Cultural And Physical Development Of Children Education Essay

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" A well defined, vibrant curriculum recognizes that primary children relish learning independently and cooperatively; they love to be challenged and engaged in practical activities; they delight in the wealth of opportunities for understanding more about the world" --- Sir Jim Rose (Independent Review of the Primary Curriculum)

Last few decades in England has seen perceptible changes and reconstruction in Primary Education. The purpose, aims, values and priorities of Primary Education have been guided by child-centered & progressive approach on one hand and country's political & socio-economic aspirations on the other. The Child -centered approach advocates flexibility & autonomy in the educational systems whereas the latter approach gives more weight -age to standardization and centralization.

Primary Education during the sixties followed child-centered philosophy that was manifested in the Plowden Report (DES 1967) advocating holistic education, caring for diverse needs and personalization of education of children.

This period witnessed shift in attitude towards students with special needs and ethnic minority pupils and consequently policy documents published and legislation during seventies in England were particularly related to needs of ethnic minority and handicapped children.

During the eighties, Education started to reflect government's political, social and economic agendas as the budget allocation to education increased and governments sought increased control over education. This led to increased centralization and standardization of education in England. The increased government control over education left a mark over the aims, purposes and values of Primary Education. England became more concerned with potential economic impact of education. National Curriculum was introduced & focused on raising academic achievement of students' literacy, numeracy and science. The National Curriculum also emphasized the role of education in preparing the next generation for a flexible job market as well as the spiritual, cultural and physical development of children.

The aims, purposes and values of primary education during the nineties focused on restructuring and reorganization of primary education and the introduction of school inspection, emphasis on raising standards in literacy, numeracy and science persisted along with the importance of citizen education.

At the turn of the 21st Century, England developed its first curriculum for primary education which incorporated well defined statements of aims, values and purposes of education. Excellence and Enjoyment : a Strategy for Primary Schools (DfES 2003) and Every Child Matters (HM Treasury 2003) emphasized that primary level education should be concerned with standards but also with enjoyment and a child's individual needs.

In 2008, the government asked Sir Jim Rose, a prominent education expert to review primary curriculum and provide recommendations on how it should be changed.Following an independent review of the primary curriculum , the first in ten years, a new curriculum has been developed to prepare children for the opportunities and challenges of life in the 21st century.

Sir Jim Rose, says " The Touchstone of an excellent curriculum is that it instills in children a love of learnning for its own sake."

In the view of the independent review of the primary curriculum ''the aim should be derived from the values we hold essential for living fulfilled lives & for contributing to the common good in civilised society."

The new curriculum is at the heart of of the government's policies to raise standards and help schools to continusously improve. National Curriculum aims link with Every Child Matters outcomes. The statutory primary curriculum includes curricular aims,essential for learning & life, Six braod areas of learning & religious education and provinding schools the flexibility to tailor learning to local circumstances and the needs of all children. The new curriculum focuses, apart from literacy, numeracy & ICT capability, on personal & emotional skills as well as social skills. Religious Education is an area of learning that contributes to challanging questions the isues of right & wrong and what is means to be human. Religious Education offers opportunities for personal reflection and spiritual development. It enables childern to florish individually, within their communities and as citizens in a diverse society and global community.It promotes ways in which communities can live and work together.

The purpose and aim of this study is to have valuable insight into values education in Primary Schools in England. It focuses on how students perceive and experience values, how teachers comprehend and visualise their roles and position, the current scenario and future possibilities.


Research on teaching moral education is of recent origin. Values Education

as a more or less definite body of systematic knowledge with a distinct place must be dated back by decades rather than centuries. It is true that Values Education as we understand it today definitely emerged very late but it does not mean that no attempts were made to explain human relations and behaviour. Attempts to understand social phenomena have been made since earliest times, though they were of a speculative rather of scientific nature. The earliest attempts at systematic thought regarding social life and values in the West may be said to have begun with the ancient Greek philosophers Plato (427 BC -347 BC) and his disciple Aristotle (384 -322 BC).

The purpose of the literature review is to prepare knowledge and theoretical base to facilitate further understanding of Values Education.

Research on teaching Values Education being a recent phenomenon has been testified by Taylor who is of the opinion that while some attention has been given to teaching methodologies, very little information on whys and wherefores behind the selection of curriculum on values and approaches towards it is available.

