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In the development of young adults, teenage marks a turn around age where parents must take participatory measures in their lives. It is important to note that there are many types of involvement, and each one has either adverse effect on the personal relationships in the families, but the greatest effect is most likely felt in the academic lives of the adolescents.
In a Duke University, developmental psychology, researchers Nancy E. Hill and Diana F. Tyson carried out a meta-analysis on the types of parental involvement are related to middle school success and achievement. In the study, over 50 studies were combined to determine which type yielded the most positive response in the children. It was concluded that academic socialization had the strongest response.
The middle school concept includes a shift from the dictatorial system in elementary school. A more democratic system exists. There are a larger number of teachers, peers and more curricular choices which are a transition for the teens. The academic performance generally declines and still the era marks a vital step and impact on the overall of the educational life of the adolescent. The study broadly followed the course of positive involvement through participation in the academic life of the student. The study sort to answer the question of the strength of the correlation between parental involvement in the child's education and success in the years when they are in middle school. It also sought to test the types of involvement and the relation with achievement (pp 741). At certain ages, the child requires a greater degree of autonomy, and this is mostly misinterpreted as a cue to minimize the involvement. The involvement was then divided into two levels: school-based involvement and home-based involvement. The study results found out that it is impossible to pick one level as the most suitable, in elementary levels, home-based involvement is the most suitable during elementary levels and the latter in other levels. Academic socialization also includes the aspects of the culture on the lives of the students. This is paramount because it foster's a child interest in education (pp742).
It also included the connection of studies (pp 744,745 and 746) where the levels of involvement were divided as aspects of the three parameters defined before. It also sought to describe them in specifics. The studies also included those that attempted to estimate the long-term effects of parental involvement (pp748, 748). This information retrieved from this research reports was coded (pp 750,751,752, 753). The overall correlation between the general parental involvement and the achievement of the students in their academic lives (pp 753).
Vanderbilt University carried out a study in 2007, 'An Empirical Test of a Theoretical of Parental Involvement. Researchers Kathleen V. Hoover-Dempsey and Howard m. Sandler. The study examined the impact of different levels of involvement of the parents to their adolescent children's lives. The study was carried on a theoretical model that that could be used to predict how levels of parental involvement on middle school years. The model used was a three step study that tested three major sources of motivation for involvement. The first of these was the parent's motivation beliefs relevant to involvement, including parental reconstruction and self efficacy for helping the child succeed in school (pp 532). The second part of the model tested the parent's perception of invitation in school events, dividing the two into general and specific invitations from the school. The last part of the model was the personal is the content of the personal life that affects the parent's individual lives. It is an empirical measurement of the parent's individual skills and knowledge for participation and the energy and willingness. There are additional sources of data including the student age-related differences impact on the model's accuracy in predicting the parent's involvement.
The study's model (pp 533) divided the first part of the three tier study into several segments. Parent's motivational beliefs included the parental role construction and sell efficacy. Parent's perceptions on invitations of invitations also noted a subtle difference between the impact of invitations sent from the school, from teachers and child invitations. Self-efficacy suggests that a parent makes involvement and participatory decisions with a background of what the effects of their involvement will be in the long-run. These decisions are as a result of individual experience or that of others. Invitations to the schools manifest the perception that parents have of the institution. Where they are designed to showcase an atmosphere that's both welcoming and responsive, the parents will tend to take more participatory roles to try and help their kids go through school life. Teacher invitations are a motivation for the parents to get involved in the children's school life because they show that that teacher values the participation as a part of the Childs growth process. Specific child invitations turned out to be the greatest catalyst for parent involvement because they underscore a need from the child for the parent to take more time and energy to assist him or her get through school life.
Parent's skills and personal knowledge also affect their willingness to get involved in certain activates in the child's school life because they form an underlying limit to their participation. The demand by other activates for their time and energy also influence the level of participation because the parent must be able to balance between all the other things and the child's educational well-being. (pp534). This is also affected by their socio-economic status because those of low SES have a negative impact on the child's achievement in school. In the research parameters (pp 536), results and further data analysis (pp 538. 539,540) it was found out that the regression contributions of the parameters described above have an adverse effect on the level of participation shown by the teachers and the parents in the child's educational well-being.
