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This chapter consists of seven sections. The first section explains the background of the study. The second section contains the problem statement of this study whereas the third section states the research objectives; which are the general and specific objectives. The scope of this study is explained in the fourth section while the research limitations are explained in the fifth section. Lastly, the significance of the study is shown in the sixth section and the conclusion is elaborated in the last section.
1.2 Background of study
Traditionally, university students have subscribed to the belief that academic is important to learn. National education depends on academic achievement because it portrays the success and failure of education in a country. According to Dambudzo (2009), recently, the society has focused and emphasised more on academic achievement of its citizen. From that we can deduce the importance of academic excellence.
The evidence of success in a student is measured through his Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) at the National Defense University of Malaysia (NDUM) thus students compete one another for a higher GCPA. In a study conducted by Oh (1999), it was found that there is a relationship between religiosity level and academic achievement where high school students who had a high level of religiosity were more likely to have a higher GPA than the nonreligious students.
Several studies at high school level examined the increase of educational achievement to individual's religiosity (Regnerus, 2000). Therefore, religiosity is important and every student must have it. NDUM is a military university but it not an excuse for the students in not maintaining their religiosity because through the
research by Schumbel et al. (2009), religiosity has been identified as an "important concept to consider in students' academic development".
Islam views education as a religious duty and an obligatory for every human who are Muslim. In Islam, the prophet Muhammad went through the process of learning, throughout Quran, Allah says "Read! In the Name of your Lord, who has created (all that exists). Has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the most generous, Who has taught (the writing) by the pen, Has taught man that which he know not" (Quran, 96, 1-5). As Muslim students in NDUM, they must know their responsibilities in education and strive hard to get high CGPA.
1.3 Problem of statement
NDUM is an Institution of Higher Education (IPTA), formerly known as the Malaysian Armed Forces Academy (ATMA). NDUM is categorised as a boutique university because NDUM acts as an organisation that is responsible for conducting programmes of study at undergraduate level and military trainings. Thus, there are subjects involving the military such as military law, military history, defense economics, and defense technology.
According to the general conditions and special conditions to enter NDUM by the Academic Management of NDUM, the qualification to get into NDUM is tough and only those who are excellent in SPM deserve to further their studies in NDUM. However, based on random data of CGPA from officer cadet Tuah's Battalion, there are 17 officer cadet still got CGPA below than < 2.5. The key problem of NDUM officer cadet students is why they cannot perform during their studies in NDUM.
The past decade has seen a considerable amount of debate on the effects of religion in the private sector and education. But, the larger debate is more focused on the effects of private religious schools on the academic achievement of children (Chubb & Moe, 1990). Some of social scientists believe religion as a factor to help children overcome many of these challenges so that they excel both academically and socially (Jeynes, 1999). Then, several studies have estimated that students who are without religiosity are easier to involve with risky behaviour and it can affect their academic achievement (Adams, n.d.), so the level of individuals' religiosity among the students in NDUM is the problem of the study.
Previous studies by Elias, Awang, and Mohamed (2005) have shown that religiosity is not correlated to academic achievement. So, it is good that the relationship between religiosity and academic achievement is reviewed. Furthermore, the study of individual Muslim religiosity is rare in research and it contributes as a problem for this research.
1.4 Objective of study
The objectives of this study are:
To study the level of cadets' individual religiosity towards academic achievement.
To examine the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and academic achievement.
To determine the relationship between extrinsic religiosity and academic achievement.
1.5 Scope of study
There are many researches that investigated the relationship between religiosity and academic achievement. So far, most of the researches are on the Christian perspective and other religions but not Islam. This paper will review on NDUM Muslim cadets student in year one, two, and three of Defense Human Resource Management Faculty. This study also will discover the causes that can affect academic achievement. It is hoped that the outcome of this study can improve Muslim cadets academic achievement. NDUM also can take an action to promote and enhance religion importance to students' lives and academic achievement.