The concept of Values Education is complex and controversial due to the fact that society and social structures are subject to incessant change. What is today shall be different tomorrow and the ideas around Values revolve around time, space and context as well as community beliefs, mores and norms with changing interpretations and importance.. Social institutions keep changing. Individuals may strive for stability, societies may create the illusion of permanence, the quest for certainty may continue unabated, yet the fact remains that society is an ever changing phenomenon, growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions and suffering vast modifications in the course of time and consequently field of Values Education remains mired in uncertainty and controversy. Malen and Knapp ( 1997) are of the view that when it comes to arguments with reference to the aims of Values Education, any pluralist democracy finds itself in dilemma as it tries to build a shared civil society.

The element of uncertainty and controversy in Values Education gives rise

to a pertinent questions of what and whose values should be incorporated in the curriculum of value education ? How should values be promoted ? What should be the policy and practice in Values Education? Whose responsibility is it disseminate and transmit values ? This all makes it necessary to review major theories on education and moral development.

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) developed his theories of education & argued that children should learn through experience and activity in order to educate themselves. He saw education as central to the improvement of social conditions. His aim was to educate the child as a whole, keeping the focus equal on hands (doing), heart (feeling) and head (thinking).

Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852)best known as the creator of the kindergarten, started his career by studying Pestalozzi's work and methods. He went on to develop his own original educational methods, with play at the centre of his theory.

John Dewey (1859-1952) strongly believed that teaching should not just be the imparting of facts to children, but that children should learn and put to use, skills, such as critical thinking and problem solving, in order to fulfil their potential as human beings. He believed in learning by doing and was a champion of experiential education. He wanted teachers to understand that what they taught had to reflect the fact that their pupils would have had very different experiences in the past.

Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) believed that education should be designed to suit the changing needs of a child as they develop mentally, physically and emotionally. He believed that education should aim to help children fulfil their own potential. His approach to education was allowing children to approach learning at their own pace and encouraging learning for its own sake.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952) started her career looking at children's diseases and was involved in the education of 'defective' children at her Children's House in the slums of Rome in 1907.She believed children learn by using their senses and that they learn everything from their surroundings. Montessori wanted children to learn at their own pace and encouraged children to choose their own activities. She saw the role of the teacher as someone to guide and observe and believed that children learnt best through experience and repetition.

The Parents and Teachers of Reggio Emilia

Reggio Emilia is an town in northern Italy which is famous for its innovative approach to education. In the late 1940s, after the Second World War, the parents of the town, in a show of shared responsibility, and with the desire to create a better society for their children, converted a derelict building into the town's first nursery school. The effort and will of the parents was given direction through the extraordinary vision of the teacher, Loris Malaguzzi, who dedicated his life to the development of the philosophy now known as the Reggio Approach. This includes factors such as community and parental support, teachers as learners, the use of an open physical environment, and the exploration of the different languages of children including drawing, sculpture, dramatic play and writing.

Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohelberg are the architects of the development of theories on moral development. Jean Piaget (1932/65) focused on cognitive development of children. Piaget held the view that a person's perception of the world is the result of interaction with his immediate settings and surroundings and therefore morality is a development process. Though he himself did not apply any specific theory to education he had a tremendous and vital impact on education as various education programs have been built on his theory. When applied to Value Education, Piaget's theory (1932) is critical of indoctrination and recommends the classroom teacher to provide students with ample opportunities for personal discovery through problem solving and cooperative decision -making.

Lawrence Kohelberg carried forward the legacy of Paiget and put forward his theory based on a series of levels and stages. In Level 1 ,known has Pre-conventional , stage 1 the notions of obedience and punishment were the guiding forces for people's behaviour whereas in the stage 2 of level 1 right behaviour as conceived by people represented individualism. The level 2 of moral thinking is the one usually witnessed in society and is known as Conventional. The first stage of this level has the characteristic of conformity to expectations of the community and family with regard to behaviour. The Second stage is one with emphasis on law & order and performing one's duties. The third level of moral thinking has its first stage the social contract and the idealistic society and the values. The second and the last stage is based on respect for universal principles and the demands of individual conscience. Kohelberg endorsed the view that the aim of education is to provide conducive environment for development and encourage active exploration rather than passive learning. Kohelberg incorporated and practiced these ideas when he instituted the just community in schools. Kohelberg advocated the pensive and critical dialogue and philosophical deliberations on moral issues to attain higher stages of moral reasoning and was skeptical of the traditional approach to value education that focused on conformity.

