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People start doing something with motivation oriented. Motivation is the component in initiating emotion, guiding to take action, and helping to achieve one specific goal. The concept of motivation has been conducted by many researchers long years ago with very great result in applying in everyday life. Gardner (1985) defined motivation as "the combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning the language plus favorable attributes towards learning" (p. 10). Similarly, motivation refers to a force that makes people do (or not do) something (Day & Bamford, 1998). There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation (internal factor) is an innate pattern of behavior towards a certain thing out of pleasure, interest, and enjoyment. Students who are internally motivated find the lessons more interestingly by themselves rather than studying for tangible rewards. They tend to feel excited in getting involve in every activity in the classroom in order to improve their competences. This motivation has been studied since the early 1970s. Nevertheless, extrinsic motivation (external factor) refers to activity movement towards the outcomes or rewards such as passing an exam, getting good grades, certificate of admiration, materials, career opportunities, jobs, money, and getting higher status in the society. Students find such of those things significant in studying or engaging in the classroom activities. The result of finding by many well-known research studies showed the positive connection between student's motivation and achievement (e.g., Guthrie, Hoa, Wigfield, Tonks, Humenick, & Littles, 2007; Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2003). Besides, the correlation between student's motivation and academic achieve is also certainly illustrated in learning English as a second language (Masgoret & Gardner, 2003).
Motivation is very useful in reading English as a second language (ESL); and it can
influence in all features of language such as reading strategy, language proficiency and
interaction with speakers of target language (Krashen, 1993; Oxford & Sherin, 1994). To achieve a great result of student's performance, teacher has a strong responsibility for creating a kind of motivating learning environment. Based on my observation with long years experiences in teaching ESL in a few institutions, I found out that most of Cambodian teachers have limited learning strategies to enable students in expelling their language performance. Regarding this issue, students do not make a quick progress in their learning and poorly performing; as a result of this, it really affects their ultimate goal in learning ESL.
Today people keep are giving great value to English language which is the most
widely used and prestigious language around the globe, as a significant tool or competence in communicating with foreigners, and doing business or finding a good job. Students enrolling in English class have different kinds of goals in life; while others have no clear goal. Goal refers to an aim or purpose to achieve one specific target. The relationship between goal and task performance theory was first established by Locke in the 1960s. His first article was "Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives" in 1968. Most researchers claimed that the goal effectiveness rely on reasons or motives for pushing that goal (e.g., Deci and Ryan 2000; Heyman and Dweck 1992; Sansone and Harackiewicz 2000; Sheldon and Eliot 1998, 1999). In contrast, Gintis, Kedar-Voivodas, and LeCompte (cited in Wentzel, 1989) found out that teachers' competence and task performance does not always correctly predict the students' achievement. Likewise Lambert, and Safer (cited in Wentzel, 1991) also showed about the right predictors of grade retention, placement in special education classes, and dropping out, independent of intellectual ability. Therefore, academic success the students acquire may come from multiple goals which connected to social requirements of the classroom and task performance. This research has primarily focused on goal setting versus unclear goal setting whether it has an effect on the task performance outcomes.
Statement of the Problem School environment is supposed to be very important in motivating students to learn and improve their abilities. Several empirical research studies found the high correlation between grades and school environment; however, many young students did not have chance to expose themselves in such this condition. Students with lack of attention on their study (talking with others during lecturing, eating in the class, teasing, etc.) reported to perform poorly or cheat in their exam (Anderman, 2002, Kaplan et al., 2002a, Roeser & Eccles, 1998). Moreover, Grant and Dweck (cited in Meece, Anderman, and Anderman, 2006) illustrated that mastery goals really showed a positive achievement or outcomes in dealing with challenging tasks. They suggested to facilitate the mastery goal of concepts and content in teaching. There is very little research study of the concept of motivation of the relationship between goal setting and unclear goal setting whether it has an effect on the academic progression of students studying ESL in institute X. This research topic will be helpful for those who are interested in discovering the effect of students' achievement in studying ESL in the future. Purpose of the Research 1- To explore whether there is a big impact on clear goal setting versus unclear goal students who are studying ESL in institute X in level 8 or beyond. 2- The main purpose of the research findings is to make some recommendations to better facilitate students learning ESL in institute X in level 8 or beyond.
Significance of the study
Because there is a little literature review about this study in Cambodian context, this findings will offer some significant contributions to English language learning and teaching fields in Cambodia. Furthermore, it will help instructors of ESL to select the right strategy or method to apply in their teaching performance and getting to know what role they have to play in facilitating as well as assisting ESL learners' motivation. This helps to increase the knowledge of this topic area. Various techniques will motivate students to learn English more effectively and successfully. Finally, this study will alert researchers who are interested in this topic area.
