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This chapter discusses and reviews research work that is relevant to the work that is carried out in this project. It also provides an introduction to National Curriculum of Key Stage 1 & Key Stage 2 and applicable learning theories that influenced instructional design of tutoring system. This includes an analysis of the curriculum and fundamental learning theories, paying particular attention to the importance of learning styles and learning preference, and how those properties may be modelled. Also discussed in this chapter are the fundamental principles for e-Learning and how to present content and communicate effectively is then analysed.
Figure: 1. Analysis of learning model
Curriculum design for KS1 and KS2
Definition of Curriculum
"A curriculum is the whole set of influences and events, both planned and unforeseen, which impinge upon students during their period of education and which will, sooner or later, affect their ability to understand and achieve the aims of the course (programme)and, indeed, of the wider arena for which they are being educated. (Burrell et al. 1988)" .
The purpose of teaching maths is to enable children to understand arithmetic, shapes, and measurement, to handle mathematical information, and to help them develop the skills to use these in every day life . Mathematics education is more important for teaching and learning which gives confidence and competence to develop of the positive attitudes towards mathematics. It also allows the children to be prepared for further studies, and to the way of thinking and expression in terms of mathematics, by learning of certain fundamental concepts. At Key Stages 1 and 2, problem solving and understanding of the number system is major aspect of learning of mathematics . Through both aspects, children can grab different way of learning and solving a problem and that more than one answer could be possible. It gives opportunity to explore, and ability to solve routine and non routine problems in variety of a context .
Mathematics is important because it helps to make sense of our surroundings. We count and measure and sort items according to their shape and size and this give us one way in which we can describe the environment. Furthermore by giving us a variety of tools to handle basic facts we can use mathematics to solve problems which are parts of our everyday lives. It is important that children become confident and independent users of a range of mathematical skills.
The following curriculum is for Key Stage 1 & 2 and is based closely on the National Curriculum as presented by Clemson et al, 1998. In the primary school, the National Curriculum divides math into four areas :
Using and Applying Mathematics
Number and Number System
Shape, Space and Measures
Using and Applying Mathematics
In this area, children are taught how to apply math to everyday situations, including the use of mathematical terms and vocabulary. Every morning the children will talk about topics such as: the day, the date, the weather and other current events. The children use math skills daily in counting and ordering activities such as lining up for assembly, counting and sorting items in the classroom, looking at diary dates, days of the week and months of the year .
According to [Clemson] pupils should have opportunities to :
approach problems involving number, and data presented in a variety of forms, in order identify what they need to do
develop flexible approaches to problem solving and look for ways to overcome difficulties
make decisions about which operations and problem-solving strategies to use
organise and check their work communicating
use the correct language, symbols and vocabulary associated with number and data
communicate in spoken, pictorial and written form, at first using informal language and recording, then mathematical language and symbols reasoning
present results in an organised way
understand a general statement and investigate whether particular cases match it
explain their methods and reasoning when solving problems involving number and data .
Numbers and the number system
This area covers counting, adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing. As well as learning tables "off by heart", children practice mental arithmetic and various ways of writing sums out. They learn how to read problems and work out how to solve them .
Pupils should be taught to:
count reliably up to 20 objects at first and recognise that if the objects are rearranged the number stays the same; be familiar with the numbers 11 to 20; gradually extend counting to 100 and beyond .
Number patterns and sequences
recognise and describe number patterns, including two- and three-digit multiples of 2, 5 or 10 recognising their patterns and using these to make predictions; make general statements, using words to describe a functional relationship, and test these; recognise prime numbers to 20 and square numbers up to 10 Q 10; find factor pairs and all the prime factors of any two-digit integer
create and describe number patterns; explore and record patterns related to addition and subtraction, and then patterns of multiples of 2, 5 and 10 explaining the patterns and using them to make predictions; recognise sequences, including odd and even numbers to 30 then beyond; recognise the relationship between halving and doubling
read, write and order integers, understanding that the position of a digit signifies its value; use correctly the symbols <, >, =, â‰ ; multiply and divide any integer by 10 or 100, extending to multiplying and dividing by 1000; round integers to the nearest 10 or 100 and then 1000; order a set of negative integers
interpret, generalise and use simple relationships expressed in numerical, spatial and practical situations, for example, finding equivalent forms of two digit numbers; understanding square and triangular numbers; understand and use simple function machines;
understand and use, in context, fractions and percentages to estimate, describe and compare proportions of a whole; recognise the equivalence between the decimal, fractional and percentage forms of a half, quarters, tenths and hundredths.
understand and use, in context, common fractions, decimal fractions and percentages; understand the equivalence of simple fractions; explore the relationships between fractions and percentages, for example, understand that half price is the same as 50% off.