Hartshorne And May , in the 1920s, were of the view that decision making is primarily based on the predicament a person finds himself in and the variance in behaviour can be directly attributed to the degree of risk that result from the decision.

It is worthwhile to note that preceding theories have warranted mush criticism. Kohelberg has been criticized by Simpson (1974) and Carol Gilligan for cultural bias and gender bias respectively.

Notwithstanding the criticism , these theories provided the platform on which other theorist and scholars have built their framework and continued investigations into moral development. Gilligan's theory (1982) on gender difference provides food for thought to scholars to reflect on whether the difference in gender would also lead to difference in the implementation of the curriculum.

There is a disagreement among scholars on the role of the teacher in Values Education. Nyberg (2003) holds the view that parents are the educational partners along with teachers and it would be erroneous if the role of transmission of values is left to teachers. Carlin (1996) questions the role of schools in promoting the content as well as the issues related to the teacher as an individual. However, Otiende (1992) is a strong advocate for the role of the school in teaching values not only from one generation to another but also within a generation. Dillion and Maguire (1997) envisage life long learning system with the distribution and demarcation of responsibilities for specific aspect of educational task among schools, home and community .Musgrove (2004) due to unpredictability of society and consequent variance in behaviour look forward to schools to come to the fore and deliver.

Values education is a subject over " which much has been written about but little is known" ( Australia 2003). Fink and Stoll (1998) are of the view that to succeed, the strategies should include practice and culture of individual schools as teaching is an emotive process and schools are human institution

Nucci (1987) opines that teacher education has downplayed the teacher's role as a transmitter of social and personal values and emphasised other areas such as teaching techniques , strategies, models and skills.

Milson (2002) and Checkoway (2001) state that good character is not formed automatically. It is developed over time through a sustained process of teaching, example , learning and practice.

In the words of Mncwabe (1987) " the aim of education should not be to impose moral standards on the youth, but to teach them a process through which they can set standards and make moral decisions for themselves within the context and demand of their relevant culture."

Research Methodology

Finding some information on most topics is easy. There are abundant sources of information readily available. However, completing a comprehensive study on a particular topic is often difficult, laborious and time intensive. It requires organization, persistence and understanding of scholarly communication. Qualitative research is a method of inquiry appropriated in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences, but also in market research and further contexts .Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decesion -making not just what, where, when. .Qualitative researchers typically rely on the following methods for gathering information: Participant Observation, Non-participant Observation, Field Notes, Reflexive Journals, Structured Interview, Unstructured Interview, Analysis of documents and materials Until the 1970s, the phrase 'qualitative research' was used only to refer to a discipline of anthropology or sociology. During the 1970s and 1980s qualitative research began to be used in other disciplines, and became a significant type of research in the fields of education studies and many other fields.

To capture the range of dynamism in values education, I utilized the qualitative research approach. Considering the fact that values are subjective and ever changing it deemed appropriate to select qualitative approach which itself is more subjective than any other approach. Qualitative approach uses various different methods of collecting information mainly individual, in-depth interviews and focus groups. However, since this research is secondary qualitative research, the data that has been collected for qualitative analysis has been through an extensive review of literature that has been published in the field in the past few years. I examined government, school and expert writing/research documents related to values education, citizenship education and primary education in England. The Qualification and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) website and more than three hundred online resources there on primary education provided the valuable insight. Furthermore, the National Foundation for Education Research offered quality, evidence based reports and publications and the website of Learning for Life provided ample amount of publications pertaining to character education. I examined the history of education in England and the progressive legislations bringing about reforms at various web sites. The aim of the analysis was to identify the explicit and underlying aims, purposes, goals , pedagogy and context of the teaching and learning of Values Education in primary schools in England. Browsing books, encyclopedias, websites, review journals helped me initially with selecting the topic and further refining it. I began by discovering general information about my topic of study and then identified major ideas, issues and prominent researchers. The data thus collected formed the basis of analysis on various aspects of values education.