Does goals setting versus unclear goals have an effect on the academic progression of students studying ESL in institute X?
To complete this chapter, I went through a few significant steps. Firstly, I tried to surf the internet on many useful and famous websites such as googlescholar, google, jcu.edu.eu, eric, zunia.org, freebookspot.es, asianjournal, asianefljournal, tesl-ej.org, wiley online library, and so on. Furthermore, I have read some parts of journal articles I got from my professors in Royal University of Phnom Penh the previous term, some e-books and hard-books from other professors in the same university, and also my existing e-books, and hard-books.
Lots of keywords are used to find out relevant literature review: attitude and motivation or behavior, goals, mastery goals and motivation, goals setting and academic achievement or outcome, students motivation, names of well-known authors related to this topic area, motivation of ESL learning, L2 motivation, motivation in language learning, some links from reference pages in some articles, and so on.
This chapter of the study is divided into three sections. The first section will explore the relationship among attitude, motivation, and ESL learning. The second section will review about the relationship between goals setting and academic achievement in ESL learning. Finally, the last section will investigate the correlation between unclear goals setting and academic outcome of ESL learning.
Attitude and motivation in ESL learning
Concept of attitude and motivation
Spending about 12 years conducting a significant study of motivation in the second language learning in a few countries such as Canada, several parts of the United States, and the Philippines, Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972), explored how attitude and motivation affect the success of language learning. (H. Douglas Brown. Principles of
Language Learning and Teaching. p. 162). Evidence was also identified toward proficiency as well. Attitude refers to someone's feeling, thinking towards something or someone before behaving. Dörnyei (2010) believed that the success of individual learners is different based on the attitude towards different subjects. Each subject contains its code of learning and attitude predicted the achievement. Moreover, various aspects of motivation also contribute the students' academic achievement. In addition, "affective variables such as attitudes influence language learning" (Gardner, Masgoret, Tennant & Mihic, 2004). Karahan (2007) clarified that "positive language attitudes let learner has positive orientation towards learning English" (p.84). Krashen (1997) claimed that context is correlated with attitude towards language learning. Gardner and Lambert (1972) for instant added that motivation has divided into section: integrative and instrumental motivation. Instrumental motivation is the interest that one person concentrate on in order to achieve particular goals such as getting high job opportunities, passing an exam, etc. On the other hand, integrative motivation focuses on the interest that one person learn in order to use it for communication and exchanging understanding of its culture. The term motivation is simple and easy to understand; however, it is hard to define for many empirical research studies in the past.
Motivation in learning English as a Second Language (ESL)
As mentioned above motivation positively influenced the students' achievement; therefore motivation plays an important role in helping curriculum developers to choose the better materials, course books, teaching strategies to stimulate student's desire to learn. Based on my observation, most students are not active enough to get involved in their learning, but tend to absorb knowledge by listening and thinking or memorizing. Coming to class is to meet the requirement to pass on the next grade or to be pleasure in the class. Students who are motivated tend to be more enjoyable to involve in every activity like pair work, group work, question and answer and so on. Furthermore, their knowledge has developed faster
because they know the content of the lesson. Being ready for class is one of the advantages in learning ESL. Students learn in order to complete the task or to challenge with others, and to expect for career promotion, they are in the group of instrumental motivation (Dornyei, 1990; Gardner, 1985) or making friends with who speak the language (Oxford & Shearin, 1994). Noticeably, instrumental reason really pushes student a better achievement in learning ESL.
In contrast with the studies in the 19th century found that integrative motivation is not very effective in language learning (Gardner, 1988; Gardner & McIntyre, 1991; Au, 1988). Furthermore, other aspects of motivation such as desire for knowledge, a new challenge, need for achievement (Dornyei, 1990) also contributed the student's achievement.
Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation
Based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985; 1995), motivation is divided into two: intrinsic motivation, interested in activity from innate individual called internal function, and extrinsic motivation occurs when students desires to achieve rewards called external function. Ryan and Deci (1985) believe that intrinsic motivation is a foundation of competence and self-determination. By seeking the interest to challenging is a good process to develop one's competence in their capacities. Among the four macro skills of learning ESL, three were found success, speaking, listening and reading, to accomplish their capacities of understanding. Furthermore, they assumed that tangible rewards as in external function also offer learners' great opportunities for success and enhancing internal function.
Goals in learning ESL
A goal is a an individual's purpose to achieve something in life.