The number system and calculations
read and write numbers to 20 at first and then to 100 or beyond; understand and use the vocabulary of comparing and ordering these numbers; recognise that the position of a digit gives its value and know what each digit represents, including zero as a place-holder; order a set of one- and two-digit numbers and position them on a number line and hundred-square; round any two-digit number to the nearest 10.
estimate within calculations, initially with numbers within 100 and extending to all whole numbers; approximate numbers to the nearest 10 or 100; estimate and approximate to gain a feeling for the size of a solution to a problem, for example, understand that 32 x 9 is approximately 30 x 10;
understand that a letter can stand for an unknown number, for example, 6 + a = 24.
consolidate knowledge of addition and subtraction facts for numbers to 20 and use these, along with knowledge of place value and structure, to mentally obtain further results, for example, 10 + 6 = 16, so 11+7 = 18, 13 + 7 = 20, etc, or 13 - 5 = 8, so 15 - 5 = 10, 19 - 5 = 14, etc; know the multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and use them to derive quickly the corresponding division facts; develop a range of mental methods for finding from known facts those that they have not learned, e.g. 7 x 13 = 70 +21 = 91; recognise prime numbers to at least 20 and square numbers to at least 100; find multiples, factors, cubes and square roots of number.
develop a variety of mental methods of computation with integers up to 100 and explain strategies used; use informal written methods to support, record and explain their reasoning, e.g.2 x 19 =17x20 - 2 = 323; extend informal written methods to develop a range of non-calculator methods of computation that involve addition and subtraction of integers, progressing to methods for multiplication and division of up to three-digit by two-digit integers .
understand and use the relationships between the four operations, including inverses; use associated language and recognise situations to which the operations apply; understand the principles (not the names) of the commutative, associative and distributive laws as they apply to addition and multiplication, and use them to do mental and written calculations more efficiently, for example, 127 + 56 + 23 = 127 + 3 + 20 + 56 = 130 + 20 + 56 = 150 + 56 = 206, or 2 x 13 + 13 x 3 = 2 x 13 + 3 x 13=20 x 13 = 260.
extend methods of computation to include addition and subtraction with negative integers and all four operations with decimals; calculate fractions and percentages of quantities, using a calculator where appropriate
Shape, Space and Measures
This area includes learning about the properties of shapes (such as triangles, squares and rectangles), including their names and what makes them similar to, and different from, each other. It also includes learning about measurement - length, area, volume and weight - and how to use measuring equipment such as rulers and scales. Finally, it includes learning to tell the time .
Understanding patterns and properties of shape
use appropriate mathematical language to describe and discuss shapes and patterns that can be seen or visualised
make common 3-D and 2-D shapes and models, working with increasing care and accuracy; begin to classify shapes according to mathematical criteria
recognise and use the geometrical features of shapes, including vertices, sides/edges and surfaces, rectangles (including squares), circles, triangles, cubes, cuboids, progressing to hexagons, pentagons, cylinders and spheres; recognise reflective symmetry in simple 2-D shapes and patterns.
Understanding properties of position and movement
observe, visualise and describe positions, directions and movements using common words
recognise movements in a straight line (translations) and rotations, and combine them in simple ways [for example, give instructions to get to the head teacher's office or for rotating a programmable toy .
recognise right angles
estimate the size of objects and order them by direct comparison using appropriate language; put familiar events in chronological order; compare and measure objects using uniform non-standard units [for example, a straw, wooden cubes], then with a standard unit of length (cm, m), weight (kg), capacity (l) [for example, 'longer or shorter than a metre rule', 'three and- a-bit litre jugs']; compare the durations of events using a standard unit of time
understand angle as a measure of turn using whole turns, half-turns and quarter-turns estimate, measure and weigh objects; choose and use simple measuring instruments, reading and interpreting numbers, and scales to the nearest labelled division.
This begins to be taught at Key Stage 2, in the juniors, and includes learning how to collect and sort information, and how to present it in graphs and charts.
Collecting, Representing and Interpreting Data
interpret tables used in everyday life; interpret and create frequency tables, including those for grouped discrete data
collect and represent discrete data appropriately using graphs and diagrams, including bar graphs, pictograms and line graphs; interpret a wider range of graphs and diagrams that represent data, including pie charts, using a computer where appropriate
understand and use, in relevant contexts, the mode, median and mean as measures of average, and the range as a measure of spread
draw meaningful conclusions from statistics and graphs, and communicate these using appropriate language; recognise why some conclusions can be uncertain or misleading .
Understanding and Using Probability
develop early ideas of probability, by reflecting on experience and carrying out simple experiments; use a vocabulary that includes the words 'evens', 'fair', 'unfair', 'certain', 'likely', 'probably' and' equally likely'
Understand that the probability of any event lies between impossibility and certainty, leading to the introduction of the probability scale from 0 to 1.
The Curriculum aims
The curriculum for mathematics for school is a very broad one covering topics as percentages, area, shape, angles and bearings, probability and learning to handle metric units of measurement. Lessons are delivered in a set style called the numeracy strategy with a lot of emphasis on mental processes and number calculation.
