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Nowadays, the new generation has begun to develop an interest in various computer gaming activities. It is probably that computer games provide satisfaction for the needs, such as to release stress and as a learning process tool. Therefore, both children and adults are very attracted and addicted to these activities. It is very common for adults to get involved in these computer games because play is a natural way to learn as it is joyful and can provide the opportunities to unconsciously integrate ideas (Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & Roselan Baki, 2009). In addition, great access to internet has also increased these years. Most families are able to afford computer and internet access at home. Besides, video games had also increased to become one of children and adolescence's favourite, even in adults as well. The sales of video games in the United States have grown consistently between $7 billion and $7.5 billion in 1999. On the other hand, the worldwide sales had also increased to $20 billion (Gentile, Lynch, Linder & Walsh, 2004).
Games have always been a favourite pastime for everyone despite their age and gender. But, how is game defined? According to Huizinga (as cited in Smed & Hakonen, 2003), he defined play as an activity which proceeds within certain limits of time and space, in a visible order, according to rules freely accepted, and outside the sphere of necessity or material utility. In addition, game is defined as an universal form of recreation which includes any activity of amusement and form a contest or rivalry circumstances. A game is comprised of three components: the willingness of players to participate in the game to seek for amusement, rules that provide limits for the game, and goals which initiate conflicts and rivalry among the players.
So, computer games can be defined as a set of activities that involves one or more players, with goals, constraints and consequences. According to Crawford (as cited in Hasiah Mohamed Omar, Nora Yanti Che Jan & Nik Marsyahariani Nik Daud, 2010), all games are comprised of four common factors: representation, interaction, conflict and safety. It is accomplished with the aid of a computer program, in which the computer coordinates the game process, illustrate the situation and participate as a player. There are various types of computer games designed to accommodate different players' requirements and needs, for instance, role playing game, educational game, sport game and entertainment game.
World of Warcrafts (WOW) is the most popular "massively multiplayer online role-playing games" (MMORPGs) worldwide, with exceeding 9 million subscribers from North America and Europe, Australia, New Zealand, China, Korea, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, based on the Blizzard's official website. Besides, it is also the first online game to reach the sales of over $100 million worldwide in the first year of production, and also known as the best-selling PC game in 2005 and 2006 (Chen & Chang, 2008).
Games may be harmful to a person's health, but it may also contribute to an important role in education. It benefits users in learning process such as improving their logical and critical thinking and problem solving skills. Besides, it also assists users in improving their reflexes and hand-eye coordination.
Critical thinking is getting more and more important as a cognitive task on present days. Individuals nowadays often encountered tonnes of problems and have an increasing number of important decisions to make, which affects themselves and the society. The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defined critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information gathered from observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. There are two factors in critical thinking: a set of information, belief generating and processing skills; and the habit of using those skills to guide action (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009; Renaud & Murray, 2008).
Critical thinking is not universal as individuals have undisciplined and irrational thought. However, it is seen as a self-guided and self-disciplined thinking in which reasoning often occurs at the highest level. Individuals with critical thinking are able to use their intellectual tools to think rationally and reasonably by organizing and analyzing thoughts in order to make decisions that affect their lives, as well as to improve their thinking and reasoning skills (Schafersman, 1991).
In Malaysia, 75.8% of form one students in Kuala Lumpur were gamers, whereas the other 24.2% were non-gamers. It is then reported that out of the 138 boys being surveyed, 126 (91.3%) of them were gamers. On the other hand, 53 out of 98 (54.1%) girls being surveyed were also gamers. This research showed that boys have a higher percentage to be gamers than girls. Computer games do not only act as the interest among adolescence, it also acted as a learning tool where brainstorming and critical thinking develops. Therefore, it is not surprising that the form one students are so indulged in it (Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & Roselan Baki, 2009).
In a survey on Institute of Higher Learning (IHL) students' exposure to computer games in Malaysia, it is reported that 36.8% of students were exposed to computer games at the age of 10 to 12, 21.1% at the age of 7 to 9, and 7% at the age of 16 to 18. About 80% preferred to play card and arcade games, followed by action games (69.2%), role playing games (63.1%), puzzle games (50.8%), strategy games (26.2%) and sport games (21.5%). This statistics revealed that the students at IHL have a preference for games that enhance their high-order thinking skills (Hasiah Mohamed Omar, Nora Yanti Che Jan & Nik Marsyahariani Nik Daud, 2010).
