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Total Quality Management that known as TQM is very important in the success of organization. W. Edward Deming is the one who developed the theory of management and he is the father of total quality management. There are 14 points of W. Edward Deming that is known, as Deming's theory of management and the organization has to follow these 14 points of Deming's theory to improve quality in the organization. Picture below will shows those 14 points of Deming's theory.
II. How Deming's 14 Points can be applied to an Academic Environment
Deming's theory has been used for many businesses to make improvement that can improve the company towards better, but here is how the 14 points of Deming theory can be applied on academic environment or education system to improve learning and classroom performance by applying 14 point of Deming's theory. This 14 Deming's points also can be implement in the APU University in order to make improvement in education and create creative and innovation student that will be very useful in the future.
(i) Create Constancy of Purpose for Improvement
In an academic environment management the statement of vision and mission have to be created which based on the value and belief. This point is the basic that have to be implement in the organization to become more competitive. Management must be to know exactly what the purpose of the organization and to be able to achieve the goal. Create long-term constancy of purpose is important for continuous improvement and innovation because without any purpose and mission the organization will not have direction and organization effort will hard to reach since there is no goal that have to be achieve. The long-term constancy of purpose can be obligation that has to be accepted by the company as a number one priority. In implementing this point to the education the mission could be how to develop student skills, knowledge and attitude to create useful people after they graduate from the university. Creating clear vision and mission of what the university goal can lead to constant improvement in learning process where people will know how they are contributing to achieving the goal.
(ii) Adopt the New philosophy
A change is necessary to have for the old philosophy, which are no longer effective to use for today's academic environment. Once the constancy of purpose has been created then must be supported by adopt the new philosophy. Adopt the new philosophy based on the trend and environment is important to support the mission and vision in achieving organization goal. The management should be emphasize on quality in everything, in education this point can be applied by providing facility in the collage or university such as the complete book in the library, convenient classroom, cafeteria, clean restroom, excellent IT system and etc.
(iii) Cease Dependence on inspection
In this point management is required to be focus in the service process and keep on improve it to build quality. Academic environment cannot be depends on the audits, or inspection to build quality, the management has to be focus on the learning process rather than inspection or evaluation because the quality cannot be measure by the analysis data statistic. On the education system can be implement by focusing on the learning process rather than grading and ranking. This is important to guide the students become more independents and encourage them to take responsibility for their own improvement and university should provide more services for the student to support this point.
(iv) Do not Award business on price tag alone
Management has to consider about partnership contract and relation to minimize total cost and move towards a single supplier with the lowest bidder and qualified requirements. This can build long-term relationship and loyalty, which has befits such as, long-term relationship with a single supplier can be easier for management to get the needs with the good quality and lower price. Long-term suppliers tend to treat their loyal customers as a priority and give best quality goods with reasonable price. In education this point can be implement in book, food and etc. and in education system creating relation and partnership with other university such like the partnership of APU and Staffordshire University also the implementation of this point.
(v) Improve constantly and for ever system of product and service.
Refers to Logothesis (1992) management has to search continually for the problem in order to improve quality constantly and decrease cost. Purpose of this point is to improve quality and productivity that be able to know a problem in the system to reach the satisfaction of customer. This point is important to anticipate a trouble that should not exist in the academic environment system. In education this point can be implement by collecting student information about their satisfaction in the system, providing suggestion box to get feedback, observation and discussing with the student to find out the problem in system and effective way to remove barrier in the education.
(vi) Institute education and training on the job
Training is the best way to successful implementation of total quality management within the academic environment since everyone needs to know exactly about his or her own job. Management must understand and fully appreciate about the concept of variation and its negative consequences also ways to tackle it and providing training programs to all staff and teacher is very necessary in this case. All staffs and teachers need to develop their program through training to do better job and increase the knowledge and discipline. In education this point can be implement by providing workshop and conferences for all the staff and teacher in an academic environment that based on the subject that related with their own job.
(vii) Institute Leadership or modern method of supervision
A leader or supervisor has to ensure that immediate action is taken on poor tools, reports of defects and condition detrimental to quality. The supervisor supposed to be more than oversees and able to be a teacher of the latest development in the area of responsibility which, a leader or supervisor role not only managing but also help their subordinates to do better job trough leading effectively. In academic environment supervision should give counsel instead of judging, concentrate to make the students more interested in learning and be actively involved in the effort to improve the system and people in the university. This point is important in the education to create an interested staff or teacher that tend to do their job well and will accept training, advice and help towards doing it better. This point can be implemented in the education and teacher as the leadership and role models for students. The teacher has to able to find and eliminate barriers communication with their students. And sometimes because of student situation, teacher have to postpone due date for a project or examination that may able to increase the learning process of students.