1.6 Research limitation
One limitation is the focus of this study is limited to the individual religiosity in NDUM students towards academic achievement. This study will not show the other religions' effects on academic achievement of students in NDUM. This paper also did not help overall religion of student at NDUM towards their academic achievement because it only limited to NDUM Muslim cadets student in year one, two, and three of Defense Human Resource Management Faculty. The main limitation to this study is that there are limited resources on Muslim religion towards academic achievement.
1.7 Significance of study
This study is important to identify the individual religiosity between the variables of the intrinsic and extrinsic toward academic achievement in NDUM. On the result will be collect can shown the effects of religiosity to improve the academic achievement among Muslim students in NDUM. In addition, this study can give academic management of NDUM opportunity to improve students' performance in studies. Therefore, this study can be literature review for other people to get know about Muslim students towards academic performance.
It is important to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic individual religiosity towards academic achievements of students in this study. The results will be able to show the effects of having religiosity and it is predicted that religiosity plays an important role of improving students' achievement. It is hoped that this study will add to the existing literature and the world will get to know how religion (Islam) plays an important role in the academia.
In this chapter, the researcher has spelled out the background of study and explained that the coming chapters will discuss the effects of individual religiosity towards academic achievement. In general, this chapter also explains the background of study and its limitations.
This chapter has seven main sections. The first section will define the conceptual terms of individual religiosity. The second section will discuss about intrinsic religious and third section discusses extrinsic religious. Fourth section is academic achievement (CGPA). The fifth, sixth and seventh sections will be discussing the related previous studies, theories or concepts that support the relationship. The last section is the conclusion to this chapter.
2.2. Conceptual Definitions of Terms
This section describes the conceptual definition of terms.
Religiosity is known as a complex concept and is difficult to define. According to Holdcroft (2006) religiosity is an uncertainty and a complex issue because the nature of the English language itself. For example, in Roget's Thesaurus (Kirkpatric, 1999), religiosity is found to be synonymous with such terms as religiousness, orthodoxy, faith, belief, piousness, devotion, and holiness. These synonyms reflect dimensions of religiosity rather than the terms of religiosity itself.
Psychologists might discussed religiosity in terms of devotion, holiness, and piousness, and sociologists described the concept of religiosity in terms of church membership and church attendance (Cardwell, 1980). The different use of terms across academic disciplines to identify what could be thought of as like dimensions of religiosity makes it difficult to discuss without an explicit definition from the viewpoint of religious education and the application of that knowledge to the lived experience.
Another reason for the complexness of religiosity is every approaching religiosity are from different vantage points, and few consulting one another (Cardwell, 1980). In addition, religiosity is a complex concept in human phenomenon, and seems to cover overall part in our life such as behaviours, attitudes, beliefs, feelings and experiences. The different terms in religiosity make it hard to classify the dimensions of religiosity because every psychologists or researcher have their own opinion.
Allport and Ross are the ones who developed the intrinsic-extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale (ROS) based on Allport's theoretical attempts. Based on previous studies by Allport & Ross (1967), it was distinguished those who viewed their practice of religion as a goal in itself (intrinsic orientation) from those who viewed it instrumentally (extrinsic orientation). On philosophy studies, Zimmerman (2010) claimed that the intrinsic is the value of something which is said to be the value that that thing has "in itself," or "for its own sake," or "as such," or "in its own right."
In addition, Allport & Ross (1967) assumed that to be a high intrinsic person is to be a true believer in religious practice for its own sake. Then Holdcroft (2006) summarised Allport and Ross study where he posited that a person with intrinsic religiosity is one who internalised the total creed of his or her faith and moves beyond mere church attendance. Therefore, Allport and Ross (1967) also mentioned that intrinsic religiosity refers to motivation arising from goal set forth by the religious tradition itself. Numerous studies have shown that intrinsic religious is about human concern and how they practice their religion for themselves.
Extrinsic religious is also developed by Allport & Ross (1967). In their research, they interpreted extrinsic religiosity as a self-serving and utilitarian outlook on religion that provides the believers with comfort in salvation. Therefore, they also claimed that the individuals who are disposed to use religion for their own ends, such as status, sociability, and self-justification, and often selectively shape a creed to fit their own ends.