Excessive exposure to computer games can be hazardous as it may affect health and even lead to death. In Beijing, a man in his thirties was found dead after an excessive three-day gaming indulgence in 2007. Deaths by gaming have also been reported in Hong Kong, a 28-year-old man and a 17-year-old boy died within a year of each other while playing the first-person shooter game. In the U.S, a man died a week after he played Nintendo. On the other hand, in South Korea, a man died four days later after exposure to excessive online games. According to Dr. Maressa Orzack (as cited in Lee, 2009), "our society is becoming more computer dependent not only for information, but also for fun and entertainment, this trend is a potential problem affecting all ages, starting with computer games for kids."
Numerous studies had revealed a consistent negative correlation between amounts of video games played and school performance of children, adolescence, and college students. According to the data, adolescence and college students who spent more time on games are more likely to have poorer grades in classes, compared to non-gamers. Besides, the content of games also played an important role. Based on recent analyses, about 89% of games contain some violent content in which half of the games presented heavy violence. Spending too much time on these violence games can produce strong negative effects on the gamer. For instance, increases aggressive behaviours, thoughts and emotions; desensitization to real-life violence, increases physiological arousal and decreases social behaviour (Gentile, Lynch, Linder & Walsh, 2004). The effects are proven by data collected from functional magnetic resonance imaging scan (fMRI). It showed that there is activation in the amygdala when the teenagers are playing games, but less activation in the concentration part of the brain (Carney, 2008).
Other than that, video games can also cause several other effects such as obesity in children, social isolation and physiological health problems. Obesity is risky because it affects one's health to the extreme. When children spend most of their time sitting and gaming, they do not even bother to get up or have a walk outside. Hence, chances of getting overweight are unavoidable if they do not make any changes with their lives. In the same situation, the longer the time they caught up in gaming activities, the more chances of them to lose socialization skills or connection with the outside world. Face-to face socialization will be reduced since they can have interaction with others through the Internet. Therefore, these children will gradually become socially isolated someday. Furthermore, physiological problems such as gastrointestinal problems, nausea and headaches, attention problems such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), increase in both emotional and behavioural disorder symptoms, declines in verbal memory performance, and reduced amount of sleep (AddictionBlog.org, 2010; Cultrona, 2010).
Frand (as cited in Roselan Baki, Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah, 2008) discovered that computer games and internet are very important to the younger generation as they depended and stay connected with it most of their time. However, other researchers claimed that video games are no longer a pastime for adolescence as it works as a learning tool in which it enhances computer literacy, visual attention, problem solving and reaction time. In addition, Gee (as cited in Roselan Baki, Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah, 2008) mentioned that video game can be a learning tool integrated into classroom learning since children nowadays often play games. According to him, "when kids play videogames they experience a much more powerful form of learning than when they are in the classroom".
Besides, the benefits that one could obtain from computer games include opportunity for virtual socializing; learning about other players' cultures and lifestyles; engage in high-order thinking skill; gathers general knowledge; and even increasing the language learning opportunity. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers in school should acknowledge the benefits of games on cognitive development of the students by forming teaching methods that helps to transfer the skills and strategies to the students (Roselan Baki, Eow, Wan Zah Wan Ali, Rosnaini Mahmud & Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah, 2008).
Critical Thinking Skills
Duration of games played per day
Type of Games
Strategy Game 1. < 2 hours
Arcade Game 2. 3 - 6 hours
Card and Board Game 3. 7 - 10 hours
Shooting Game 4. 11 - 13 hours
Word and Puzzle Game 5. > 14 hours
The main framework of this research is focused on how computer games can be important determinants of the development of critical thinking skills in adolescence. Three variables: gender, type of games and duration of games played per day will be examined and they act as an independent variable in this research. The type of games will be categorized into six categories such as strategy, arcade, card and board, word and puzzle, shooting, and role-playing games. Each of these independent variables will be surveyed whether it plays a role in developing or improving critical thinking skills in adolescence.
John Dewey's Definition of Critical Thinking
According to John Dewey, critical thinking is viewed as 'reflective thinking' and it is defined as an "active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends (as cited in Jaimes, 2005)."