From the short review of National curriculum of Key stage 1 and Key stage 2, I found that there is not a common curriculum widely accepted. Analysis also revealed that every school has designed their own curriculum on the basis of the National Curriculum and they have their own teaching styles. In terms of this project, I would like to focus on numeracy, Addition and Subtraction.
Numeracy is proficiency with number that enables pupils to use flexible and effective methods of computation and recording and to apply them with confidence and understanding.
Numeracy teaching is about providing pupils with a firm foundation in mathematics and it is a key skill that every child must learn properly. This knowledge will help them perform more complex calculations as well.
Addition and Subtraction
Adding and subtracting can be quite challenging. Doing one problem requires several steps. Each step has its own set of skills. "To develop speed and accuracy children need to make use of the facts that they know to derive new facts". To consolidate knowledge of addition and subtraction facts for numbers to 20 and use these, along with knowledge of place value and structure, to mentally obtain further results, e.g. 10 + 3 = 13, so 14 + 4 = 18, 13 + 7 = 20, etc, or 13 - 5 = 8, so 15 - 5 = 10, 19 - 5 = 14, etc; know the multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and use them to derive quickly the corresponding division facts; develop a range of mental methods for finding from known facts those that they have not learned, e.g. 7 x 13 = 70 + 21 = 91; recognise prime numbers to at least 20 and square numbers to at least 100; find multiples, factors, cubes and square roots of numbers. Addition and subtraction is taught through practical experience of games and rhymes.
In a curriculum selection for the effective teaching and learning of mathematics we have to clearly identify the learning objectives we wish the children to achieve. The requirement and management of finding elegant resources to support the children's learning is all part of giving the opportunity to see and hear different things and good practice. The use of computer systems, programmable toys and calculators all contribute to the process of learning mathematics. Their use motivates children to learn mathematics and also helps them learn to adapt quickly to different technologies. .
Teaching school children basic mathematics using simple mathematical games should be fun. Although, there is lot of software for teaching mathematics that are game based such as the ones currently used by LEAs (Local Education Authority) and similarly there are a number of Q&A based tutoring systems for teaching mathematics , there does not appear to be any teaching software that tightly couples the two styles of teaching and learning.
In a game based teaching system, the software will provide a number of simple games which require some mathematical skills. The game based teaching system will have a number of difficulty levels in order to successfully complete the whole game. The system is totally child/student driven with very little control from the software. There is very little detailed monitoring in terms of the concepts the child is familiar or unfamiliar with. There is also limited feedback to the teacher.
This section discusses the fundamental learning theories of Constructivism, Behaviourism and Cognitivism and their potential impact on this project.
"Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the basis that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our own understanding of the world we live in. Each of us generates our own "rules" and "mental models," which we use to make sense of our experiences. Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental models to accommodate new experiences"(Michael J. Mahoney 2003).
There is a tremendous research done about the strength of multi learning styles and the implication of these theories as well. The most significant research in this field has been done by Jean Piaget (Piaget, 1976; Piaget & Inhelder, 1967)  and he has defined the Constructivist Learning Theory. All researchers are very supportive about this learning theory. In terms of this project, the importance of this theory is as follows:
Learning as a whole person
"Children learn across multiple domains and each domain interacts with each other (cognitive, social, emotional, aesthetic, and moral). Learning is an integration of all domains of human development" [Bredecamp, 1987; Dewey, 1966], e.g. if a child is learning math or addition system as a cognitive, and child are happily performing any tasks that is called emotion. And if they can complete their task in great spirits, or child is hungry means physical .
This type of learning styles provides a cooperative, supportive, nurturing, risk-free environment where every child is valued and respected. The multi learning concept also promotes success for every child. Every component of multi learning style is calculated to key into a child's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical abilities, which led to a child to the next level of growth .
Shaffer (1988) suggests that children who feel comfortable with their academic and social competencies perform better in school and have more friends than those children who feel socially inferior or academically inadequate. Bloom (1981) defined as that success is directly related to a child's positive self-image and self-esteem. Multiple learning styles provides good environment to the children to learn as whole person .
Constructing the knowledge
Piaget suggested that a child chronically gathers new experiences into his existing knowledge base. "As his interations with people and his environment widen, he changes and reorganizes his knowledge (Piaget, 1976; Piaget & Inhelder, 1967)". Every child's knowledge building processing is different and unique and they must build their knowledge themselves. In multiple learning systems the knowledge development process takes place continually by doing direct experiences with real world and interactions with different environment, these all allow them to construct their own knowledge in a sequence .
Progresses through stages of cognitive development
Piaget believes that children go through four stages of development: sensor motor (ages 0-2); preoperational (ages 2-7); concrete operational (ages 7-11); and formal operational (ages 11-15).The multiple learning styles will help to support each stage of development. Teacher also supports each stage of development in a different ways. Because of development process of children and they will have enough time to develop at their own cognitive pace .