The information that I gathered was primarily of two types;one was pertaining to the policy and the another one was concerned with the implementation of the policy in schools. The policy related information that I reviewed threw light on the government's intentions as well as aspirations in relation to values education and also the underlying factors for the intentions and aspirations.The data related to implementation was the school curriculum and the gradual changes in it. This helped me understand and appreciate the strategies undertaken, by those who are at the helm of affairs, to bring aspirations and implementation at one common platform. The document analysis also demonstrated the journey and progress of Values Education over a period of time and I utilised it as a foundation and support towards my efforts to find a new insight in relation to Values Education. It provided me with a handy guide to further refine my topic of study. Though a survey of important articles, books ands other sources helped to contextualise my research and also gave the necessary background to understand the research, I did not report every published study ,rather I chose studies which were the most relevant and most important.

The are good reasons for spending time and effort on extensive review of literature. The key reasons were to carry on from where others have already reached, to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas, to increase the breadth of knowledge, to provide intellectual context of my work and to identify seminal work. The extensive review sought to describe, summarise, evaluate and integrate the issues related to values education.

This section should focus on how you intend to gather evidence to address your key research questions which you then analyse against your reading. You need to justify your decisions with reference to the research methods literature.


All aspects of education are essential if students are to assume their personal role in society equipped with the personal qualities, dispositions, attitudes, values and virtues to take responsibility for themselves and to contribute to the common good.Good habits encouraged in the process of education underpin the ability and inclination to engage in the necessary business of further lifelong personal development and learning. Character, values and purpose of education becomes apparent in the summary report of the study of pupils in transition from primary to secondary schools.. The Character in Transition was undertaken over a two-year period during 2007 - 2009 in five primary schools and six secondary schools in a city in south-east England. It enquires into the nature of and changes in pupils' understanding of values in the transitional phase of schooling from primary to secondary education, as well as the consistency of provision made by schools to support pupils' character development

The reoprt begins with the premise that education is not just about acquisition of academic credentials and social skills, but crucially, about active character development . Its study produces some revealing facts about pupil's views on virtues and values. All the evidence gathered suggests that 10 to 12 year olds were characterised by a strong sense of values and character. ( Report Summary: Character in Transition:James Arthur, John Davison, Beng. Huat See, Catherine Knowles)


Pupils in the survey manifest a high level of moral awareness and are concerned about values and character development. There are no obvious differences in the values held by Year 6 and Year 7 pupils but younger pupils tended to have more definite ideas of right and wrong. Older

pupils, on the other hand, tended to look at moral issues in degrees of 'rightness' or 'wrongness'

This is partly a reflection of the school curriculum and school ethos, and partly a result of moral development


Teachers interviewed believed that it was the role of the school to help pupils develop values. There was a greater emphasis on moral issues in the primary schools.However,Year 7 pupils did not have a positive view of their teachers.They were less likely to think their teachers cared for them, or helped them with their school work. They were also relatively less likely to perceive their teachers as people who helped develop their attitude and behaviour.

Almost all the pupils surveyed thought education was very important for their future, but Yr 6 pupils were more likely to agree strongly with this statement. Primary school pupils were more positive about school and their teachers than those in the first year of secondary school. They were more likely to see the school as an institution that helped to build their character. They had more favourable views of their teachers as someone who would listen to them, seek their opinion and reason with them when they make mistakes. They were also more likely to show a higher level of moral justice than the older pupils, with a higher proportion of them saying that they would speak up when they witness bullying. Secondary school pupils were more likely to witness violence in school, with a third of them saying that conflicts were often resolved with violence. Pupils generally understood the difference between right and wrong, but younger pupils tended to have definite ideas of what is right and what is wrong, whereas older pupils were more likely to look at moral issues in degrees of 'rightness' or 'wrongness'. This is partly a developmental phase, but also perhaps a reflection of the curriculum and the school ethos. It is clear that explicit emphasis was placed on moral issues in the primary schools, while theteaching of moral values is not explicit in the secondary schools, and there is a focusindividual development, personal responsibility, self-esteem, positive attitude and academic achievement


The most important values to the pupils were trust and honesty. Courtesy and tolerance, on the other hand, were seen as the least important of values. Year 6 pupils, however, appeared to display a higher level of moral justice. They were more likely to state that they would report

incidents of bullying, admit their mistakes and were less likely to cheat in tests or homework.