Robert Ennis's Definition of Critical Thinking
A widely used definition of critical thinking was developed by Robert Ennis whom then defined critical thinking as "reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do (Fisher, 2001)."
Moore and Parker's Definition of Critical Thinking
According to Moore and Parker, critical thinking is defined as "the careful, deliberate determination of whether we should accept, reject, or suspend judgment about a claim, and the degree of confidence with which we accept or reject it (The Critical Thinking Co Staff, 2005)."
Mathew Lipman's Definition of Critical Thinking
In Lipman's perspective, critical thinking is seen as a more complex process than ordinary thinking. Lipman defines critical thinking as a skilful and responsible thought that helps to construct better judgemental skills. According to Lipman, critical thinking skills are applied in a given context in order to help distinguish between the most relevant and less relevant information received. Therefore, critical thinking represents a tool for countering opinions (uncritical thinking) and thoughtless behaviour. Apart from that, Lipman argues that critical thinking "protects us from being coerced or brainwashed into believing what others want us to believe without having the opportunity to inquire for ourselves." (Murchú & Muirhead, 2005; Daniel, Splitter, Slade, Lafortune, Pallascio & Mongeau, 2004).
Critical thinking is thought to develop based on four categories: conceptualisation, reasoning, generalisation and research. In Lipman's viewpoint, critical thinking develops based on three criteria: (1) Use of particular criteria, whereby a person who uses particular criteria of his or her own critical thinking skills to evaluate the terms of statements; (2) Self-correction, in the sense that individuals are capable of carrying out an active exploration for the error they make with the help of self-correction in their mind; (3) Sensitivity to context, in which the flexible thoughts helps individuals to identify various applications of rules and principles for different situations (Daniel, Splitter, Slade, Lafortune, Pallascio & Mongeau, 2004).
Edward Glaser's Definition of Critical Thinking
Critical thinking was defined by Edward Glaser in 1941 as the ability to think critically which involves three components: (1) an attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experience, (2) having the knowledge of the methods for logical inquiry and reasoning, and (3) the skills required in applying those methods. According to Glaser, critical thinking is a useful cognitive tool with a range of abilities such as to recognize problems, to find solutions for the problems, to gather information, to recognize the unstated assumptions, to comprehend and use language with accuracy, to interpret data, to appraise evidence, to evaluate arguments, to recognize logical relationships between propositions, to draw and test conclusions, to reconstruct patterns of beliefs, and to render judgements (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009; Fisher, 2001).
Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains
The well known Bloom's Taxonomy was originally formulated by Benjamin Bloom in 1956. This model was primarily created for educational purposes in developing critical thinking skills in students. It serves as a checklist that provides structure for planning, designing, assessing and evaluating training and learning effectiveness. There were three main domains identified: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The cognitive domain is comprised of six levels which were organized from the simplest to the most complex: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation (Big Dog & Little Dog's Performance Juxtaposition, 2009; BusinessBalls.com, 2009; Bellis, 2010).
Knowledge refers to the retrieval of data or previously learned information such as the recognition of specific facts to complete theories. Although it is the start for higher level of thinking development, however, it is also the lowest level of learning outcomes in the domain. Comprehension, on the other hand, refers to the ability to comprehend, interpret, and understand the meaning of information previously learned. If an individual can comprehend principles and theories, it then contributes to future problem solving or decision making in the work place. It represents the lowest level of understanding in the hierarchy. Application is defined as the use of learned material in a novel and concrete situation. In other words, it involves selection and translation of concepts, principles and theories into solving a task or problem. It thus requires a higher level of understanding in this level (Hammond, 2007).
Analysis refers to the ability to recognize and separate materials learned into component parts, analyze the relationships between parts and realize the organization principles involved. It is in this level that critical thinking and problem solving gets involved. Besides, an understanding of both content and structural form of material are also involved. As for the level of synthesis, it is the ability to form a new structure (i.e., plan, proposal) from several small component parts, such as combining ideas. Emphasis on the formulation of new structures is seen as the learning outcomes in synthesis. Evaluation refers to the judgements made about the materials' value for a given purpose. The learning outcomes are the highest among the hierarchy because they comprised of elements from all of the other levels in the taxonomy. Besides, it also contains conscious value judgements based on clearly defined criteria (Huitt, 2009; Instructional Design Knowledge Base, n.d).