Learning through active and meaningful experiences
"The tremendous research has been done in this area which shows that kids learn through active and meaningful experiences. When they are engaged with their environment and people" (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969; Piaget, 1976; Katz & Chard, 1989).
Research has shown that children learn through active and meaningful experiences. They learn best when they are engaged with their environment and people (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969; Piaget, 1976; Katz & Chard, 1989). According to Iran-Nejad (McKeachie & Berliner, 1990), children learn most effectively when their experiences are meaningful and relevant. When they enjoy with the meaningful learning activity on that environment they will understand more . This kind of environment will support the children's autonomy through their choice.
Learning is a process
Children's learning process is an ongoing chronically process which is, some how learning from curriculum based environment. We can design skills learning process in different context of needs of the child and we help them to become a good reader, writer and problem solver. It means we can facilitate them through active involvement with learning process .
Learning through games
We can create different learning environment, for example, playing games. It allows children to take risks, generate new ideas, avoid the fear of failure, and to actively engage their bodies and minds .
Learning as an individual
The diversity in learning style will drive child to make individual learner which benefits the entire educational structure. It allows a researcher to do more research on self teaching tutoring system .
According to constructivist approach, learners will learn more with a teacher than from experience (learning by doing) . Similarly, learners will learn more with a teacher's lectures (textbook) than from a computer (by playing) . So we can argue that the best way to learn is by having students construct their own knowledge rather than someone constructs it for them. Learning is an active process of creating meaning from different experiences. In other words, students will learn best by practicing to do something useful on their own with the tutor as a guideline. Many educators argued that traditional teacher-centric approach to learning do not transfer successfully to technology and must be changed .
The philosophy must change from computers as teaching machines to computers as tools to allow learners and teachers . This technology will not be useful without making complete changes in the teaching and learning strategies of learners and teachers. While traditional teaching has required the learner to initiate cognitive tools , the computer is a cognitive tool. As such, the computer can allow individuals to design to support and challenge the learner's thinking, problem solving  and encourage them to actively reflect on what is being learned.
Behaviourism is a theory of human learning that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and does not require specific knowledge and mental activities. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the gaining of new behavior. From an educational perspective the behaviourist learner is viewed as a passive recipient of knowledge. Learning can then be viewed as the acquisition of this objective knowledge through rehearsal and correction . From a teaching perspective, behaviourism maintains that the role of a teacher is to reinforce correct behaviour.
It also describes several universal laws of behavior. Its positive and negative reinforcement techniques can be very effective--both in animals, and in treatments for human disorders such as autism and antisocial behavior. Behaviorism often is used by teachers, who reward or punish student behaviors.
The behaviourist expects the teacher to predetermine all the skills they believe are necessary for the students to learn and then present them to the group in a sequenced manner . The impact of this theory on adaptive tutoring is twofold - the learning system should reinforce student behaviour that it perceives to be correct and the learning system should also have a predetermined view as to the best order in which skills and knowledge should be presented.
In educational systems, behaviourism implies the dominance of the teacher, as in behaviour modification programmes. It can, however, be applied to an understanding of unintentional learning.
For this purposes, behaviourism is relevant mainly to:Â
Skill development, and
The basics concepts (or "conditions") of learning
Cognitivism describes as a mental process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts based upon current and past knowledge. It also tries to discover and model the mental processes on the part of the learner during the learning process. In other words, "learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences. In cognitive theories knowledge is viewed as symbolic, mental constructions in the minds of individuals, and learning becomes the process of committing these symbolic representations to memory where they may be processed. Therefore, it is a very personal endeavour, whereby internalized concepts, rules, and general principles may consequently be applied in a practical real-world context.
The methods of constructivism emphasize students' ability to solve real-life, practical problems. Students typically work in cooperative groups rather than individually; they tend to focus on projects that require solutions to problems rather than on instructional sequences that require learning of certain content skills. The job of the teacher in constructivist models is to arrange for required resources and act as a guide to students while they set their own goals and 'teach themselves'. .
Cognitivism does recognize the existence of mental phenomena, but views the surrounding environment as an objective reality about which we may have knowledge. According to [Bruner], information equals learning, so outward appearances to that effect are merely communications illuminating the result of learning rather than learning itself . As the mind seeks a view of the objective reality it goes through a number of processes when it receives information -
â€¢ Information is selectively received by Attention
â€¢ This information is then integrated into the inherent order of memory via a process of Encoding
â€¢ Information becomes knowledge when it is integrated into the existing cognitive structure
â€¢ The knowledge can then be remembered in the process of Retrieval
â€¢ Provide conceptual models that learners can use to retrieve existing mental models or to store the structure they will need to use to learn the details of the lesson.
From the educational purpose its emphasis on teaching and learning process transfers to techniques to complement the attention, encoding and retrieval of knowledge. This can be achieved by carefully understanding of content structures, and mnemonics and responding to physical experiences within their environments . Therefore Cognitivism reinforces the learner to construct new information, and where the tutor acts as a facilitator to transmit the correct information which students should learn it.
