in the workplace, in the voluntary or community sector and in the private sector.

There are a range of job titles that are used for people who work within the Careers Guidance occupation, the most common of which is Careers Adviser. There are also many other job titles that exist within the Career Guidance occupation which vary depending on the specific focus of the organisation and the national context.

Careers to choose from:

Adult Guidance Adviser, Advice and Guidance Worker, Careers Information and Advice Worker, Careers/Personal Adviser, Higher Education Careers Adviser, Head of Careers and IAG Adviser

Curriculum Models and Equality principles

PRODUCT MODEL

The product model is also referred to as the behavioural objectives model, Behavioural objectives gained prominence in the late 1960,s since there were so many syllabuses without clear direction it became extremely important to be able to identify practical skills and make them more transparent. Another major stumbling block was assessment techniques there was a need to make assessment clearer in meeting the objectives of the assessment, these were largely influenced by ideas of behaviourism.

In order to make assessment transparent it was important to specify what the learner should be able to do, a large part of this work started in the 19th century and could be found in a few science syllabuses of the 19th century. Earlier in the 20th century there was the work of Bobbit in America. The main development of the approach began with the work of Tyler (1949). Tyler created a series of questions called Fundamental questions (see appendix)

What are aims and objectives of curriculum?

Which learning experiences meet these aims and objectives?

How can the extent to which these aims and objectives have been met be evaluated?

How can these learning experiences be organised?

(Curriculum studies in post-compulsory and adult education: a teacher & student guide p.60)

Later work (Davies, Gronlund, Magcr,) appeared to satisfy an apparent need for education to become more 'technological' and precise, the theoretical work by Bloom (1965) on 'domains of learning provided a basis for this and is commonly used throughout education.

ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT MODEL

Avoidance of vague general statements of intent

Makes assessment more precise

Helps to select and structure content

Makes teachers aware of different types and levels of learning involved in particular subjects

Guidance for teachers and learners about skills to be mastered

CRITICISMS OF PRODUCT MODEL

Eisner (1969), MacDonald-Ross (1973) and Wesson (1983), among the possible drawbacks are:

At lower levels, behavioural objectives may be trite and unnecessary

Difficult to write satisfactory behavioural objectives for higher levels of learning.

Specific behaviours not appropriate for affective domain

Discourages creativity for learner and teacher

Enshrines psychology and philosophy of behaviourism

Curriculum too subject and exam bound

While it is important to have a model like Tylers' (1949) can provide quality assurance which is detrimental in education, there must also be a certain amount of flexibility included, so the learners feel their thinking, efforts and hard work are also valued.

Eisner (1969) points out that the main concerns with behavioural objectives are how they deal with the process of appreciation. Eisner (1969) "would prefer objectives that engage students in the interpretation of meaning of an artistic work or event" (Behavioral objectives: the position of the pendulum p.55).

This is a very valid point. This would of course be different in a subject like maths, where there may only be only one rite answer.

PROCESS MODEL

Focuses on

Teacher activities and teacher's role

Student and learner activities (perhaps most important feature)

Conditions in which learning takes place

Key thinker Stenhouse (1975)

Academic Classical Humanist

Utilitarian Technocratic Vocational

Progressive Developmental pedagogy

1

Academic/Utilitarian share:

Academic/Progressive share:

Utilitarian/Progressive share:

4 CONCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM

The official curriculum

The hidden curriculum

The observed curriculum

The curriculum-as-experienced

Pollard & Triggs (1997)