However, Bloom's taxonomy has been criticized by professional critics. They commented that this hierarchy only focuses on the thought processes itself and not considering how these processes may function differently on several different informations or situations. They also mentioned that the knowledge-level of thinking cannot be assumed as less demanding than application-level thinking (Harmon & Jones, 2005). On the other hand, Marzano pointed out that the structure of the taxonomy moving from simplest level of knowledge to difficult level of evaluation has no supports from research studies (Intel Education, n.d.).
Core Critical Thinking Skills (Peter A. Facione)
Peter Facione conducted a Delphi project with a group of critical thinking experts and identified the core elements of critical thinking, known as the core critical thinking skills. According to the panel of experts, the core of critical thinking skills can be divided into six cognitive skills: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and self-regulation. Based on the experts' consensus statements, interpretation is defined as the ability "to comprehend and express the meaning or significance of a wide variety of experiences, situations, data, events, judgments, conventions, beliefs, rules, procedures, or criteria." The sub-skills include categorization, decoding significance, and clarifying meaning. Analysis, on the other hand, is "to identify intended and actual inferential relationships among statements, questions, concepts, descriptions, or other forms of representation that is intended to express belief, judgement, experiences, reasons, information, or opinions." The sub-skills include examination of ideas, detection of arguments, and analysis of arguments (Facione, 1990).
The third skill, evaluation, is "to assess the credibility of statements or other representations which are accounts or descriptions of a person's perception, experience, situation, judgement, belief, or opinion; and to assess the logical strength of the actual or intended inferential relationships among statements, descriptions, questions or other forms of representation." It includes the sub-skills of assessing claims and assessing arguments. Inference is defined as the skills "to identify and secure elements needed to draw reasonable conclusions; to form conjectures and hypotheses; to consider relevant information and to educe the consequences flowing from data, statements, principles, evidence, judgements, beliefs, opinions, concepts, descriptions, questions, or other forms of representation." The sub-skills include querying evidence, conjecturing alternatives, and drawing conclusions.
Explanation refers to the ability "to state the results of one's reasoning; to justify that reasoning in terms of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, and contextual considerations upon which one's results were based; and to present one's reasoning in the form of cogent arguments." Sub-skills of explanation include description of results, justifying procedures, and presenting arguments. The last skills which is known as self-regulation, is also the most remarkable skills among all six skills. Experts define it as "self-consciously to monitor one's cognitive activities, the elements used in those activities, and the results educed, particularly by applying skills in analysis, and evaluation to one's own inferential judgements with a view toward questioning, confirming, validation, or correcting either one's reasoning or one's results." The sub-skills include the self-examination and self-correction (Facione, 2010).
A Stage Theory of Critical Thinking (Linda Elder with Richard Paul)
A stage theory of critical thinking development was originally developed by Linda Elder with Richard Paul (Gakushuu, 2010). Six stages were involved in this theory: 1) the unreflective thinker, 2) the challenged thinker, 3) the beginning thinker, 4) the practicing thinker, 5) the advanced thinker, and 6) the master thinker.
In stage one, unreflective thinkers fail to notice the significant problems existed in their thinking, such as making assumptions, forming concepts and opinions, and drawing inferences. In other words, they are unaware of the clarity, accuracy and relevance of their thoughts. Unreflective thinkers are lack of the skills and knowledge to assess their thinking and improve it. In addition, self-monitoring thought is inadequate which makes them unable to realize their prejudice belief. In stage two, the challenged thinker becomes aware of the problems in thinking and may attempt to improve and develop awareness of the assessments of thinking even though they have limited skills in thinking. Besides, their misleading thoughts can deceive them to believe that they have better thinking skills. Thus, it leads them to eliminate other problems in their thinking unnoticeably (Cournoyer, 2008; Worldwide Centre for Organisational Development, 2008).
In stage three, the beginning thinker starts to understand the importance of egocentric role in thinking. They have sufficient thinking ability to help them self-monitor their thoughts so that they can identify prejudice and biased beliefs. Practicing thinkers in stage four recognize the necessity to perform regular systematic practice in thinking. They also become more knowledgeable of the needs for regularly monitoring and assessing their thoughts. In addition, they often monitor their egocentric thinking actively (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009).