Computer tutoring system works in a similar fashion to how cognitive theorists believe humans process information: receive, store and retrieve. So we can argue that the tutoring system roles in the education perspective to present the instructional materials to be learned and drill the student until they understand it. Cognitivism is also concerned with the active mental processes of the learner and its instructional designers are more concerned with how to include a lesson which bases itself on the learner's previous knowledge and then support towards new learning objectives. The goal of design is still to learn in the most efficient way, but to break the lesson down into chunks that move from simple to complex and to build according to learner's previous learning manner .
What is e-Learning?
e-learning is most often defined as the learning processes through computer-based learning, web-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaboration . e-Learning represents the whole category of technology-based learning and it also provides formal and informal learning and training activities, processes and events via the use of all electronic media including the internet, intranet, extranet, audio/video tape, TV, and CD-ROM, personal organizers etc. Some define that the "e" in e-Learning means electronically based learning . However, the electronic is not a sufficient definition of the "e" in e-Learning. So the term can also imply effective or efficient learning .
On the practical side, the e-learning is defined more specifically than distance learning, which would include text-based learning and organizing the course topics to be taught and creating multimedia CD-ROMS or web sites[19,5]. Learning course materials can be accessed from the web or intranet via a computer and tutors and learners can communicate with each other via electronic medium by using e-mail, chat or discussion forums . Therefore, it must be considered as the main method of delivery of training and it is also used for classroom-based training .
e-Learning or online learning is the term applied of different methods of learning, which are enhanced or facilitated by computers network technologies . This technology enables to create, deliver, manage and support learning style, anytime and anywhere. As a component of e-Learning are web-based or online learning that is likely to be the fastest-growing method for delivering education and training [18, 20].
This technology is rapidly changing our lives. It provides every ordinary person to have access to different varieties of information and knowledge  via connection to network .The users can access programs from home or when travelling . It will support the different methods of learning style, like audio, video games based technology and that training can be provided to multiple locations at the same time . This will enable educational institution to provide training and important information to multiple locations easily and conveniently. So it is very time and cost effective as well as efficient.
Learners can access training when it is convenient for them , at home or in the office because of the learning flexibility. Users could learn whatever they want in their own style at their own pace. Learner would get more control of their learning process means that there are more motives to learn . Learning and doing activities in a group can meet both business and learners need . e-Learning can be used for training at initial stages, to get new skills and for continuous updating of training at workplace. e-Learning can be used to specialize in a particular topic, to get extra information and support. e-Learning is a complete process of teaching and learning .
Fundamental Principles for e-Learning theory
According to [Mark Nichols] there are ten fundamental principles of e-Learning which are as follows :
"e-Learning is a means of implementing education that can be applied within varying education models (for example, face to face or distance education) and educational philosophies (for example behaviourism and constructivism)."
According to this principle e-Learning delivers different mode of education and this type of education system imply the use of a number of different technological tools that can be applied in various context; which is very useful in educational system. e-learning can be compared with face to face delivery or distance education but it can be used within either of these models. It is very essential to implement these education models on e-Learning.
According to [Mark Nichols], it is possible to apply different education philosophies using e-Learning .
This kind of technological tools will encourage learners to develop their own knowledge and those tools are highly useful to deliver different learning style in a very systematic manner . "The use of technology in education has a significant history" 
According to [Mark Nichols], in accordance with Skinner's work (Ravenscroft 2001) at the beginning, computers are applied in behaviourist modes, which are fully controlled over by teachers and they used to decide what is learned and how it is to be learned. Nowadays, more emphasize is on the constructivist use of technologies which helps to provide children (students) with opportunities to construct their own level of understandings. He has also mentioned that "Tam (2000) provides an excellent overview of how technology can be used for constructivist purposes."
According to present context of development of these technological tools, we need more effort and advancement to provide quality education.
"e-Learning enables unique forms of education that fits within the existing paradigms of face to face and distance education".
According to [Mark Nichols], this is one of the most new rhythms in learning style by using various technological tools. It provides new platform to express the existing educational paradigms in a completely new environments. This technology is very supportive to combine the strengths of face to face and distance forms of education in various skills based design . I think the role of teacher is changing in a dramatic manner because of online self teaching environment and the combined modes which represents the more developed form of existing instructional methodologies. The mixing up of variety of courses does not really focus on the creating of a new paradigm because it is based on the same theoretical principles like face to face and distance courses .
"Blended learning can be thought of as a new genus, not a new species; it is the result of evolution, not revolution (see for example Nipper 1989 for an account of how technology has resulted in new forms of distance education, and Garrison 2000 and Peters 2000 for an overview of distance education theory and its need to evolve)".