Based the reviewed by Powell & Clarke (n.d.) on Allport and Ross extrinsic religiosity, religiosity was conceived as a religiousness that is instrumental in nature, with religion used as a means to obtain an assortment of self serving ends, such as personal comfort and social rewards of both the terrestrial and heavenly variety. Furthermore, people who were found to comprise a substantial proportion of the religious population, use religion for its intra-psychic benefits, such as increased self-esteem (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Other researcher such as (Kirkpatrick, 1989) also mentioned that extrinsic religiosity is a flow from the social endorsement of one's values and social-cultural worldview.
2.2.2 Academic Achievement
Academic achievement can be defined as self-perception and self-evaluation of one's objective academic success (Klobal & Musek, 2001). According to the academic rule book (Bachelor Session of 2010/2011), for the students who are studying at undergraduate level at NDUM, they are subjected to the academic rules of this university. Furthermore, academic achievement can be classified into two types measurement, grade point average (GPA) and cumulative great point average (CGPA). Academic standing of students will be determined at the end of each regular semester with CGPA as shown in Table 1.
Table 1 Academic Standing
Condition of CGPA
Good Standing (GS)
CGPA = 2.00
Conditional Standing (CS)
1.70 = CGPA< 2.00
Failed Position (FS) (Retired)
2.3 Related Theory or Concept
2.3.1 Religiosity Measurement on Intrinsic and Extrinsic Dimensions
In recent years, there has been an increasing amount of literature on religiosity. There is a large volume of published studies describing the role of intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity. However, Allport and Ross (1967) are the developer of the intrinsic-extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale (ROS). Based on ROS, there are 11-items on the extrinsic scale to measure the extent to which individuals use their religion for their own ends and a 9-item intrinsic scale to measure the extent to which individuals live their religion.
2.3.2 Religiosity Measurement on Intellectual Dimensions
The intellectual dimension of religiosity is about faith and faith knowledge. Glock and Stark (1965)stated that the five dimensions are related to intellectual dimensions. The dimensions are experiential, ritualistic, ideological, intellectual and consequential. These dimensions focus on personal faith, experience of ritualistic activity with community and a person's knowledge toward religion. To proof their theory, Glock and Stark (1965) suggested to put the overall history of the religion in their literacy component of their test.
2.4 Research hypothesis
This research has two important hypotheses which are:
H1 : Intrinsic religiosity is positively related to academic achievement (CGPA).
H2 : Extrinsic religiosity is negatively related to academic achievement (CGPA).
2.5 Conceptual Framework
From this conceptual framework, the independent variable is individual religiosity whereas the dependent variable is academic achievement. Intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity are directly formed individual religiosity.
Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV)
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework
2.6 Literature review
2.6.1 Related Previous Study
220.127.116.11 Scholastic Incentives and Educational Perceived Value; the Role of Religion in Muslim Students' Achievement Strivings by Ibrahim(2012)
This study was conducted by Ibrahim, (2012). It aimed to assess the perception factor and the role of religion in the Muslim students' achievement strivings at the matriculation students of the International Islamic University Malaysia. All respondents in this study are from the second year where471 students were randomly selected from the matriculation department at the International Islamic University. The method that was used in this study is Rasch Analysis, which is to identify whether religiosity is the factor which controls respondents' involvement in Academic exercises where it is followed by instrumentality (long-term benefit) or the utility factor (short-term benefit). Results of this study showed that religion as one of the factor of major incentive of Muslim students towards academic exercises, followed by long-term benefit.
18.104.22.168 Examining Religiosity and Its Relationship to Self-Control, Procrastination and Academic Achievement by Elias et al. (2005)
This research examined the relationship between Islamic religiosity level and self control, procrastination, academic control and academic achievement by Elias et al. (2005). The study was conducted in North University of Malaysia; the respondents are 23 male and 122 female undergraduate students from research method class. The researcher examined the concept of volition or 'will-power' from the Islamic perspective and compared it to the Western perspective. They use Islamic musabarah scale to measure an individual's level of volition according to Islamic perspective. The result is there are no significant correlations in both measurement of procrastination and between religiosity and academic achievement but correlated to self-control and perceived academic control.