Pupils generally perceived a good person as one who is kind, caring, helpful, trustworthy and loyal.


Most pupils did not believe that religion had an important influence on moral development. School and religion made little difference to whether pupils were likely to live up to their image of a good person. Few pupils thought having a religious faith was an important characteristic of a

good person.


In order to elicit a working definition of goodness from the students they were asked to consider the qualities of one or two people they had identified as 'good' people. The most frequently mentioned qualities were in ranking order:

• helpfulness

• caring

• a sense of humour

• kindness

• consideration for others

• loving

• fairness

• supportiveness

• friendliness

• intelligence

In order to explore the extent to which pupils shared the positive thoughts and behaviour they had described as being those of a 'good' person, they were presented with a dilemma. Pupils were asked to choose between going to a local shop to buy milk for a retired neighbour, who had asked them for help, or to go and play with their friends. Most felt that they would help as their elderly neighbour's need was greater than their friends'.


All teachers recognised the importance of their roles as curricular educator and moral agent, and had a strong understanding of the 'good' qualities of human character with no general difference across primary and secondary phases.Teachers viewed the teaching of moral, spiritual, cultural and social values within the context of teaching values generally. They expressed a strong belief that values should be a cross- curricular element as well as a discrete curricular subject. Primary school teachers who were interviewed do not generally use words like 'values', and even less 'virtues', when .addressing values, qualities and dispositions with their pupils because they

believe that pupils would not understand the words. This produces a somewhat selffulfilling

prophecy, because without explaining and using these words the pupils are unlikely to understand their meanings.


All teachers interviewed stated that they believed one of the roles of the teacher is to help pupils to develop values. However, many commented on the need for support from the school, the example or support of other teachers, support of senior management and/or parental support. A

number underlined the importance of being a good role model for the pupils by exemplifying the behaviours they wished to see in their pupils, or in society at large. For primary school teachers this involved developing a good relationship with the pupils, being firm but fair, modelling kindness, making pupils aware of what may be achieved through hard work, giving time to pupils and positively reinforcing pupils' acts of politeness or courtesy. In relation to discipline, teachers were asked to consider how they would teach a pupil not to be unkind to others.

Teachers stated the need to help pupils to see the situation from the victim's perspective. Some commented on the need to spend time with pupils in order to discuss the issues involved in this type of situation and many commented on the need for teachers to consider possible underlying issues that may have influenced the outward behaviour of the perpetrator. Teachers stated that 'knowing the good' was most likely developed in particular curricular areas, such as PHSE, Citizenship, Religious Education.

A Major source of evidence about the implementation of citizenship education is the third annual report of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study that was conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER )that found that Students associate citizenship more with rights and responsibilities and issues of identity and equality than with formal political processes. The citizenship classroom continues to be a 'traditional' teaching and learning environment with methods such as note taking, working from textbooks, and listening while the teacher talks taking precedence over discussion and debate and the use of new information and communication technologies. Students' sense of belonging and attachment to the different communities in their lives may change over time. It is noticeable in the survey that students' sense of belonging to the school community increases with age in comparison with their attachment to other communities.

A study undertaken by James Arthur and Lynn Revell on Character Formation in Schools and the Education of Teachers was of the view that many teachers would argue that there was little scope in the school curriculum to educate moral character and it was the responsibility of parents together with faith communities and that in a multicultural society there was no consensus to determine what is good and bad character. Teachers fear of being branded discriminatory thereby excusing the teacher from the task of thinking what character traits they might consciously inculcate. The study explored the student teacher's attitude towards character education and their experience of values and character education on their courses and in school. Student teachers considered the task of influencing the values and behaviours of pupils as integral to the role of the teacher. Student teachers believed that there were a variety of factors influencing pupils' values than their own. Yet , they perceived that teachers should be involved in values and character education. The majority of the student teachers thought that their role was to encourage pupils to form their own values along with the acceptance of the ethos of their schools and common values shared by society in general.