This technical tool has no strong argument for selecting platform because of ambiguity to choose appropriate terminology to use in order to refer to these new forms of education systems. The term mixed-mode is basically used to describe a blended form of face to face and distance an education system that does not refer a high technology component. But some people prefer the term resource-based learning which involves active participation with multiple resources (books, journals, newspapers, multi-media, web, community, and people) where students are motivated to learn about a topic by trying to find information on it in as many ways and places as possible . According to [Mark Nichols] "Weller (2002) provides a helpful framework for categorization of such courses based on the extent to which they are didactic/constructivist and make use of high/low levels of technology". It is also clearly distinguish between purely online and partly online and it's importance, and that the philosophical framework of course. This type of framework is to be preferred when categorizing variety of different courses. In terms of this project, I preferred resource-based learning style because of its flexibility in terms of adaptability to different learning styles and subject areas, and its promotion of student autonomy. Students can develop learning skills through formal and informal practice with tasks requiring information from different resources.
"Whichever term or categorization is used, the approach can only be used if purposeful education strategies are adopted.".
"The choice of e-Learning tools should reflect rather than determine the pedagogy of a course; how technology is used is more important than which technology is used."
According to [Mark Nichols] "if e-Learning is directly related to education, then it can be applied in accordance with varying pedagogies". He also summaries Weller's (2002) pedagogies as follows:
Resource based learning
Problem based learning
Narrative based teaching
Technology can be applied based on these all pedagogy listed above so we can say adaptability of technology is not the major obstacle but the poor implementation of technology must reflect poorly implemented pedagogy . Therefore, we can argue the selections of learning approach or learning philosophy is more important rather than selection of the technology itself. Use of the effective learning philosophy or pedagogical decisions can lead to simple technologies extremely productive. According to [Mark Nichols], the Open University's discussion forum CoSy documented by Mason, 1989 and Reintroduce of the Wolj scenario described by Jonassen et al 1997 are the major example of this principle. So we can argue that how technology is used is more important than which technology is used.
"e-Learning advances primarily through the successful implementation of pedagogical innovation".
A major achievement or success in teaching practice will make e-Learning more efficient and it does not in technology, though technology can enrich teaching and learning style by providing better platform.
Instructional designers should drive e-Learning, not technologists (Laurillard, 2000, in Nichols, 2002).And, he also mentioned who can maximize or further develop e-Learning are real innovative educators. He has also included Ravenscroft's argument "we cannot truly transform educational practice for the better through using new technologies unless we examine the roles the computer can play in truly stimulating, supporting and favouring innovative learning interactions that are linked to conceptual development and improvements in understanding." Further advancement in e-Learning will be a refinement process of the existing educational paradigms and we can also argue that it will come from a better understanding of the dynamics of teaching and learning skill and not from more improved or functional technology, though it provides opportunities for new and innovative pedagogies to develop better platform.
On the basis of these arguments, e-Learning developer needs to choose adequately technological knowledge in the context of the learner's psychology and teachings material available in the fields of education.
"e-Learning can be used in two major ways; the presentation of education content, and the facilitation of education processes."
It means e-Learning can contain digital materials storage, allocation, presentation, synchronous, asynchronous, communication, interactivity, multimedia, and access tracking (processes) - each of which is subject to multiple applications of use and innovation. It also provides resource information and can play a vital part in student, and it promotes self teaching environment. So it can be used to provide access to education content and processes. This principle only describe current situation of e-Learning tools so it can't make any further assumption for future development of this technology .
"e-Learning tools are best made to operate within a carefully selected and optimally integrated course design model."
According to [Mark Nichols], research has already supported to this principle, for example "Clear design is a feature of successful online learning (Swan 2001), and a responsive instructor who facilitates learning and encourages students to explore their learning at a conceptual level is a must for effective conceptual change (Ramsden, 1992)." "There is evidence that learners require prompting from an instructor for conceptual reflection to occur [Hartley 1998 in Ravenscroft 2001]." Practice-based literature is clear that the "build it and they will come approach does not work with online discussion boards", therefore we have to be sure of our purpose before designing course model. So we can say that the simple adding tools on the existing course are not solution; but a learner has to realize the real benefit of e-Learning .
"e-Learning tools and techniques should be used only after consideration has been given to online vs. offline trade-offs."
The appropriate file size is very important as students can continue their studies when they are away from computer. Some of the materials can be provided on paper or CD-ROM rather than web.
Web is generally used for discussion forums and contents; that is frequently updated or is only available during the actual course. It is convenient to produce some of the materials on CD-ROM or paper or both. Word documents, slide shows, some static content offline, video and audio materials can also be available on these tapes and CD-ROM [17, 19, 18].
"Effective e-Learning practice considers the ways in which end-users will engage with the learning opportunities provided to them."
This principle mostly describes about the end-user behaviours, and gathering right materials or selecting the learning opportunities are the major component of effective e-Learning. So, e-Learning resources must be provided very carefully. If all resources are available through CD-ROM or online, then we do not need to provide any printed materials but who do not like to read from a computer screen are required to print the materials out. Students need to access online study session from home which will require better internet facilities . This will give more opportunities for students to practice in their free time.