In stage five, advanced thinkers have developed understandings of problems at deeper levels of thoughts. However, they are not ready yet to have consistent high level thinking. They also have significant insights into the role of egocentric thoughts and the control over the thoughts. In stage five, master thinkers exhibit highest levels of critical thinking and continual improvement of their thoughts. They develop consistent self-monitoring thoughts, and are able to manage the strengths and weaknesses of their thoughts (Foundation for Critical Thinking, 2009; Worldwide Centre for Organisational Development, 2008).
The Elements of Thought (Richard Paul)
Richard Paul formulated this model by identifying the eight elements as the basic building blocks of productive thinking. It is composed of eight elements including purpose, question at issue, point of view, assumptions, information, concepts, interpretation and inference, implications and consequences. Combination of all these eight elements will provide a general logic to reasoning.
The element "Purpose" suggests that all reasoning involves a purpose or goal. It is important to clarify the conflicting purposes as each individual develops different purposes in reasoning. It is also important to determine the best purpose and non-critical thinking motives that one has. "Question at Issue" refers to the attempt of reasoning an issue by asking some questions. Therefore, issue always raise a question. The questions formulated will be answered or solved by one's reasoning process. However, before answering the questions, one should clearly identify the meaning of each question. If possible, one should also determine the questions as having one correct answer, or involves opinions. "Point of View" includes the perspective regarding an issue and how people are influenced by their own point of view when reasoning. Individuals should identify their own point of view, as well as others in order to determine the strengths and weaknesses
"Assumptions" are unstated reasons which predict conclusions. It is suggested that people need to take things for granted in their reasoning process to make several assumptions. However, one should clarify the assumptions made and then only determine its justification. "Information" requires significant evidences that showed reasoning is acceptable. It is extremely important to gather data and facts in finding supports and proofs for distinguishing opinions and reasons. In addition, it is also necessary to consider the clarity, accuracy, and relevance of the evidences. Experience may also contribute to reasoning process. "Concepts" suggest that the use of concepts and ideas including principles, laws, theories, definitions, and models are necessarily required in reasoning process. Besides, it is also crucial to consider alternative concepts before deciding on which to use, and to identify the clarity of the concepts.
"Interpretation and inference" involves drawing conclusions and finding solution through reasoning process by the receiver. The conclusions one construct is dependent on the inferences that one has made. It is important to infer according to the evidential supports and the consistency of inferences should be taken into account as well. "Implications and Consequences" suggest the significance for considering the implications and consequences of reasoning. Implications are conclusions drawn from the sender and formed by reasoning. Therefore, it is important that one should consider both positive and negative implications and all possible consequences (Paul, 1992; Santa Rosa Junior College, 2010).
Gender and Critical Thinking Skills
Type of Games and Critical Thinking Skills
Duration of games played per day and Critical Thinking Skills
Three null hypotheses are formulated:
H01 = There is no significant difference between gender and critical thinking skills among adolescence
H02 = There is no significant difference between types of games and critical thinking skills among adolescence
H03 = There is no relationship between the duration of games played per day and critical thinking skills among adolescence
To determine the differences in critical thinking between males and females.
To determine the differences between critical thinking and several types of games played.
To investigate the relationship between critical thinking and the duration of games played per day.
Is there a significant difference in critical thinking between males and females?
Is there a significant difference between critical thinking and several types of games played?
Is there a relationship between critical thinking and the duration of games played per day?
Scores obtained from The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using
Everyday Situations (HCTAES)
A sample size of 0.38% adolescence from around 100000 populations of secondary school in Kuala Lumpur will be selected using the multistage cluster sampling method. Therefore, a sample of 400 participants with approximate 240 males and 160 females at the ages ranging from 13 to 17 years old will be randomly selected (Krejcie & Morgan, as cited in Key, 1997; Bahagian Perancangan Dan Penyelidikan Dasar Pendidikan, 2007).