(viii) Drive out Fear
The fear have to be driven out from the organization through encourage two-way communication to able people in it may more work effectively and more productively. According to Deming, an atmosphere of fear can cause the implementation of most of his other management points become impossible. Chase away the fear is important in academic environment because fear is barrier to improvement and innovation possible to achieve with a secure environment where ambiguity, uncertainty and randomness in management practices are eliminated. In education this point can be implement by not make student become afraid of study. Normally students are afraid with examination, lecturers can take any step to reduce the fear of student through giving mid-term test that similar to final exams or giving hint about the area that will be come on final exam. This way can drive out the fear from students and build the confident to pass final examination.
(ix) Break down barriers between staff
All departments have to cooperate together as team on purpose to foresee and tackle the problems if they happen to arise. Deductive competition within the same company has to be replaced with cooperation because it is important to solve individual problems that may very common with the other department. The common language of simple statistical techniques is totally effective in enabling people to appreciate each other's problem and contribute to their solution. In education this point can be implementing through when university have education fair, among the students, admins, lecturers and sales executives work together to settle the event.
(x) Eliminate the use of slogans posters and exhortation
Management has to eliminate slogans which demand zero defects and new level of excellence without providing methods. Slogan does not help improving people because people only can improve through proper training and right process which slogan only can create uncomfortable atmosphere specially if it unrealistic one. Mostly problems are caused by the process and system instead of people and Deming believed that people already doing their best. In education this point can be implementing by management that have to improve the process learning process to achieve the goal of education and if management want to create a slogan it must be come with proper instructions, extra help and material to ensure goals able to achieve as well as guaranteeing student's success.
(xi) Eliminate management by objective
Management has to focus on quality not quantity which management by objective has to be eliminated. Education system will get improvement if grading is dissolve. Eliminate management by objective is important in improving academic environment because numerical goals mostly can never be right except by any specific reason such as accident or coincident. Mostly management by objective expectations is a performance which over the truth with limitation knowledge of the system. In education this point can be implement by not focus on numerical for classroom goals and student have to be evaluate through their performance in class rather than their marks during examination. Focusing on final exam test may not fair for any student who have better performance during class but poor in the exam.
(xii) Remove barriers to pride
Management is responsible to remove barrier that may affect the right pride of workmanship. Everyone have right to find joy in the work which very less of them is able to do so because of poor management. The barrier of current system management could be poor supervision and training, faulty equipment, methods and materials, less understanding of company's mission and what is expected of the employees with respect to mission, employee being blamed of the problems system and etc. abolishing the barriers to pride is important in academic environment to improve the motivation and better ability for all staffs and students in university to see themselves as one part of the same team. In education this point can be implement through allowing all the staffs and students get involved actively in every activity in the university and accept their suggestion to help them develop the strong pride of ownership that may have a significant impact for their attitude. Every event in university can be managed by the student and controlled by the lecture.
(xiii) Encourage education and self-improvement
Management have to improve the current skills of the workers, encourage people to learn new skills continuously for the preparation in the future changes and challenges and also build skills to make all the staff more adaptable to change that able to find and achieve improvements. According to Deming, improvement of education and training appropriate is required because all the staff would not do their job well without supported by education, skill, and expertise appropriate. In education this point can be implement through continuously improvement in education and self-improvement to make students and all the staff are motivated and up to date. For the lecture they can learn more and continue their study based on their own major such as taking PhD or MBA.
(xiv) Transformation everyone's job
Management has to improve overall organization through having each person take a step toward quality and analyzing every small step to understand how it can be fits into large picture. Management should immediately take action to achieve the transformation through implementing all the preceding thirteen points of Deming's philosophy where all the staffs and employees have to clearly understand and be committed with the new philosophy. The Manager that fully understands Deming's philosophy will be able to identify inhibition management practice. In education this point can be implement by when the students want to have good knowledge and be able to get qualified certificate, all the staffs and lecturers have their own responsibility to guide students and the student must follow all the guidelines in order to reach their goal in university.
Deming's 14 points is the steps of the continuous change that have to be followed by the management in order to create a change and improvement in the organization. Those 14 Deming's emphasize the importance of using technical technique and every point content different strategy to improve academic environment where all the 14 Deeming's point have to be implement together to get best result for the education.