"The overall aim of education, that is, the development of the learner in the context of a predetermined curriculum or set of learning objectives, does not change when e-Learning is applied."
These learning objectives of education systems will encourage students to teach themselves by using e-Learning tools. It will also encourage them to share ideas via bulletin board and if the bulletin board is not relevant to the curriculum then we need to clarify the assumptions . It means how the student will fulfil their learning objectives or how they can use the technology that will lead them to determine their success. So we argue that curriculum is a major component of success and it should be in standard format.
"Only pedagogical advantages will provide a lasting rationale for implementing e-Learning approaches".
According to [Mark Nichols], they were Eisenstadt and Vincent (2000:xi) who reserved the advantages of technology for those applications built on sound pedagogy: "Evidence continues to confirm that the Web, as with other technologies and media, can be successfully exploited provided that the educational need to which it is applied is identified first."
The development of the art or profession of teaching may be helpful to prove e-Learning investments it required more in future. We can argue that technological tools improve teaching and learning style but it needs long-term commitment to use, and appropriate implementation .
Memory is a process of retaining, storing, and recalling experiences and it can be divide into three stages. First, active working memory refers to the temporary representation of information that was just experienced or just retrieved. It means what we use immediately after we see or hear something . These active representations are short-lived, until our brain is moving information from the short-term memory into the long-term memory. Short-term memory is good enough for short period of time, but the child may forget what they learned by next day. They will have new information for every new day but the main difficulty is retaining the information for long period of time or in long-term memory. If they have learned something well that directly transfer into their long-term memory so it means it can store facts for as long as your child's lifetime. Long-term memory forms from habit memory such as learned skills (riding a bicycle) and recognition memory which includes the storage of general knowledge and personal experiences. They can gather information from a variety of sources easily; and they may be well present in class discussion but probably they will struggle for writing the answer down and the reading test. If the teacher quizzes them orally, then we can find how much they have learned.
Usually children will have short-term memory problem like they just remember for moment but they will not be able to recall it after few minutes. It is same with long -term memory, they can remember for one week but they may have difficulty in recalling it in the next week . The major differences of child's short-term memory and long-term memory are just about the length of time to recall the events.
"A child's memory may be stronger, or weaker, in visual or auditory channels, or you may find it is stronger in verbal or non-verbal areas. Children who have poor memory skills need repeated review, even on things they appear to have learned well. They are described as "inconsistent" by their teachers . "
Learning style will vary from children to children, depending on their strengths. Some children might have more difficulty to learn some subjects than others. Some student can read complex word but they fail to spell even simple ones correctly. Some will remember how to do math problem but do not remember the facts.
If we encourage them to do frequent practice using different learning strategies that may help to understand more,
Figure: 1.1. Memory processing
How Children Learn
Children who are having difficulty to understand their schoolwork, we can classify them in to this category: learn inefficient, inconsistently, and incompletely. Some expert believe that children's brains develop faster from birth to age three than any other time; and more learning takes place during this time than any other. If we provide more learning opportunities, from birth until school age, then more synapses will be formed. Brain development of this stage will play key role for a child's success in future .
Since children's earliest experiences affect how they will think, learn and behave, helping children learn from birth to school age is a crucial activity. If parents can create strong foundation for learning from the beginning, that will help children to perform better in future. Child brain will become more mature or permanent in time, is useful way to visualize how they learn .
Children who learn inconsistently or inefficiently seem to build fragile pathways to the information they need. It's possible that one time their brain takes one route and another time chooses a different route. They use several partly-built paths to the information, but none of them consistently enough to be able to get to the information quickly, easily and confidently. Or they may fragment the information, and store it incompletely in several places instead of establishing one reliable site .
Children's learning stages
According to (Armstrong Thomas: 1998), Complete learning phenomenon can take places steps by steps, It is called "Four stage of Learning" which are summarized in ways Exposure Stage, Guided Learning Stage, Independence Stage and Mastery Stage. We all go through these stages as we learn, but some of us move through them faster than others, and we all gain some kinds of knowledge more easily than others. When we are learning something we are good at we may not be aware of these four stages, but we still pass through them.
Stage one is the Exposure Stage and is completely new learning stage but in this stage everybody is very curious to know everything. For example, when we learn long division, most of us get confused and we might find that information very new at the beginning. In the Exposure Stage, the nerves are completely unconnected, with visible gaps between cells.
We call stage two the Guided Learning Stage because we still cannot do the problems without help and we need full guidance from our teacher or parents. We are beginning to catch on though, and with support, encouragement and guiding information form teacher, we can attempt to solve the problems. But it's hard work, and since we make a variety of mistakes we still need the teacher's help often. We still need to seek good guidance from teacher and parents.
Guidance Stages progress will lead to the Independence Stage. At this stage, we can do most of the problems on our own, most of the time. This is when we begin to think of the task as "easy," and we gain confidence in our abilities.