This is similar to the study carried Kayla Cripps and Brett Zyromski in Southern Illinois University Carbondale Implications for parental involvement in Middle Schools (2009: volume 33: Number 4). They used two parameters by using two realities (pp2). The first reality is that the children's home environment provides the primitive social arena where the parental involvement is a vital part of their lives. This is the followed with a determination to make their own way in this life as they develop in their academic life. Issues of attachment, structural family and family process resources also influence the families influence on their involvement in their children's academic life. This study also evaluated a previous study on the impact of conflicts on the child's performance (pp4). The parenting styles defined as behaviors and attitudes and how the people with responsibility interact with their children (pp 5). These parenting styles are authoritarian, authoritative or democratic and permissive style. The latter is the most suitable for better results because the other two are on the extremes (pp 6). The possible impacts also proved that the involvement of the schools administrators, teachers and counselors (pp 8). The result was that democratic parenting style is the most suitable for greater impact on the academic prowess of the child in their middle school.
In Eel Reilly's collection to memo's titled Parental involvement Through Better Communication the concept of using suitable communication to bridge the academic gap through achieving better grades. The article uses a series of woven e-mails between parents and teachers. In the first e-mail, literature on parental development is discussed at length (pp 41). The categories are basic parental obligations, community collaboration and family involvement. One of the biggest issues in the parental involvement of Kelly's parents (pp42) was the fact that she did not bring home any work. Parents are quoted as being the most underutilized of resources by the children. It also examines the many reasons that parent's efforts fail to produce fruits (pp43). This study concluded that it was better to include parents in the everyday learning of their children.
The Wallace Foundation public agenda report All Work and No play prepared by Ann Duffett and Jean Johnson studied the effectiveness of out-of school activates on the overall performance of the children in their lives especially in elements of education a life improvement. It, like previous studies discussed attempted to evaluate the effects of such tings as income and willingness of the parent tee boo involved in their children's academic lives. The study used empirical data to create and analyze the situation in Finding 2, a clear connection was found between boredom, trouble and the overall performance of the students in their academic lives. Parental involvement here should be geared at helping the student achieve a balance between their social lives and their overall performance. Finding 4 (pp39) also found a direct link between the time spent on task at hand. Where the parents and the students spend enough time on any task, the student will also try to make personal efforts at achieving the task at hand to the bats of their abilities. Finding one (pp20) describes the life of the student when he or she is not in school and what parent does that affect the academic results? Finding Three (pp27) noted the difference between the economic position of the students; the haves tend to do better in school where the parents are more involved because they have a balance of factors. Finding Five (pp33) found that parents differ where the student seeks a degree of autonomy that the parent can't offer or is unwilling to relinquish.
Hawes and Poured did a similar study entitled Parental Involvement and Its influence on the reading Achievement of 6th Grade Students. The study noted a clear relation between the involvement of the parent in the 6th middle school students and their reading achievements. This study results (pp57) showed a slight correlation but still failed to prove the existence of the direct relationship between the parental involvement and the reading prowess and achievement of the sixth grade students. This parental involvement also focused on its defending aspects in schooling and at home (pp50). The relation also found a subtle difference and a specific barrier to the student's grades and their ability to internalize and accommodate the extent of parental involvement. This could end up being an inhibitor if the parent is over involved but if the involvement is measured and tailored according to each student's individual needs, then the effects are clearly positive and the student's results adopt an upward trend. The study adopted a skeptical view to parental involvement is not foolproof as a method to help the student improve their grades (pp52). The correlation was a minimal r=0.129 which was not significant but (pp56) since middle school students have specific needs due to the sensitivity of their age range and the risk of excess involvement to cause retardation.