One approach still common in primary schools is for teachers and heads to read stories which illustrate certain human values such as honesty, perseverance, triumph over adverse circumstances, kindness, courage etc. The assumption being that these 'virtue stories' will inspire others to admire or emulate the central characters values. However there is no valid reason to assume that children will take onboard the intended moral lesson nor is there any theoretical or empirical justification for why they should. (Ian Massey) In fact Narvaez (2002) points out that children will actively construct meanings through their prior knowledge and may interpret the story differently, even negatively.

One problem with current Citizenship is that it is often taught as a series of fragmented modules covering the whole field of social and moral responsibility, community involvement and political literacy. A second problem is that specific skills are taught which are not always transferred into other areas and thirdly there can be a negative orientation, as with some Human Rights work. Content tends to emphasise issue related information. Skills such as problem solving and reasoning feature to promote certain values but there are no underlying concepts and principles which can be linked to wider expectations, children's lives and rights. A lot of work that goes on in PHSE/Citizenship is undoubtedly good but there is a lack of consistency and coherence and also a lack of rigour about why we approach some issues the way we do and concern over effectiveness.

Some programmes such as anti-racist and human rights work may focus on bad behaviours and how to prevent or control them. Despite how the work is constructed it can have a negative orientation. Activities contain obvious messages which essentially result in children being told that they must not be discriminatory, engage in conflict, be selfish, not care about others in distant lands etc. This is rarely a very effective strategy with young people, as many parents come to realize. For students it can be difficult to provide the motivation needed to promote For more social responsible behaviours as the situation may be distant from pupils and seem so awful that they feel powerless to change things for the better. In the development of these programmes there seems to have been little consideration of;

the need for whole school approaches

age appropriateness

how the promotion of democratic values and behaviours may need to link to the process of identity formation

wider agreed national/international values .

that children need a context in which to coordinate and reconcile, their values, behaviours and knowledge.

the existing citizenship status of the child with a focus on citizenship preparation (Ian Massey: The Case of RRR)


The values education and citizenship education is at an early stage of development in England. It has various strong features and established teacher education programmes and growing number of resources. It has come a long way but it has a long way to go and leaves no room to be complacent.The aim of citizenship and values education is no longer just about encouraging formal political participation in civic society, but also now about preparation for informal participation in civil society; acquisition of a greater understanding and appreciation of issues of identity and belonging, community cohesion, diversity and inclusion in society and development of a sense of citizenship in a global context particularly around issues of sustainable development, the environment and stewardship of the planet. This shift has been driven by the need to prepare people, particularly children and young people, to live with confidence in an increasingly diverse, complex, fast changing society.

The report on outcomes of Ninth Annual Conferene Nov'2008 , sponsored by Gordon cook foundation, on Education for Values and citizenship on behalf of five nations including England beautifully and aptly

Summarized the windows of opportunity in values Education, "The changing contexts within which citizenship and values education are framed and practiced in society, education and schools and by young people are creating 'windows of opportunity' for moving the area forward. There are particular windows of opportunity:

In society - the challenges posed by the lack of trust and public confidence in politics and politicians, the impact of the global economic downturn and the rapid movement of people within and across communities make even stronger the case for promoting citizenship and values education, as a positive antidote to such challenges.

In education - the drive to educate young people for life in the 21st century, the move to more flexible curriculum and learning frameworks, and emphasis on more competence- and skills-based learning all strengthen the opportunities for citizenship and values education to get a firmer foothold in the curriculum and at whole school and wider community levels

In schools - the increasing encouragement to school leaders and teachers to use their professional judgment in shaping curriculum and learning experiences that fit the needs of their learners and school and local contexts create opportunities for citizenship and values education to be integral to how schools are organised, the values they promote and the learning experiences they encourage.

Among young people - the increasing concern of young people about the society in which they are growing up, frustration at not having a voice on issues that matter to them, and boredom with traditional teaching and learning, create the opportunity to underline the relevance of citizenship and values education through its aims, active processes and outcomes - to the lives and concerns of young people.

Taken together, these 'windows of opportunity' provide the catalyst for action and It is vital that citizenship and values education is seen as central to addressing the current challenges in society, education, schools and for young people

There is no indication of where any of this evidence came from; the numbers of teachers and pupils involved; their contextual background (and therefore their representativeness of a wider population).

All of this needs to be addressed - this would be difficult to do outside of a tutorial.