Mastery Stage is a final learning stage of student. At Mastery Stage, they have learned well enough so they can begin to use the ability independently. Children's level of understanding will increase automatically, they can follow the steps without stopping to think what to do next .
Mastery Stage is the final goal of education. They rarely forget anything they have learned.
Children's Learning Styles
According to [Kolb, David A. 1984 and Thomas Armstrong, 1998] has classified learning styles into seven major categories: spatial/ visual, kinetic or movement, language-oriented, logical/analytical, Interpersonal, Intra-personal and Musical. But David Kolb has mentioned that "David Kolb's learning cycle model (Experiential Learning. 1984), the learning style inventory, and associated terminology"are based on the work of John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, and J. P. Guilford. Children can use a mixture of learning styles or be dominant in one. A child with diverse learning styles is usually a more flexible learner. If we are able to recognize child's learning styles from these descriptions, then it is possible to recommend them to accommodate individual style .
Spatial Visual Learner
Needs and likes to visualize things; learns through images; enjoys art and drawing; read maps, charts and diagrams well; fascinated with machines and inventions; plays with logos; likes mazes and puzzles. We can motivate them to learn by using board games and memory devices to create visual patterns and promote their writing via coloured pens, computer or drawing. This learning style is apparent in children who need to "see" what the teacher is talking about. They make meaning for themselves most readily through pictures.
Processes knowledge through physical sensations; highly active, not able to sit still long; communicates with body language and gestures. Shows you rather than tells you; needs to touch and feel world; good at imitating others; likes scary amusement rides; naturally athletic and enjoys sports. Physical action is the key component for these types of learning activities. While reading, let child chew gum, walk around, rock or ride stationary bicycle (Thomas Armstrong, 1998). Use numerous hands-on activities and experiments, art projects, nature walks or acting out stories and explore everything in a very hands-on manner.
Thinks in words, verbalizes concepts; spins tales and jokes; spells words accurately and easily. Children will be a good reader or prefer the spoken word more; has excellent memory for names, dates and trivia; likes word games; enjoys using tape recorders and often musically talented. This type of learner loves words-reading, writing, and speaking. They learn through listening and talking about what they heard. The verbal style involves both the written and spoken word. If child use this style, they find it easy to express themselves, both in writing and verbally. They love reading aloud and writing as well. They like playing on the meaning or sound of words, such as in tongue twisters, rhymes and they know the meaning of many words, and regularly make an effort to find the meaning of new words. When they talk to others, they prefer to use those words, as well as phrases which one has just picked up recently.
Thinks conceptually, likes to explore patterns and relationships; enjoys puzzles and seeing how things work; constantly questions and wonders; is capable of highly abstract forms of logical thinking at early age; computes math problems quickly in head; enjoys strategy games, computers and experiments with purpose; creates own designs to build with blocks/logos. These learners think conceptually in logical and numerical patterns making connections between pieces of information. Always curious to know how things work, ask lots of questions, and collect items and keep track of their collection and like to do experiments.
If children use the logical style, they like using their brain for logical and mathematical reasoning. They can recognize patterns easily and work well with number and can perform complex calculations as well.
A computer program teaches logic and critical thinking skills. These are also in game formats that could motivate children. Solving math problems in computer allows drilling and practicing for logical learners.
They have an ability to understand other people, to notice their goals, motivations, intentions, and to work effectively with them. This student loves to get up and interact with others. They love to do cooperative activities that give the opportunities to work and learn from their fellow students and to be excellent team players. Whenever possible, they involve in group games and discussions. Turning a science experiment into an activity to do with friends can be the best way to engage an interpersonal learner.
"The ability to use one's emotional life as a means to understand oneself and others". Children with this type of intelligence control their own feelings and moods and often observe and listen. We may think of intra-personal students as shy, but generally these kids have a good sense of self and are quite secure. They do best when working alone. They enjoy personalization activities, such as drawing, writing and talking about one's own family, house, or school. To involve an intra-personal learner in a science project, we may ask them to describe their experiences and emotions.
Sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm and tone. These children love to listen to and play music, sing, hum, move to the rhythm, and they love to explore sounds and how they go together in songs and chants as well. To teach musical learner math concepts, get them to count drum beats or make musical patterns with an instrument. We have to provide plenty of instruments to explore a tape recorder, and a variety of songs and sounds to listen to.
In this chapter National Curriculum of Key Stage1 &Key Stage 2 were reviewed with particular emphasis on how this curriculum can be designed in game play base learning style. It also reviewed learning theories and learning styles and properties of e-Leanings and how they influence our view of the computer as an educational medium and its applicability for personalisation along with the mechanisms for acquiring a model of the learner. These reviews are important as pedagogy should take priority when implementing new technology [Parson, 98] and this thesis proposes a new technical approach to implementing game play base learning it must support of a variety of pedagogical approaches if it is to be successfully adopted.