First of all, six districts will be randomly selected from 20 districts in Kuala Lumpur. The selected six districts will then be divided into school blocks, which there are 20 blocks in each district. Four blocks will be randomly selected. Next, divide the blocks schools with 40 schools in each block and two schools will be selected randomly. In each school, eight respondents will be randomly selected to participate in this survey research. The rationale of choosing multistage cluster sampling is that it provides a generalization of the survey findings of the population. In addition, this sampling method also minimizes the possibility of biases in response of the survey.
Data Collection Procedure
The data will be collected using face-to-face interview with the participants. The researchers will make appointments with the participants selected in order to meet them in person. Since there are two questionnaires (i.e., Computer Games Questionnaire and The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations) needed to distribute in this research, therefore the same group of participants selected will be expected to fill up the two questionnaires, one after the other, on the same day of interview. The researchers will be in the same room with the participants to make sure that they fill up both questionnaires, with the Computer Games Questionnaire first. After the interview, all the questionnaires will be collected for further data analysis.
There are ten questions formulated in the demographic form. The participants will be asked of the types of games that they preferred or engaged in playing most often. For instance, strategy games, arcade games, card and board games, word and puzzle games, shooting games and role-playing games. Based on the different category of games, six questions are formed with scales ranging from never, seldom, sometimes, frequently, and often. Furthermore, the duration of time that they engaged in the gaming activities per day will also be asked in the questionnaire. Few options of the time duration are categorized as less than 2 hours, 3 to 6 hours, 7 to 10 hours, 11 to 13 hours and more than 14 hours per day. Other than that, the last question requires the participant to analyze themselves as which type of computer game player, with options such as non-computer, beginner, occasional, frequent, and expert computer game player.
The Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment Using Everyday Situations (HCTAES)
This instrument was recently developed by Halpern and is composed of two response formats such as open and closed (Nieto & Saiz, 2008). Halpern made an attempt to combine both the multiple-choice and open-ended questions into a single measurement tool due to limitations of each response format. The test is considered less structured but it presents more life-like situations by using questions that are set in authentic and believable contexts to measure critical thinking skills.
HCTAES is a measurement tool which comprises of 25 scenario-based questions on daily life, with each questions consisting of both open-ended and multiple-choice responses requiring judgment and evaluation. There are a total of 50 questions formulated in the test. In the open-ended responses, it is aimed to test the strategic use of thinking skills and the ability to self-construct possible solutions without any hints given, or known as measurements of "free recall." For example, there will be a 'Yes' or 'No' question and a short answer question given in this section. On the other hand, the multiple-choice responses measures "recognition memory" whereby searching and selection of appropriate knowledge and skills from participants' memory are essential in helping them to find an appropriate answer from a list of options given. Other than providing questions with several options to choose from, Likert scale or 7-point scale is as well formulated in this section. In addition, the open-ended responses will be the first part in each question and participants are also required to respond to it first before they get to answer the multiple-choice part.
The purpose of the questions formulated in this test is to measure five types of critical thinking skills including verbal reasoning (i.e., recognition of the use of pervasive and misleading language), argument analysis (i.e., recognition of reasons and conclusions in arguments), hypothesis testing (i.e., understand the sample size, generalizations), using likelihood and uncertainty (i.e., applying relevant principles of probability, base rates), as well as decision making and problem solving (i.e., identifying the problem goal, generating and selecting solutions among alternatives).
Several evidences of the convergent and divergent validity of the test had been reported in studies with various samples of American students. However, the reliability coefficients (Cronbach's Î±) had reported between 0.81 and 0.82 for study with different groups of students (Ku, 2009; Ku & Ho, 2010).
The null hypothesis in this research will be tested with one-way ANOVA and independent t-test on gender differences and types of games with critical thinking in adolescence. In order to test if there is any difference between types of games and critical thinking, one-way ANOVA with alpha-level 0.05 will be used. The reason is that there are more than two categories of games that are being surveyed, such as strategy, arcade, word and puzzle, role-playing, card and board, and shooting games. Besides that, t-test is chosen to analyze the differences between genders in critical thinking. The independent t-test with alpha-level 0.05 will be used since there is no matching required in this research. In addition, it will be a two-tailed t-test as the relationships between genders are non-directional. Lastly, a correlational test will be used to analyze the relationship between duration of games played per day and critical thinking. The results will show that there is a relationship between the two variables. Furthermore, large amount of data can be collected in a relatively short period of time.
Limitation and suggested future research
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