In the Sociological Forum Vole 23(September 2008), Annette Laree and Elliot B. Weininger published a report titled that answered the limitations of mot other studies. The report titled Timework, and Family Life. The article tested the effort of parents in the leisure activates that their children activates. The study combined the different studies that suggest a correlation between the involvement in the children lives and their overall performance. The study also notes that while it would be easier to say that men have more effect on the lives of the kids because most of these leisure activates involve sports, it is impossible to quantify the overall effect of the parent on the child without first studying the links and levels of relationships between them (pp422). It also suggests that a clear differentiation exist in the gender roles of the individual parents on their children lives to make sure that the overall effect is the desirable rise and effect in their grades. It also views work constraints as being of influence in the effects of parental involvement (430). The results (pp435, 436) showed a subtle difference between the overall performances of students depending on the level of involvement that each parent showed in their lives. Similar to other studies, this study noted a very distinct relation between the value of leisure as an aspect of the socio-economic status of the family and it s overall effect on the studies of the children. In the division of labor, each family must take precaution that clear duding lines are made such that the overall effect is positive (pp441). These decisions are a matter of takes, deadlines, and the predictability of events.
Linda S. Behar_Horenstein and Diane A.M. Archer-Banks in the Journal of Negro Education (Spring 2008) titled African American Parental Involvement In their Children's middle School Experiences picked a specific demographic in the study about parental involvement. The study identified that among African American students parental involvement is one of the major drivers of middle school students to try and perform better in their class work (pp148). The report also saw a link between parental involvements is closely related with family structure, the family's socioeconomic status and the school administration's need and opportunities for the students to expect more form the parents (pp149). Parental involvement among African American involvement in the academic lives of their middle school kids was found to be a factor of the practices, policies and traditions of middle school staff. It sort to show that popular assumptions by teachers about the involvement of African American parents were largely unfounded and could have been the cause why most of their children have not been performing well in school(pp143). The demographics here also sub-divide into issues of the socio-economic class of the families. Where parents are not so rich and have to work several jobs to meet the needs of their children, a decline is visible among most middle school students. The variation only arises where the students are used to independence and autonomy and therefore view parental involvement as an intrusion of heir privacy and an affront to the independence they feel the deserve(pp144). The parents also reported that the involvement of the teachers was the major catalyst to their own involvement. It used open codes, axial codes and themes (pp148). It also noted that previous experiences with the schools might affect the way African American parents get involved in the schools. Negative experiences are the main reason why most in this demographic elect to not get involved in the academic lives of the students (pp151)
The TRPI report by Maria Estela Zarete titled Understanding Latino parental Involvement in Education compared another demographic as the previous study; it studied the subtle difference in the parental involvement of Latino's compared to other demographics. It studied the Latino parents' perceptions of their participation in the education of their children. It also compared the schools and teachers expectations of the parental development. Parental perception in such matters as helping the children with their homework is, as was found in the case of African American parents, a factor of their individual skills and experience. It also studied the effects of language (pp10) as a barrier to communication of native Latino parents and the teacher's in middle schools. Considering that most of the parents are immigrants, other factors such as work constraints and other factors such as school policies (pp12). The study provided suitable solutions in the involvement of the parents and ways to improve it by making such things as school policies more involving. There was also a realization that the student's perception of the parental involvement as a factor of the levels accorded (pp14)
Clancy Marvell Wilson also published a study on the involvement of African American parents in their children's lives. The article titled The Relation Among parental Factors and Achievement of African American Urban Youth (The Journal of Negro Education: Spring 2009 pp102) also found the link between the low status of the student's academic levels and their families economic and social status. The sample population of 60 showed that the link was more pronounced than was previously thought (pp107). Father research also suggests that age differences in the African American youth because of the issues related with racism, teacher expectation and school resources (pp108).
This literature review connects the different studies on parental involvement and the overall performance of the students. It is clear in all the demographics and sample populations that parental involvement in the academic lives of the students takes several aspects. If the involvement is to be suitable and effective, it must be measured, democratic and aimed at all aspects of the lives of the student. This is paramount because the academic success of the student is a factor of their lives and parents must note their influence of the parents. Their perceived life context divided the skills and knowledge of their children's middle school status. It also carried out an empirical survey of the time and energy allotment of the parent's to their individual children's education. Parental beliefs about the development of children and their growth process through role construction.