22.214.171.124 The Impact of Religiosity and Locus of Control on Academic Achievement in College Students by Adams (n.d.)
In the research by (Adams, n.d.) the relationship between religiosity and locus of control on academic achievement in college students was examined. The respondents of this study are 68 college students. The method that was used in this research is religiosity scale, locus of control scale, an academic achievement scale, and religious attitude scale. The final result found no relationship between locus of control and religiosity using the Rotter and Strayhorn scales.
126.96.36.199 The impact of religion on the educational achievement of Black boys: A UK and USA study by Byfield (2008)
Recently, Black boys in the United Kingdom and the USA have problem with education. However, many Black boys still can achieve and overcome the problem. Therefore, Byfield (2008) did a research about the educationally successful Black males in the United Kingdom and the USA which involved 40 Black male students from both new and ancient universities. The purpose of this study is to indicate whether religion is a contributory factor to the educational success of Black male students. The study found that most of these students are religious and the church community plays a role to implement cultural and social capital and their belief in God, it became significant contributions to these Black male students academic achievement.
This chapter has discussed the definitions of individual religiosity, intrinsic religious, extrinsic religious and academic achievement (CGPA). Besides that, the previous study and related theory have been used to support the direct relationship of individual religiosity and academic achievement (CGPA). The following chapter will discuss the methodology of the study.
This chapter is divided into six sections. The first section will discuss the introduction while second section will discuss the research design in this study. Data collection techniques will be discussed in the third section. The fourth section will be on research location, population and sampling while the fifth section will be on the data analysis technique. The last section is the conclusion of this chapter.
3.2 Research Design
This study will use quantitative method. Quantitative method is the study of using data in the form of numbers. Form questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents and the answers will be received by the researcher and analyse through a quantitative analysis. The measurement tool that will be used is the statistical software that is the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Five-point Likert scale will be used to analyse the relationship between individual religiosity and academic achievement.
3.3 Data Collection Method
The questionnaires will be distributed to the students by giving the forms to class representatives and they will help distribute and collect the questionnaires during the learning process in the classroom. The students are asked to take some time to fill out the questionnaire and answer the questions, and then return the completed questionnaires to their class representatives. Consequently, the researcher will contact the representatives to collect the surveys and then data from the questionnaire will be analysed.
3.4 Research Sampling
The research samples are NDUM Muslim cadets in year one, two, and three Human Resource Management Faculty of Defense. The total number of cadet student is 182 students. Table 2 shows the number of students in accordance with their respective year.
This study will use stratified simple random sampling because NDUM Muslim cadets in year one, two, and three of Defense Human Resource Management Faculty. According to Uma & Roger (2011), stratified random sampling is to estimated the population parameters of a group or subgroup.
Table 2: The number of cadet students according to their year
The instrument to be used in this study is a questionnaire. The instrument consists of Section A, Section B and Section C. Section A contains four questions in the form of personal and demographic characteristics. These include age, gender, years of studies, and last semester grade point average (CGPA). Section B contains 23 items concerning the level of individual religiosity in intrinsic and extrinsic factors using Allport & Ross (1967) measurement. In addition, Section C consists of 5 items in the questionnaire related to academic achievement by Martha (2009). The questionnaire will use Likert Scale which has 5 points from 'Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree'.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
3.6 Data Analysis Method
Data analysis method is the process where when all data collected, it will analyse data in stages by using quantitative methods analysis. These methods are chosen to summarise the results of the questionnaire. Data from the analysis of documents and questionnaires will be analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 19.0).
Overall, this chapter discusses the research design, data collection method, research sampling, and research instrument and data analysis method. The description of the research is based on the analysis of each item as well as all aspects of the study. All the results from the analysis of data processed and analysed using SPSS will be explained in detail in Chapter 4.